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I 



ROME, 

IV THE 

NINETEENTH "daTTURY ; 

COirTAlHIVG 

A COMPLETE ACCOUNT 

or 

THK RUINS or THB ANCIENT CITY, THB RCMAINS Or THB MIDDLB kOM9, 
AND THB MONUIIBNTS Or MODERN TIMBS. 

WITH 

REMARKS 

ON THE FINE ARTS, ON THB 8TATB OF 80CIBTT, 

AND ON THE RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES, MANNBR8, AND GUtTOM«» 

OF THE MODBRN ROMANS. 

ly A 

SERIES OF LETTERS 

WRITTEN DURING A RESIDENCE AT HOME, 
IN THB TEARS 181/ AND 1818. 



* 'Tis Rome demands our tour*. 
The Mistreis of the World, the iait ofempin. 
The nune of heroei, the d^ght of flodi,^ 
That humbled the proud tyranta of the earth. 
And let the nations ftee,— Rome Is no more !'* 



IX THREE VOLUMES. 
VOL.11. : 

FOURTH EDITION.' ' 



EDINBURGH: V ' 

PRINTED FOR 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, 

LONDON. 



1826. 

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• •-• • •. 



• ". " • 



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CONTENTS 

OF 

VOLUME SECOND. 



LETTER XXIV. paob. 

Ancient Temples — Temple of Piety^Eoman Daughter- 
Temple of Janus — Temple of Bellona — and Temple of 
Mars— -Oracles — Pagan Priests, Rites, &c 1 



LETTER XXV. 
The Cirens and Circua Games, 11 

LETTER XXVL 

Roman Theatres— Tlieatre of Pompey — Theatre of Mar- 
cellus, . * 37 

LETTER XXVIL 

Porticos — The Portico of Octavia, 50 

LETTER XXVIII. 
The Amphitheatre 57 

LETTER XXIX. 

Ancient Thermae— Vestiges of the Baths of Agrippaand Con- 
stantine, of the pretended Baths of Panlos iBmilius, and of 
the Baths of Santa Helena— Tlie Thermae of Caracalla^— 
Piscina Publica, 80 



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VI CONTENTS. 

LETTER XXX. page. 

Tlie Thermae of Titus^-House of Msecenas— Ancient F^iut- 
ings— Arabesques— Raphael— Laocoon— Church of S& 
Martino e Sylvestro— Poussin's F^nting»— Subterranean 
Church— Masses and Martyrdom, of the Early Christians 
—Carmelite Monks — Sette Salle, 95 



LETTER XXXI. 

ThermiB of Diocletian— Rotonda, or Church of S. Bernardo 
— Gymnastic Theatre— Great covered Hall of the Baths, 
or Church of the Carthusians— Domenichino's Fresco of 
St. Sebastian — Tomb of Salvator Rosa, and Carlo Maratti 
«-Bianchini*8 Meridian — Carthusian Monks- Villa Mas- 
sima- Bibliotheca Ulpia^The Eighty Thousand Martyrs 
— Diocletian— Therms of Constantine — Ruin of the 
Thermae, 113 

LETTER XXXIL 

Bridges— The Ancient and Modem Bridges of Rome- 
Bridges over tiie Anio— Ponte Lamentano— The Sacred 
Mount, and the Two Retreats of the Roman People to it 
.— Menenius Agrippa— Villa of Phaontes, the Scene of 
the DeaUi of Nero— Ponte Salaria— Combat of Torquatus 
with the Gaul^Hannibal's Camp— Bridges of Ancient 
Rome, of England, &c. 127 

LETTER XXXIII. 

Arches— Arch of Claudius Drusus— Triumphal Arches of 
Titus, of Septimius Severus, and of Constantine — Arch 
of Gallienus — Arch of Dolabella and Sylvanus — Arch of 
St. Lazarus — The destroyed Arches of Marcus Aurelius, 
Claudius, and Gordian, ; . • . . HO 



LETTER XXXIV. 
Aqueducts, 150 



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Obelises, 



CONTENTS. 


VII 


LETTER XXXV. 


PACK. 




. . . 1^ 



LETTER XXXVL 



Tombs — The Sepulchre of Publieola, of Fftbricius, of the 
Vestal Virgins, of Bibulus, of the Claudian Family, of 
Trajan, of the Scipios, of the Maniglia Family— The Co- 
lumbarium of the Freedmen of Augustus — Tower of Ce- 
cilia Metella— Fiagmeau of the Sepulchre of the Servi- 
lian family, . • 166 

LETTER XXXVIL 

Tombs— Pyramid of Caius Cestius— Protestant Buiyiog 
Ground^Mausoleum of Augustus—- Nero*8 Grave- 
Torre di Quinto— Siege and Situation of Veli— Tomb of 
Ovid, 184 

LETTER XXXVIIL 

Tombs— Mausoleum of Santa Constantia, or pretended Tem- 
ple of Bacchus— Mausoleum of Santa Helena, or Torre 
Pignatarra— Catacombs at the Church of St. Sebastiano— 
The Souls in Purgatory, 196 

LETTER XXXIX 

Undescribed Remains of Antiquity in the Vicinity of Rome, 
on the Via Appia— ^Fountain of the Nymph Egeria-^ An- 
cient Temple, or Church of St. Urban— -Temple of Virtue 
and Honour — Temple of Rediculus — Ruins of a Roman 
VUla, 211 

LETTER XL. 

Remains of Antiquity on the Via Latina—- Temple of For- 
tuna Muliebri»— Ruins of Roma Vecchia, 221 



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VIU CONTENTS. 

LETTER XLI. page. 

St. John Lateran, 226 

LETTER XLU. 
Castle San Angelo«-^ Peter's* 241 

LETTER XLIIL 
Ascent to the Top of St. Peter's, 274 

LfiTTER XLIV. 
Santa Maria Maggiore^S. Paolo, 281 

LETTER XLV. 
Basilica Santa Croce and S.. Lorenzo, 288 

LETTER XLVL 
St. Clement's and St Agnes't, 296 

LETTER XLVIL , 
St. Stefano Rotondo, ...;..« 303 

LETTER XLVIIL 
The House of Pilate, 307 

LETTER XL13f. 

Tor' di Conti, Torre delle MUezie ; or the Tower of Nero 
and Trajan, 314 



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CONTENTS. IX 

I^ETTER Ji. PAGE. 

Streets and Cfaurdies^Arciiitecture— >Seiilpture^-The Christ 
i^nd Moses of Micliael Angelo-^Bemini's Stnta Theresa 
and Santa Bibiana^Santa Cecilia, 319 

IiETTER LL 

Churches — Plantings— Fresco^-^Raphaers Sibyls and Isaiah 
— Augostines — Benedictines— Freseoa of Domenichino 
^d Gnido— Angel's Supper with St Gregory — A Meeting 
with the Pope— Gnido*8 Archangel— The Capuchins— 
Trinltade' Monti— Ruined FVescos— Tomb and Habitation 
of Claude Lorraine 383 

LETTER LU. 

Church of Ara Cqili — Steps ascended on the knees by Julius 
Caesar, and the Modem .Italians— Tbeatrical Prsssepio— 
General of the Franciscans— Miraculous Bambino— ^Sacred 
Island— Esculapins and St BarAoIomew^Jndulgences— 
IVastarere and TYasteTerini— Assassinations— Games- 
Convents— Tasso^ Tomb^View of Rome from Mount 
Janicnlum — Comparison between Pagan Temples and 
Christian Chur<*|re8, 353 

LETTER Lin. 
Fountains, 379 

LETTER LIV. 
Vatican Library, , 380 

LETTER LV. 

The Sistina Chapel— The Last Judgment— >Michaei Angelo 
—The Paolina Chapel— Sala Borgia, 388 



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X COWTENTS. 

LETTER LVL 
The Oamere of Bapbael, 3fft 

LETTER LVIL 
The Loggie of Raphael-^llie Bdntibgi in tbe Vaticim • 411 

LETTER LYIIL 
Museum of the Oipitol, 420 

LETTER LIX. 

The Fkintings and the Palaizo de' Conservatori in the Capitol 
•^Academy of St Luke-^Rapbacrs St Luke— Raphaera 
Skull , . 449 



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ROM E. 



LETTER XXIV, 

AKCISNT TElfPLKS*— TEMPLE OF PIETY-— SOU AN 
DAUGHTER-— TEMPLE OF JANUS— TEMPLE OF 
BELLONA-^TKMPLS OF MAB8<— ^ftACLB»— PAOAK 
PBIEST— -BITES, &C. 

I THouGST I had done with temples, bat there is 
one, though only a name, that I cannot pass over 
wh(dly nnnodced. It is the Temple of Piety, eieet- 
ed by coraniand of the Roman Senate, in honour of 
the daughter who saved the life of her father when 
condemned to perish of hunger, by nursing Iiim firom 
her bosom. 

It was in the prisons of the Decemviri, in the 
ancfent Forum OUtorwm^ that this beautifiil and 
aSecfing tndt of filial piety hajqtened. The prison 
was destroyed ; the commemorative Temple sacred 
to Filial Piety was erected upon its site ; and upon 
the ruins of that teinple the Church of S. Nicola in 

,V0L. II. A 



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4 ROME. 

But te go through the long eatalogae of v^utisbed 
temples that once adorned Rome,* would indeed be 
an endless and unprofitable task. There are per- 
haps a few so memorable for their &me in history, 
that their very sites are worth pointing out, aithough 
not a stone of them remains. Of these the most re- 
markable is the Temple of Bellona, in the Circus 
Flaminius, which ^tood anciently without the !Fla- 
minian gate, although its site ia now covered with 
the most populous part of modem Rome. Here 
the Senate convened to meet the victorious consuls 
who demanded the honour of a triumph, and decide 
upon their claims. Here foreign ambassadors were 
received from states at war with the Romans ;+ and 
from the Columna Bellica in front of this temple, 
the consul threw the arrow of war towards that coun- 
try against which hostilities were proclaimed.;^ 

The piests <rf Beliona, like the modem fir^ntic 
Dervishes of the East, threw themselves into aH 
sorts of contortions, cutting themselves with knives, 



rare event occurred, it is of the ancient Temple of Janus alone 
that the IU)man historians speak. Suet. Aug. 22. '* Tempium 
J^anitercbiusit." Livy, Hb. i. cap. 8. 

* Their number, however, seems to have been Bomewba* 
ex«^ge»ated ; for Pavinius, in bis minute «atalogiie of th« 
bmldm^ '««««««. enumerates only 171 Temples ondMdeB. 

l.!Z^ ^Vn. ^'""^^^ '^^ ^^"^ ^«' *»>** a T^^^ 
was not only, hke the ^des, dedicated to some God, but was 

il^^'Sl^''^"^"^"- The ^des, including the 
^dicul«,Sacel^,&e.wereuncon8ecrated. . 

aHy ifsJrSf pt?^.-^*^-^ *^ -ty waa also oceasioB- 

i Ovid. Fast. 6. 



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sand oliier proofs of orades besides ; bot these sre 
sufficient/ mid Abcmdantly prove that my friend the 
anttquary was no great oracle himsdf. 

As the Temple of Belloila stood without the 
northern gate (the Porta Flamima), that of Mars 
was without the southern gate of the city (the Porta 
Capena).^ Thtis Rome, on either approach, was 
guarded by the tnasculine or feminine dMty di war ; 
and the ambassador of the state which might medi- 
tate, or the enemy which might advance to commit 
hostilities, was taught to dread the vengeance of 
the martial gods, and the martial people they pro- 
tected. 

A procession of the Roman Knights on horseba^ 
annually took place, from this Temple to the Capitol^ 
on the 15th of July, in honour of Castor and Pollux, 
who fought for the Romans on that day at the battle 
of Lake RegilluB. 



* There is a tradition, that the little Church of Damine 
quo VadiSy sometimes called Santa Maria deUe Palme, stands 
on the site of the Temple of Mars {extra muras), and received 
that name from a groye of palm-trees, which are supposed to 
have surrounded it. But it was in memory of the Christian, 
not the Pagan palms, that the church received its title. An 
inscription found in the Vigna Nari (and reported by Venuti), 
is supposed to prove that the Temple of Mars stood there, 
because that Temple is thought to have been exactly a mile 
from the ancient Porta Capena (which was between the little 
Churches of S. Neroe and S. Cesareo), and because the an- 
cient mile-stone on the Via Appia, marked No. 1, now on Ae 
balustrade of the Piazza of the Capitol, was found in flie 
same vineyard. I should have looked for that temple nearer 
to Borne. • 



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AOM& 



Tb friaBia «f Man w«e MMd^ BM 
thmi thtme of BeUsM. Tfcij «m Mued iSUUp 
from tbeir daaqiig or kaimig; and m ihalitof 
March used to go throagh the stieots of Rone m ii 
sofftof PyixUcd|UMe» beariiigilM Jficjiioy or iwdvo 
sacMd MMmj one of vhieh bdonglBd to the gttd* 
and fidl fitom heaven,* and ike teat were made in 
imitettoa of it, kit fo inyalaaUs a liMniie ahoold 
be atolm. 

The xttaB of jnQgion among the miaienti, ft auM 
be owned, were sufficiently obstrqieroiui ; whethdir we 
loeJc to these, tilieador nameiJ, to the licentioiu oigies 
of Bacebii% tbe wild feats of the Lup^oaUaf or the 
h<^Ue din .with whieb, at th^ fi^veb of Cybele^ 
t^ Car$^nUs rai^^ed and eamfl^emorated that st- 
ored epMiar that sayed the infiurt Jupiter firom bong 
deywised by his father ;t we shall find that noise 
constituted their essence. 

It would be well if this were alL Paganism has 
been called a Inild and cheerful, if not a pure and 
inoral fidth ; yet were its rites stafned with hloo4 
and.not the blo6d of brutes only, but of men. To 
Mania, the motbar o( the Lares, j boys were annual- 
ly o%red up; and though this horrible rite was 



* Flutarch'sLifb of Numa Pompilius. 

t I need hardly observe^ that, like most of the Pagan fic- 
tional thistsalkgodoal; ^at Satan dersuring his diikhee 
only typifies time swallowing up years. 

i The Larea and the Pei^itea axe often con^muided together 
as the same household geds, thongh essentially diffisrjent The 
latter were of diyine, the fonner of human ongiti. The latter 
were worshipped in tbe most retired and innenMst partsof the 



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8 aoM£; 

abolished bjr JtiiuiiB BnHus, it would tipfpmt that 
human yictims were faabituaUy sacrificed, even at a 
ftr. later petiod,* as we have abeiidy seoi they ooca^ 
sionaUy were.-f* 

Chiistiamty is the only id^ion (for Mahometisni 
is but a phigiarism firom it) that is, er evex has been, 
fiee firom this foul stain, and that does not onfotce 
the crime of murder MSi a religions duty ; a proof in 
itself sufficient of its divine or^pn, and not less steong^ 
than that it is the only religion that announoss <Mie 
God. 

It may affwd a useful lesson to the proud pre- 
sumption of human reason, to see man, whether left 
to the untutored dictates of his own mind, or en- 
lightened by the most refined philosophy, alike seek- 
ing to win the favour of the ^>ds or avert their ven^ 
geance, by spilling the blood of his fellow-oeatareSi 
When we behold religiousmurders extending through 
times and nations the most remote,— -from the pfaolo- 
sophic Romans, the luxurious Carthaginians, the Bri- 
tish Dndds, and the Eastern idolaters, to the tiimid 
Hindoos, the savage American Indians, the brutal 
Africans, and the social South-Sea Islanders, — we 
may indeed Uess that divine faith, which not only 
opened to men the gates of heaven, but would, k 



bouse ; the fonner, which were the sgmim of their ancestoi^ 
were set out in public yisw, and guarded the domestic hearth» 
There were public Penates and public Lares^ to which little 
^Temples^ or EdieoUe, were erected by the way sides^ and wor^ 
shipped by the passing tcaTeller. 
. * MacrplHus, Sat. i. 7. t Vide Letter xxi« 



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BOHE. 9 

id dime ptieoeptB were ftttowed, mdke • hMvcn of 
earth. 

Hunuui sacrifion to the gods wete not ef hmg oon- 
tununoe, nor of ficqant occamnce at BoBue ; but 
even duxuig her brightest days, they were i n c os sa nt - 
lyixfered up to men. I need not resort to the faloo^ 
asmola of empire: the carnage ofMariuB and of Sylla, 
and even of the hypocridcally humane Augustus, ate 
dreadful and incontestable proofr, that while one or 
two victims were thought adequate to propitmte the 
wrath of o£fended deities, thousands were insoiident 
to appease the hatred and revenge of man.* 

Even the sacred fimes of religi<m, and the holy 
ultars of the gods, were the scene, and sometimes . 
the pretext, of the wrath and cruelty of man. It 
was in the Temple of Bellona that Sylla assembled 
the SooAte, and oooUy harangued them, while the 
djring cries of six thousand of his unfiwtunate victims^ 
slaughtered by his conunand in the adjmning Cirens 
Flaminius, rang in their ears. As if this were not 
suffident to glut his vengeance, this monster maa- 
sacred twelve thousand more at Pnenestcf Augus- 
tus caused three hundred, or, according to other ac- 
counts, four hundred^ Roman Senators and Knights 
to be slain before the altar of Julius Caesar, on the 
ides of March. Yet even the atrodouis massacre of 



* Virgil notices the slaughter of the captivet of war at the 
funeral pile of Pallas^ as a matter of ooune. Mn. lib. xi. 

ver. 81. 

^ t Plutarch— Life of Sylla. 
' X Suetoniua— Life of Augustus, 15, Dion. 



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10 ROMC 

thig mukitade of bntTe men, whose only crime was 
that of having borne arms in the cause of their coun- 
try'^s fieedom, did- not stain his menory with more 
in&my than the treacherous and inhumaa murder of 
one— «ljie best and greatest of the Romans— the glory 
of that, and the light of erery suooeeding age— 4he 
source of his own power« the dupe of his fidste p^ofisfr^ 
sions, and the victim of his base ingratitude. 

I know not how the meadory of that man has es* 
caped execration, who murdered Cicero to propitiate 
Antony.* 



* The crimen of Augostiu aeem to be forgotten by posterity* 
Suetonius relates (27)^ that '^ when the two other Triumvirs 
implored him to show mercy to the proscribed^ he sternly de- 
clared no pardon should be given. Seeing a knight subscribe 
a paper in his presence^ h^ suspected Mm of evil die^i^^nli^ ab4 
ofderad ham i» be stabbed befora his eyes* fle ooBiceived a 
sinflar snqpicion against ^rallius, a Fi^UNr> who came to y^al 
upon him^ and commanded him to be put to the torture | and 
when the unfortunate man still continued to assert his inno- 
cence, he plucked out his eyes with his own hands, and then 
caused him to be killed (15). He murdered many of his pri- 
soners taken in battle in coM blood (13). He ordered a fttthfer 
soA wn, taksB pri s oners at Fbifi^pi, to tow lota wbidt slumU 
dte> or else fight till one was slain. The fathei; ofl&red hi^ Ufe 
to save his son ; Augustus ordered him to be murdered, — ^and 
at the same moment the son killed himself. He sent the head 
of Brutus from Philippi to be thrown at the base of Csesar's 
statue." With what title ought the character of that man 
to be stamped,, ag^nst whom history records such deeds as 
these ? 



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EOME* 11 



LETTER XXV. 



9H£ ClltCUg, AUD CIECUS GAMES. 

The most ancient, and indeed the only spotts that 
were legalized in Rome during the period of the re- 
public, were the Circus Games, which are by some 
supposed to be of Etruscan,* fay odiers of Greek 
origia. But the Greeks had no Circuses. The 
BippodromuSy in which their chariot races were run 
at the Olympic Games, differed from the Circus both 
in form md pla&,-|- and approached more to the na- 
ture .of a race-conrse. The SiadkiniyX which was 
used for foot races, wrestling, and other athletic 
sports, was never the scene of chariot races, had no 
spina^ and was oval at both ends, whereas the Circus 
of the Romans was divided longitudinally by the spina, 
and was square at the end from whieh the cars started, 
and oval at the other. 

Though Romulus gave the games in honour of 
Neptune, which the Sabines attended, on the site of 



* Horse races^ according to Livy, were introduced from 
Thurium^ a part of Lucania. Iivy> lib. i. cap. 35. 
t Vide the description in Pausanias^ book vi. cap. 20 — ^24. 
t Pausanias^ bpok i. cap. 19. 



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Id boiie; 

what was afkerwards the Circus Maximus, |he build- 
ing itself was not erected till the reign of Taiqui- 
nius Priscus. During the progress of the republic, 
it was rebuilt, and frequently enlarged, and always 
merited its name, for it always continued to be the 
greatest. 

In the time of Julius Csssar, it was capable of am- 
taining 160,000 spectators;* in the time of Trajan 
(according to Pliny), it bald 250,000 ; apd after it 
was enlarged by Constantine the Great, it is reported, 
by Valentinian, to have been filled by 360,000<t 

During the rf igns of the kings, the Circus Maxir 
mus was the only Circle in Borne ; but in rcf>\]d>li6a« 
times there were several. 

The Circus Flaminnts was built, A. U. 5$3, by 
C. Flaminitts, when Censor ; I the same who after- 
wards fell in the disastrous battle of Thra&ymenu^ 
It stood in the Campus Martins, aod without the 
ancient Flaminian Gate. Not a vestige of it remawr; 
but its site is maiked by the Palasso Matt£i» i|pd tibe 
surrounding streets^ 

Plays and dramatic entertainments were r^re^nt- 
ed in this Circus, || on the dedication of ttbe Te^q^le^ 
of Juno and Diana, an amusemet^t for which. aucb^ 
building seems to be but ill calculated. 

* Dionysius HalicamAflsiifl. 

t It seems to have been enlarged by adding additional 
rows of seats in its height or depths so that the figure was not 
changed. 

X Livy. Contents of lib. xx. The Via Flaminia is also 
there recorded to have been made by C. Flaminius. 

II Livy^ lib. xl. cap. 51. 



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ROME. 13 

It is ssid, that in the court of the Conrent ef Sin 
Nicola Cesmni, ate still some lemaina of a tmaU 
temple^ oneof llie many which stood in tUs Circus ; 
bat the ttionks, of oonrse, will not admit fiemaks, so 
that I have never seen it ; and, by all accounts, the 
icNsa is not very great 

The site of the Circus JgonaUe is now believed 
to be occupied by the Piana Navona, whidi sdil 
preserves its ancient form. The Agonal Games, in 
honour of Janus, which were annually celebrated 
here, in January and May, were unquesdonably of 
high antignity, and are even said to have been insti- 
tflrted by Nnma Pompilius. The date of the erec« 
ticm of this Circus is obscure, but it must have been 
ancient, for we find it mentioned by Livy* at an 
eavly period of the republic. 

The Circns of Flora was situated between the Es- 
qttiline and Viminal Hills ; and it has been said up* 
on supposition, to have stood where the Piassa Bar<^ 
barini now is ; but its exact site is unknown. 

Flora was a favourite goddess among the Romans, 
and all the people of Etruscan origin ; but she was 
completely slighted by the Greeks, unless we sup- 
pose her to be identical with their Chloris. 

The FlorcJia^ or Gumes of Flora, were exhibited 
every spring, originally on the last days of April, 
and afterwards on the 1st of May* The festival, 
still observed on that day among the common people 
of Rome, in the fields and turfy banks, '^ pranked 



* Livy, lib. xxx. cap. 38, mentions that the Circus Agena* 
lis was inundated by the Tiber. 



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14 HOME. 

^itli early floven,^ in the neighbovrhoed of (ke city, 
and partieularly at the Grotto of the Nyinph.]^;e- 
ria ; as well as the English custom of dancing nmnd 
the May-pole, and even the sports praetised later in 
the month, at the Christian feast of WhksimMe, 
all seem to be vestiges of the games of Flora. The 
licentiousness of those amusements^ indeed, are now 
abolished. Maidens still run races for ribands or 
smocks ; but na&ed females no longsr run OMmaes 
before assembled thousands, as in the virhiOHS dbiys 
of the Roman republic. 

We learn, indeed, that these, and mai^ other, of 
the gross and infamous exhibitions praetised at these 
games, were suppressed, from respect to the viitae 
of Cato, who was once present at them,* and it is 
said they were never afterwards revived. Rope^rdan* 
cing was also a common amusement ; and it appears 
that one species of it was introduced at these shows, 
of which we have no remains— -that of elephants di- 
cing on ropes.f 

The Circus of Sallust was built in the age of Au- 
gustus. The Circus of Nero (begun by Caligula, 
*and finished by Nero) was built on the ground now 
occupied by the Sacri^y and Church of St Fcter. 
It was originally intended as a private theatre, where 
l!ieYo might amuse himself in running chariot races 
with his favourites ; but he soon invitod the popu- 
lace to witness his dexterity, and became a common 
competitor for the prises.]; After the conflagration 

* Sen. Ep. 97. 

t It was " a new kind of spectacle," brought into fashion 
by Galba. Suet. Galba. J Tacitus, Ann. 14. 



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ROMl!. 15 

of Rome, be tcttmd a new amuseineiit in tortimng 
the€htisti«hs to death in* this Circus, and in the 
gardens ^ivhich Burrounded it, under the pretence 
thstithelf^ere the Incendiaries—^ nailing them alive 
Uf 0emimy Imposing them to be devoured bjr fnriooe 
dogs, or wrkpped in combustible garments, and set 
on fiiolfte torches, to illuminate the night."* 

l?he Circus of'Ha^hian was behind this Manso- 
bnmj aod'the Circus of Heliogabalus was near the 
Ctondi of Santa Croce in Gierusalemme. 

Bat all these remain only in toame. Not one stone 
stands uponanother. Paul III., that uniyersbl de- 
sti^yer d* andquities, removed the last remains of 
the Circus Maximus, a building which had stood 
thrcM^ the Regal, the Republican, the Imperial, 
and die Gothic govtemments of Rome, and was it- 
naffly demolished only in the Papal. Notwithstand- 
ing its destruction, however, the form and parts of 
the Circus Maximus (as well as of every other an- 
cient Circus) are so accurately preserved in has re- 
lieft^ medals, &c., and so fully verified by the nearly 
perfect remains of one upon the Via Appia, that I 
have no hesitation in sending you a complete plan 
rfit, drawn by one of the Koman antiquaries, which^ 
with the exception of the Euripus, or Canal, may 
serve as a tolerably correct representation of every 
andent Ciixms, since they differed only in magni- 
tnde, not in plan. 

As the Games of the Circus were sacred to* the 
gods, altars and temples of various deities were erect- 

* Tacitus^ Ann. lib. xv. cap. 44. 

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16 HOME. 

ed in and atound every Circus { and Bi^nti<«i Ctf a 
remarkable number of these in the Circus Maximus 
is incidentally made by the Roman hUfloiims. 

A temple waft erected here to Venus, by the fines 
iinpofl^ on the Roman ladies who Were convicted of 
adultery ;* and certainly the source of the ftuid for 
building it, gives one no very exalted idea of the vir- 
tue of the Rdmto matrons— ^en in die re^blicin 
limes ; uny more than the lair found neec^luy in the 
first era of the Empire, ** that mi, wife or daughter 
of a Roman Knight should prostitute herself for 
money f'f Besides this temple of Venus, there was 
a temple to Bacchus, Ceres, and Froi^erpine, j:, ano- 
ther to Flora, II another to Hercules, and several 
others, all of which stood near the Circus Maximus, 
tc^ther with the colossal statue of Apollo, brought 
from Carthage.§ The SaceU/um of the Sun, the 
Altar of Youth, and the images, altars, and SaceOa 
of a variety of deities, were erected on the Spina 
(see the plan, BB), or long narrow ridge round 
which the cars ran, and which divided the arena of 
the Circus in its breadth into two parts. It was 
crowned with two Egyptian Obelises (D E), the 
first of which was placed there by Augustus, the last 
*by Constans II. 

At one of the two Metce (CC), which stood iso- 
Jated at the extremities of the Spina, was the buried 

* Livy, lib. x. cap. 31. 
t Tacitus, Anu. lib. ii. cap. 85. 
:!: Tacitus, Ann. lib. ii. cap. 49. 
It Tac. lib. ii. cap. 49. Livy, lib. xxxvi. cap. 36. 
' § Plutarch's Life of Romulus. 



9 



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ROITE. 17 

alter of CoiMtt ; a dei^, who, aoorading to some ac- 
cooatB, wa« the equestrian Neptune, in whoee ho- 
nonr the gaBMS were giren ; and to oihen, the Grod 
of Coungelsy or Secrecy, who inflpired Romulus with 
the project <^ carrying off the Sabine women at their 
first odebration, and whose altar stood in a dark 
spot, covefed up with earth, and was only unoerered 
when the preparatory sacrifices were to be offered, in 
token that oouuselsshooldbe secret and hidden. This 
altar was in erexy Circus. At the other Ifipto, in 
the Circus Maximus, stood the Altar cfMureim, the 
Goddess of Idleness and Sloth, generally supposed 
to be identical with Venus, that great patroness c£ 
idkaaesB; and probably this altar ga^e to the raUey 
the name 6£ Val Afitircta, or Ikfyriia^ which it bears 
to this day, altbouj^ other accounts say that it de- 
riyed it bam a myrtle tree sacred to Venus. The 
site and environs of the Circus Maximus are still 
called Circhi by the people of Rome. 

If it was the first place where games were celebra- 
ted in Rome, it was also the last. So late' as die 
close of the fifth century it was filled, for the last 
time, with Christian spectators,* who seem slowly 
and reluctantly to have abandoned these darling 
pleasures, the inhumanity of which was condemned 
by the spirit of their faith. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the sports of the 
Circus were confined to chariot races. Horse and 



* About the year 4i9S, immediately after which the Circus 
Games were finally abolished. Bafonias Annal. Ecelesias. 
(an authority I have never had aaopportonity of oommHing) 
is quoted in verification of the &ct. 

VOL. II. B 



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18 BOME. 

foot races, fights of gladiators,* wresting, boxing 
(with the caestus), leaping, and all sorts of active exer- 
cises, were exhibited here. Naval courses and gMues 
were celebrated in the close of the republic, in die 
Euripus, a canal sixteen feet in breadth, with which 
Julius Caesar surrounded the Circus Muximus ; and 
thirty-six crocodiles were shown by Augustus to the 
eyes of the wondering Romans, after his triumj^iant 
return from Egyptf Combats of wild beasts were 
held in the Circus Maximns before the beginning 
and before the end of the Empire ; in the days of 
Julius Caesar^ and Carinus. || 

This last prodigal and luxurious Emperor sur- 
passed, in the pomp and splendour of the games and 
spectacles he exhibited, all who had gone befi»e him. 
The care of his predecessor, Probus, had transform- 
ed the Circus into an artificial forest, filled with large 
trees transplanted by the roots ; and its shades were 
successively tenanted by hundreds of the white^ 
plumed ostrich, the stag, the elk, the sebra, the 
camelebpard, and the majestic elephant ; together 
with the hitherto-unseen forms of the bulky rhino- 
ceros, and the hippopotamus of the Nile. The roar 



* Combats of gladiators were first exhibited in Rome A.U. 
490.— (Vide Val. Max. ii. 4. 7.) They were then, and con- 
tinued to be long afterwards, exhibited as funeral games only, 
perhaps to appease the manes of the dead, instead of the ori- 
ginal horrible rite of sacrificing human beings. — Viro. iEn. 
X. 518, and xi. 81, 8S. 

t Dio. Cassius, p. 781. 

X Suetonius, Life of Cesar, H. 

II Decline and Fall, voL iL pp. 83, 84, 83. 



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SOME. 19 

of Indian tigers and African hyenas resounded 
through the glade ; the spotted leopard roamed at 
large ; and hundreds of Numidian lions, transported 
from their burning deserts, and bears brought from 
their polar snows, were assembled and slaughtered* 
in this ample arena. 

In the long intenroung period of the Empire that 
had elapsed between Csesar and Carinus, the com- 
bats of gladiators and wild beasts had generally been 
given in the amphitheatre ;t and chariot races, the 
proper Circus games, alone exhibited here. 

These sacred games, in honour of the gods, were 
annually given in the month qf August, { under 
the direction, and generally at the expense, of the 
^diles, who frequently ruined themselves with the 
magnificence of these shows. Csesar was obl^ed to 
sell his Tiburtine Villa to assist in defraying the 
enormous expense of the games he gave during his 
iEdileship ; and when he set off on the expedition 
into Spain, he was, by an enormous sum, worse than 



* Decline and FaU^ voL ii. pp. 84, 85. 

f The well-known and affecting incident of Androdes and 
the lion is^ however^ said to have taken place in the Circus 
Maximus.— Vide Aul. Gell; Noct Att. 7. 

X The Consualia^ Ludi Consuateg, or games sacred to Cen- 
sus, the god whose hidden altar was in every circus, took 
place ih August The Ludi Ma^i, sacred to the great gods, 
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, were celebrated in September. 
The Secular games were only once given^n a century, or 1 10 
years, and not regularly even then. They were for the safety 
of the Empire, and were in honour of Apollo and Diana. 



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so ROME. 

nothing** He ezhiUted a fight of (Radiators in 
audi numbers as to frighten the Senatora.f Yet all 
the cost he kvished upon these games* aearcely tx>ni- 
poisated for the umbrage he gave to the people bf 
employing himself in writing in his tablets during 
their representation. Caesar well understood the 
Talue of time, but here foigot that poUqr demanded 
its sacrifice. 

At a very different pmod, when* after crossing 
the Butncon, he entered by force the dty which he 
had won the right to enter five times in triumpli, be 
exhibited games which might be called the fimeral 
games of the liberties of Rome — the splendour of 
which was so great, that in the ardour of the people 
to see them, a crowd of plebeians, and two senators, 
were killed in the press. At that time, two sena- 
tors publicly exhibited themselves as gladiators ;| 
and in more degenerate times, ev&i women of rank 
fought like common gladiators in the amphitheatee.|| 

Previous to the games, the grand procession of 
the images of the gods, drawn in the Thensuy or sa- 



• Plutarch's Life of JuHua Ciesar. And yet, during his 
first consulship, he had stolen 30001b. weight of gold out of 
the Capitol, and replaced it with the same quantity of gilt 
brass.— Suetonius, J. Caesar, 54. 

t Suetonius, J. Cttsar, 10. 

t Tacitus, Ann. xy» 32. 

Ij Suetonius. (Domit. 4.) W<mien fought as gla^tors, 
and virgins ran races in the Stadium. Even AugniBtua made 
Roman Knights act upon the stage, and fight as gladiators, 
till it was prohibited by the senate, which seemed still to re* 
tain some portion of its anoioit power and Tirtne. Saet 
Aug. 43. In Nero's Juvenalia, aged matrons, as well as se* 
nators, used to perform. Suet. Nero, 6, 



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ROME, SI 

end ear, took plaee ; and la late times, die Matuea 
of the Emperors were borne along with them. The 
ctfvalcade of the (Aariots and honea deatined for 
the sp6rta, fixrmed the Pompa CircemsU^ sacred to 
Apollo. 

The signal for commencing the games was given 
by the Emperor. It is related, that once when the 
people were extremely clamoroiis from the delay, 
Nero, who was at table, hastily threw hu napkin out 
of the balcony of the Imperial Palace, into the Cir- 
cas below, and that it afterwards became the est^- 
bliahed signal ; miiiere mappam was the word. It 
strikes me, howerer, that ike allnsions to this signal 
and phrase becnr in the classics at an earlier period 
tk«n Nero^s reign. 

The cars were drawn up ready to start in ficont of 
the Carceres, or car-houses (NN), and were con- 
fined in the same line by a rope held by two statues 
of Meieary (probably Termini), whidi was with* 
drawn on Ae signal being ^ven. A furrow filled 
with white chalk, called alba Jmea, was the line of 
victory-i-the last line. Horace makes a beautiful 
sllasion to this, when he says, ^* Mors yJHma tinea 
remm est.*^ 

The Aurigasy or charioteers, were diyided into 
four permanent and contending foedons, die diadn- 

* ItiscKrmsthatthesuneciistompreTsflsiDltalytotfals 
day. At the Csnuval rsoes in the Cerao, the hones^ each 
held hack hy several men^ are ranged hehind a cord drawn 
across the street^ which is loosened at the signal for startiiigy 
and the poor animals^ goaded by the beating of the i^rfkes of 
steely and the gunpowder burning on ^ir badcs^ msh on 
with a madness thst is caHed spirit 



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22 HOME. 

guiflhiiig ooloun of which were, white, red, Uue, and 
green. 

These colours are supposed to haye borne some 
mystic reference to the elements — that white dis- 
tinguished the air ; red, fire ; green, the earth ; and 
blue, the ocean. They have also been said to repre- 
8ent the four seasons of the year ; and spring, sum* 
mer, and winter, may indeed be supposed to be 
green, red, and white ; but why should autumn be 
blue? 

The supporters of these difiPerent colours were 
called Partisans— and deserved the name, for they 
adhered in their attachment to the colours, r^^ard- 
less of the merits of the horses, charioteers, &a, 
and were exhilarated or depressed as their colour 
triumphed or was defeated . History bears mourn- 
ful testimony to the deadly feuds waged between 
the green and blue factions at Constantinople, in the 
latter days of the Empire.* This permanent' at- 
tachment to particular colours, however, did not 
prevent betting from going on to an immense ex- 
tent, both in the Circus and Amphitheatrcf Four 
chariots, one of eveiy colour, started in each course. 
Two new colours, the gold and the purple, were 
added by Domidan, :j: and then six chariots, one of 
each colour, started at once. Each course consbt- 
ed of seven circuits round the Spina, These dr- 
cuits were marked by the removal of one of the seven 
eggs (G.) and seven dolphins (F.) from the two ex- 

• ProcopiuB De BelL Got. stakes, that upwards of 30,000 
were murdered in these affrays, 
t Suetonius, Life of Domit. Flin. Ep. ix. 
% Suetouius^ Life of Domit- 7. 



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ROMe. as 

tramilias of the iSjpifia. The dolj^ina, it is soppo- 
:8ed, were used as marks in honour of Neptone^ the 
patron god of the games ; and the c|^ in honour of 
Castor and Polluz, who, as every one knows, were 
hatched like chickens, and were the equestrian gods. 

The victor of each course (titwMi^), or, as we 
should call it, of each heat, placed his car in the 
CarcertB^ or car-houses (N.), which were thirteen in 
naaaber, twelve double, capable of containing two 
cars, and one single. For as a hundred cars gene- 
rally ran in a day, there were, consequently, twenty* 
fire victorious, which are said to have started toge- 
ther for the last grand course ; after which, the vic- 
tor or victors, crowned, issued out of the Triumphal 
Arch ^I.) at the oval end of the Circus, bearing his 
palm of victory in his hand, and fidlowed by the ac- 
clamations of the multitude. 
. The Spina (vide Plan, BB.) was always nearer 
to the oval, and farther from the square end of the 
Circus, in order to give room for the cars to start 

Sometimes cars with two horses {Bigas)^ but 
more frequently cars of four abreast (QuadriffiB)^ 
(for mares were preferred to horses for chariot races,) 
contended in the Circus games. Sometimes, but 
rarely, cars with six horses, or Sefugi, ran ; and I 
remember seeing a gem, on which cars were repre- 
sented with ten horses abreast. Nero, if I remem* 
ber right, exhibited races of chariots drawn by four 
camels. 

In the Vatican are preserved a beautiful marble 
Btgay or car drawn by two horses, and the statue 
of an Auriga^ or charioteer, whose hand bears the 



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24 BOMe. 

palmofvictoiy. Tlieeoitumeifl peeidiaiiyekgiHki; 
his tunic, or robe, is bouid with a sone famed of a 
great numbn of small oardoDs. The baa refieA, pce- 
ser¥ed in the same chamber of the Vatican, and also 
at the Villa Albaai,* give a Yery livdy nqporeaente- 
tion of the Gireos raoce. You see Ihe Caroereay the 
Spina, the Meias, the egi^ and the dolphinfr->littfa 
fluttering Loyes sitdng on ,the horses, and jmpdling 
their ardent qieed, or oYcvtbiown with the cars ufmi 
the ground, and crushed .beneath their whirliag 
wheels. Sudb accidents unfortunately contmually 
occurred, though m^, not dieruba, were the Tictims. 
At every exhibition of Circus games^ the dead »ad 
the dying were carried out amidst the shouts and 
exultati<m of the victors. Thus the same charaot^ 
of cruelty seemed to pervade every amusemest of 
the ancient Romans ; and modem nations, human* 
i^ by 8 purer faith, may retaliate the epithet of 
barbarians on the masters of the world. 

It was astonishing the fondness of the people for 
these garner. '^ Panem et Circemes.'^f was the po- 
polar cry ; and they were content under the enormia 
Ues of any tyrant who bestowed upon them abun- 
dance of these. 

If the Parisians are like the ancient Romans in 
nothmg else; they certainly resemble them in this 
passion for ^^ pam et pUmir:^ 



• In the frieze of the oval vestibule at the head of the 
stairs, and also in some detached bassi relievi. 
t -~ atque duas tantum res anxius optat 
Panem ct Circenses.-Jtt„^a/, Sat. x. 1. 80. 



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BOMS. 25 

One enly of all the CimuM of MMMnt Rone m. 
mains, bat it is in better preserralioii, I bdiere^ 
than aiqr olber in die world. It atands on Ae Via 
JppiOf beside tbe tomb of Cecilia Metella»aMl it h 
ciJled the Cifcus of CancaUa, though there is no 
other reason for beheraq; that Eoqperer erer boilt any 
Cireue at all, than that a medal of his reign bean a 
Cireua on its rererse, whidh may jnst tm probably 
oiNamemarate a restoration or enlargement of the 
Ciroos Maximus, as the ereetum of e new one. And 
even granting that he did build a Ciroos, sboe the 
site is unknown, jdacing it hereis pordly conjectoraL 
The striking inferiority, too, in its structore^-^he 
ooasae dumsy bricks, and the wretched style of 
building — in which bits of stone, tiks, and broken 
pieces of marble, are coarsdy plastered togedier to 
form its wiiUs, {Hiesait such a contrast to the nobk 
Themue of Caracalla, that we can scarcely consider 
it a work ij£ the same date. It has been called, 
and upon as slender grounds, the Circus of Gallie* 
nus ; and the meanness of the structure, at least, is 
more consonant to the degeneracy of the arts at that 
period. 

But however unsupported by probability or evi- 
dence, it has now a prescriptive right to the name of 
the Circus of CaracaUa ; and the^ircus of Caracal- 
la it must therefore be called. 

The walk of this Circus have scarcely even been 
partially destroyed, and their circuit is s^ entire. 
Whethor its andait pav^aent, or any ronains of 
it, are s^l to be found, I know not, for its marshy 
arena is now covered with grass of emerald verdure ; 



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26 ROMK. 

and when we last vinted it, a flock of sheep were 
peacefully grazing in it 

The Spina, though grass-grown, stiU remaiBs. 
We observed that, besides being nearer to the oval 
end, in order to allow room for the cars to start from 
the square end ; it is also nearer the left 4liftii' the 
right side, by about thirty feet, I should suppose ; 
the reason of which may probably be, that some of 
the cars would be left behind in rounding the further 
Metaj and consequently less space be necessary on 
the ftirther side. 

Beneath the extremity of the Spina^ nearest the 
square end, there is a small subterranean cavity, 
which has evidently been the altar-place of Ctmsus. 
The obelise now in the Piazza Navona, once adorn- 
ed the Spina of this Circus. The Metoe, which were 
about twelve feet distant from the ends of the Sjnnay 
have disappeared ; and, indeed, they seem to have 
been formed of perishable materials ; those in the 
Circus Maximus, which were gilt by the Emperor 
Claudius, being of wood.* From the Meta preser- 
ved at the ViUa Albani, they seem each to have been 
composed of three cones, or pyramids. 

The triumphal gate through which the victor of 
victors issued at the oval end of the Circus, is still 
entire ; but there ye no remains of the Carceres, or 
division for the cars at the opposite extremity. 

These Carceres, which extended along the whok 
breadth of the Circus, according to the modem books 
and plans,t and explanations, and antiquaries, were 

* Snetoniiu^ Life of Claudius. 

t Pauvinius Ludi Circensis, Bianchini, &c. 



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^ 



ROME. 87 

* completely filled with the twenty^Sve can of the Tie- 
tors ; aU of which, they say, stttted ti^edicr on one 

- side of the Spina^ in little more than one-hdj^ the 

i breadth of the Circus, for the last course ; — ^m other 
words, that they could run in half the space they ilU 

i: ed when i^tanding. I could not hare beUered that 
even an antiquary could hare made such an egre- 
gious assertion, if I had not heatd it with my own 
ears in this very Circus. 

Independent of this absurd paradox, and in despite 
of all the antiquaries in the world, I maintain it to 
be a physical impossibility that twenty-fiVe cars, or 
even half that number, could have found room to 
stand, much less to drive abreast, on one side of the 
Spina of this Circus ; nor is there a single person, of 
plain understanding, to whom I have put the ques- 
tion, from one of the first mathematicians of the age, 
to Jacob the groom, who has not agreed with me in 
this o|Hnion. 

In the Circus Maximus, indeed, they might have 
found room for this number to have run together, fiw 
anything I know to the contrary ; but in this Circus 
it is a perfect impossibility. 

It is computed that this Circus could contain up- 
wards of 20,000 spectators. There are two towers 
at the end where the Carceres stood, one of which, it 
is supposed, was intended for the trumpeters or mu- 
sicians, and the other for the judges of the race. 

A tower on the right side is still standing, and 
there are some remains of one on the left, not, how- 
ever, exactly fadng it. 



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S8 ROME. 

One of theBBy we may 8appo8e> w«b intended finr 
ike Emperor and bis court; and thouj^ the eeat of 
these dJBtipguiahed personages is understood to have 
been in the Podium,* where the vestal Virgins, Se- 
nators, and those of consular rank, had also the right 
of sitting,, Cwior may not have chosen to share tbe 
same seat with them, and tbe tower may have been 
adopted as the more complete distinctum of a later 
age. The balcony in the Imperial Pahu^ fiom 
which the Emperor is said to bare viewed the games 
in tbe Circus Maximus, is a similar situation. The 
right of sftting on the Pulvinarj the couch appro- 
priated to theimages of the gods, was conferred upon 
Julius Caesaryf and enjoyed by all the EmpercMs. 
Augustus, we are told, frequently lodied at the 
games of the Circus (rom thence, or from the apart- 
ments df bis friends or Freedmen.} 

Bight of place in the Circus was not conceded to 
any of the privileged orders till the reign of Clauditis^ 
when separate places were assigned for the Sena- 
tors ;|| and in tbe reign of Nero,§ the Roman 
Knights obtained a utuation behind them, but dis- 
tinct from tbe people. Seats in tbe ordiestra of the 
Theatre, and the Podium of tbe Amphitheatre, had 
been granted to the Senators at a mudi earlier pe- 
riod ;^ and before the close of the repuUic, fourteen 

* The front row. * t Soeton. Ccs. 76. 

X Sueton. August 45. Augustus exhibited public games 
forty-seven times. Suet. 34. 
II Suetonius Claudius, 321. 
§ Tadtus^ Ann. lib. xv. cap. 33. 
IF It was in A. U. 558^ in the consulate of Cornelias Scipio. 



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BOHE. 29 

wwB bdund than wore alleiled to die Equestrian 
Ord«r-* 

LteaYing the Circos, we pass through a door at the 
end, where the Carceres stood, into a large square^ 
enclosed with high walls, of the same date and coi^ 
struction as the Circus itself, whidb has endently 
been divided into small rqpilar compartments, like 
stalls of stables, or small coach-houses. In the ccnSre 
of this place stands a brick building of a better age^ 
which some antiquaries say was a temple, and that 
they can plainly see where the portico of six columns 
was attached to the front, and where the steps led up 
to it, and where the statue of the god stood in it I 
hare long ago been convinced that I have not anti- 
quarian eyes ; and a decinve proof of it is, that I 
oould see none of these things. Other antiquaries 
again see, with equal deamess, that this was nothing 

• In A. U. 686; This priTil^;e was procured for them by 
a man whom Dion (36) calls Rosdtui Otfao Tribune^ and 
Plutarch (Life of Cicero) Marcus Otho Praetor. It is related 
that his t^peaiance in the theatre once raised so violent a tu- 
mult — ^a sort of O. P. riot — ^between the people who hissed^ 
and the Knights who applauded him^ that the most serious 
consequences were apprehended; when Cicero hastened to 
ihe theatre^ called upon the people to follow him to the Tern* 
pie of Bellona^ and there^ by the force of his unpremeditated 
doqu^oe^ so totally changed the current of their feelings, that 
they returned to their places, and overwhelmed with shouts 
of applause the very man whom, a few minutes before, they 
were ready to tear in pieces. It is easy to inflame to madness 
the passions of the midtitude ; but so suddenly and complete- 
ly to allay their !ury, was, indeed, an unparalleled triumph 
Qfeloquenoe. . 



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30 ROME. 

but a Carceres^ or car-house, atid that the surround- 
ing walk, which the first party call a Temenos^ or 
holy enclosure for their temple, were diTided into 
stalls for horses. To this is rejoined by the believers 
in the temple — indignant at its degradation — that it 
is evidently a building of an earlier date than the 
Circus ; and who would build a Carcercs at least a 
hundred years before a Circus ? They of the Car- 
oeres side, in turn, reply, that it may have been a 
building of more ancient date, not originally dedgn- 
ed for the purpose, but it must have been converted 
into a Carceres, for they see the places for the cars; 
at the same time, they positively deny that it ever 
was a temple. 

An acute writer of our own country thinks it was 
a Serapeon, upon the supposition that the Circus 
was Caracalla^s, and that Serapis was peculiarly tbe 
object of that £mperor'*s worship. It is certain that 
the Altar of Serapis, now in the Capitol, with an in- 
scription sacred to this deity, was found near the 
neighbouring Church of San Sebastiano. 

I shall not pretend to give an opinion on th^ 
knotty point, of what this building was, or was not ; 
much less repeat more of the multifarious and clash- 
ing conjectures that have been made as to its ancient 
use or purpose. At present, it has been used to 
support a most wretched sort of Casino, which, like 
most of those erections near Rome, has dwindled 
from serving the pleasures of princes, to the abode 
of Vignaiuoli. Around it, in the adjoining vine- 
yards, are many ruins, whose date and destination 
are equally involved in obscurity. One ei them^ 



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ROME. 31 

witlioat the smallest foundation, has been called al 
random the Testiges of the famous Temple of Vir- 
tue and Honour, built by MarceUus, and restored bjr 
Vespasian ; although that stood at the ancient Pwia 
Capena^* from which this spot is more than three 
miles distant. 

That there may haTe been temples in and around 

this, as well as other Circuses, is indeed highly pro- 

hable ; and many of the mouldering walla we see may 

be their remains, although we cannot now distinctly 

trace them. The only building in sufficient preser* 

vation to enable us to discoTer its nature, is an un« 

known tomb, one of the many which lined the Ap- 

pian Way. I beUeYo it was called the tomb of the 

family of Servilia, until the real remains of that were 

found, and erected by Canova, a little further upon 

this road. Its vaulted roof, forming a four-sided 

quadrangular pyramid, is a very singular piece of 

architecture. It stands immediately without the wall 

of the stable— or Temenos of the Temple — or what* 

ever it may be— on the side nearest the Circus. 

The Circus of Sallust stood near the Porta Colli- 
na, and it is well worth while to pay a visit to the 
deserted spot, once occupied with the luxurious gar- 
dens of the historian, in the midst of whieh it was si^ 
tuated ; for its site, its form, and size, are still very 
apparent ; and though not a stone of the building 
remains, the very ground is not without its interest. 
On the sloping bank, onc^ lined with marble seats, 
and filled with crowds of Roman spectators, the leaf- 

* Plutarch— Life of Marcellus. 



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32 ROME. 

less vine is straggling amongst briatB, and the wild 
flowers of the field blooming in unrestrained loxtt^ 

riance. , , 

The pomp of the Secular Games that were cele^ 
brated here in honour of Apolloj have been ctrnime- 
morated in the strains of poets, pan^yiirts, and sa- 
tirists. Shattered rcBcs of ancient splendour— -co- 
lumns of transparent Oriental aUbastor, and giaUo 
anUco-^payements of the ridiest mosaics— and en- 
tire porticos of the rarest marbles, have been ^««^ 
in immense quantity from beneath the vines and 
wild weeds, that perhaps still cover even more i^e- 
cious remains. 

In the most luxurious era of luxurious Rome, 
these gard«is were noted for their luxury, and were 
the favourite resort of Nero-* ^ 

The Egyptian obelise, now at the Trinitd de 
Montij which was found here, could not hawe been 
erected by Sallust, because he died before the con- 
quest of Egypt It must have been placed here by 
Augustus, or some of the later Cseswrs. 

The rums of the house of Sallust still stand by 
the side of his Circus.* You may ascend by a 
weed-covered staircase to the second story, where, 
not many years ago, we were told some few ves- 
tiges of ancient painting were to be seen, and where, 
even when I first visited it, several patches of mc^ 
saie flooring still remained. But the last time I 
was there, every trace of them had disappeared— 



• Vide Tadtufi, Ann. 14. 

8 



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ROME. 88 

aimed off, as the cottnftrjnnaii who shows the pkce 
infiinned us, by the Forestieri. 

Nearly adjoining to the rained habitation of the 
historian, are the remains of the octagonal brick tern* 
pie already mentioned, soj^Kised to have been the 
Temple of Venus Erydna. 

It would appear that, although the Circus of Sal- 
hist was not built till the reign of Augustus, its site 
was sometimes used as such, in case of emergency, 
even in republican times ; for we read, that when the 
Circus Majgimus was orerflowed by the Tiber, the 
games were celebrated before the Temple of VefiUM 
Etydna,* 

The young Vignaiucio showed us, near this tem- 
{de, which he learnedly denominated the Temple of 
Vesta ; and the House of Sallust, which he called 
the House of the Vestal Virgins — a hole through 
which he declared those yestab were put who had 
violated their yows of chastity. Now, it is true that 
the Campu* Scderatus^ in which these guilty and 
unfortunate vestals were buried alive, was a little bo- 
yond the ancient Porta CoIUna, and consequently in 
this vicinity, though its exact site is unknown ; but 
that Vesta ever had a temple, or her vestak a habi* 
tatioB hero, is a secret known only to my friend the 
Vignaittolo. 

From htoce, extending all along the side of the 
Circus, are immense walls, strengthened with solid 
buttresses, built against the Quirinal Hill. 

■* Livy, lib. xxx. cap. 28. 
vol.. II. c 



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54 ROMir. 

Ac the comer of this will MndB'a Caritio, bvik» 
I believe, by the Barberini finnily, but wUth, sppa- 
lently, lua dunred in theif fortuBe* , and ■• bnger 
serves the tmrposes of pleasore. 

Beneath it, we had heard and read^ might still be 
seen a few of the stones of the waUs of Servius Tul- 
litis. How eagerly we looked, yoa may imagine ! 
We turned the coiner of the Cairino, and sought 
along the base of the wall, till at last, near its se- 
cond angle, we actually found, low down and half 
hidden with long grass and weeds, a few squares of 
gray peperin stone ! 

Our transport you can never conceive. The ori^ 
ginal walls of Republican Borne ! The veneraUe 
work of her Kings, that we had searched for so.loag, 
and so vainly ! Did we see them— nay, more, actual- 
ly touch them at last ? The bdief might be delnsure, 
but that was no matter, it did just as well. BesideB, 
all the old antiquaries, both dead and alive, deaoribe 
these ancient walls to have passed exactly in this di- 
rection, beneath this very Casino, and believe these 
stones to be thdr remain8,"<-HB0 why might not ^e ? 
I never made any question of it, fi>r my ywU> 

In returning, the Vignaiuolo, who seemed t6.|i&e 
to liaart our incredulity about the House of the^ Ves- 
tal Virgins, besought us once more to look abityfnd 
he was sure we would be ccmvinoed. 

He gave us an account of their manner of ialer- 
ment, which nearly convulsed us with laQgbter« . iBiit 
seriously, the frequency of this dreadful punishment 
is to me one of the most extraordinary circumstances 
in the annals of Rome. Was it not wonderful» that 



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AolifE. S5 

ike ncMt sftcred oathe, the most selenn lies, the fed- 
logs of honour, the diead of infiuny, and the prospect 
of the most horrible of deaths, could not restrain six 
noble ladies firom yiolating the laws of chastity, even 
fer a limited tenn of years? For at the age of thirty, 
thfe duties of their vocation were over, and it was 
lawful to marry, although it was not accounted ho- 
oourabk or auspicious bo to do. 

At this day, in our own country, not six viigins, 
perhaps not one, could he found cf similar rank, al- 
though under no peeuUar ob%ations, who had c(Mn- 
mitted the crime for which so many Vestals sufiered. 

Whilst we were listening to thar pathetic story, as 
recounted by the Vignaiuolo, some pretty Contadine 
came up to us, attended by di«r rustic swains ; and 
after looking into the hole, pitied the Vestal Vir- 
gins, (^^ Paverifie r) shrugged their shoulders, and 
langhStag, thanked their stars and the Madonna, that 
foot FanduUe were not buried aUve for such things 
now-a-days. 

Their dariL eyes sparkled coquettishly, and their 
long shining black hair, (for it was a Giomo di Fes^ 
ia,) was plaited and coiled round the back of their 
heads, and fastened with an immense silver bodkin, 
or rather skewer, richly ornamented with carving* and 
tipped with a jewd. Their necks were hung round 
with coral necklaces and gold chains ; and the pur- 
ple sleeves of their vests were tied to their shoulders 
with laige bows of sky-blue riband, leaving a vacuum, 
through whidi peeped out the fiiU white sleeve of 
the chemise. The shoe was decorated with a budde, 
which, for size and splendour, minrbt have served our 



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36 ROME. 

greal'great-gnuidiiiothcra. These pretty peasants 
Uved dose by ; and indeed it is amusing to see the 
variety of rustics that live within the walla of Rome, 
witii as little of the air of a dty as if they had neyet 
approached one. This is the holiday dress of most 
of the lower orders of females in this immediate neigh- 
bourhood, but every little village among the hills has 
its own distinguishing peculiarity of costume, fiwm 
which they never deviate. 

Setting the dirt apart, the dresses, espedally of 
the mountaineers, are very picturesque : thdr forms 
and faces, and the easy unrestrained grace of air and 
attitude, often recal to you that they are born upon 
a classic soiL 

But how have I wandered £rom the games of the 
Circus to the dresses of the Italian peasantry ? I 
donH, however, remember that I have anything more 
to say about either. So, fiurewell for the present 



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ROM£. 37 



LETTER XXVI. 

UOMAK THEATEES. 

I HAVE already obseryed, thai the severity of the 
Republican law peraiitted no places of public amuse- 
ment except CiKuses, which were privileged, because 
the Circus Games were religious ceremonies, given 
in honour of the gods, and consecrated by the insti* 
tution of the deified Romulus. 

Plays were first introduced into Rome in order to 
stop a pestilence.* The usual expedient for effect- 
ing this — that of creating a Dictator for the purpose 
of driving a naU into the door of the Temple of Ju« 
I^t^ Capitolinus— 4iad been tried, and proved inef- 
ficacious. Nay, the LecHstemiumj a public enter- 
tainment to a party of the gods, had been given 
without success. Thdr statues had lain for eight 
days in mi^ificent beds, ranged round a table, upon 
wlrich * sumptuous banquet was daUy served up to 
them. But they ate it, as Jupiter ate his annual 
feasts in the Capitol, by proxy ; the Epulones, or 
priests, who had the care of providing it, regulariy 
and punctually performing that ceremony, f Ac- 



* liiiyy, lib. vii. cap« 9. It was in the year of Rome SSO. 

t It would a^^iear tliat the inferior seFvants of the altar as« 
sisted in this pious duty. For lavry relates^ (lib. ix. eap. 30,) 
" That the musicians who played upon die flute before the 
sacrifices^ took the affiront at being prohibited by the Censors 



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38 EOM£. 

cording to the best authorities, Latona, with her 
twin children Apollo and Diana, occupied one bed ; 
Mercuiy and Hercules another, atid Neptune the 
third. ' 

Throughout Rome the people feasted in the Ca- 
vcedium in front of their houses, making welconae 
every guest. The prisons were cleared, the prisoners 
liberated, and the bitterest enemies met together as 
friends.* 

But all this lying in bed, and feastmg, and sha- 
king of hands, had been done in vain. The pesti- 
lence still continued unabated ; and therefore, to ap- 
pease the incensed deities, actors wcire sent for from 
Etruria, who appoar tor have perfaraied pantomimes 
rather than plays ; for, ^^ without reciting any kind 
of poetry, th^ danced gracefully, in the Tuscan 
manner, to the flute.'' 

^ . In the midst of these religious ceremonies, a sud- 
den inundation of the Tiber nearly drowned both 
%ctQitB and spectators, and effectually put a stop to 
the performances for the time. But henceforward, 
Satires {Saturcc)^ a licentious extempore sort of buf- 
fooneary borrowed from the Etruscans, seem occa- 
•ionally to have been represented hi Home; and 
some years afterwards, « regular plays'' were written 
and performed by Livias Andronicus, who, accord- 

frona eating at the banquet of the Gods in the Temple of Ju- 
piter, and went oflTin a body to Tibur (Tivoli) ; from whence 
they were at last brought back by stratagem ; for b^ng made 
drank, they were conveyed home in waggons when asleep. 
The privilege of eating in the temple was restored to such as 
were employed to play before the sacrifices." 
* Livy, lib. vii. 



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ROME. 89 

ing to the custom of the «ge, was at once thei^ aatbor 
and sole actors and sung them to the flute* Acton 
for the several parts of the play, were, however, ,at 
last introduced, but sbging to the flute still form^ 
an essential part of dramatic representations. 

The Oscan farce, so called from the Osci^ a peo« 
pie of Campania, next became popular. In Home 
this description of plays were called AteUance^ but 
their performance was confined to the Roman youth, 
and professed actors were not. allowed to degrade 
them by their represcaitations.f 

Pantomimes seem also to have been favourite re- 
presentations with the Romans ; and although in 
early times the performers (who were called Mirniy 
or Pantomimi) used to employ speech as well as ac* 
tion ; yet, after the close of the Republic, the Ro- 
man pantomimes, like those of the present dfay, were 
en^dy expressed by dancing, gesture, and dumb 
^ow. 

It therefore appears that plays were origbally in- 
troduced from Etruria,:^ and not from Greece, whence 
the Romans usually derived their arts and improve- 
ments. But, in later times, the Grecian drama, with 
its accompaniments of the chorus, the music, the 
dancers, and masked actors for eveiy separate part, 
was brought upon the Roman stage ; with this di£> 
ferenoe, that in the theatres of Greece, the scene, 

* Probably from Atella, (now Aversa^) a city between 
Capua and Naples, 

t Vide lAvjy lib. vii. cap. 3. from which this sketch of the 
Roman stage is principally taken. 

% The Latin name of an actor, and of the dramatic art> — 
Hister^ Histrionia> — ^were Etruscan words. 



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40 EOME. 

which was narroWf was occupied only by the actors, 
while the chorus, be. filled the orchestra; but in 
Rome, all the performers, of whatever kind, were 
upon the stage, which was therefore deeper than in 
Greece, and the orchestra was only used for the seat 
of the Consuls and Senators. 

The regular Roman comedy, indeed, was confess- 
edly an imitation, or rather a translation from the 
Grecian; Plautus and Terence owned Menander 
and Aristophanes for their masters ; and although 
we may not refuse the Umbrian baker, and the Car- 
thaginian slave, the praise of original genius, the in- 
feriority of their works was acknowledged by the Ro- 
mans themselves. They thought it, indeed, higher 
praise, — 

/ ** Gnecas tranaferre quam proprias acribere." 

It was, however, singular, that the Roman lan- 
guage should receive from a Carthaginian its high- 
est purity and perfection. The style of Terence was 
unrivalled. 

It is well known that in Greece dramas were first 
performed at the feasts of Bacchus, and indeed they 
always continued to be tinctured with no nnall shaie 
of their primitive licentiousness. In memory of their 
origin, the ancient statues of the Tragic md Comic 
Muse have their brows bound with a garland of 
vines. ♦ But from whence the Grecians derived the 
drama, it would be vain to bquire. We can carry 
t hemventionno higher ; for Egyptian antiquity, I 

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BOME. 41 

bddere^ affords no traee €f any sort of theatrical le* 
preaentatioii ; and we have but obscure lights as to 
the Etruscan stage, and may doubt if it ever xeach^ 
ed beyond pantomimic entertainments of music and 
dancing, or improTisatoiial redtations, of which the 
actors were authors. 

But dramas, of whaterer kind, were in those days 
eshifaited at Rome in places constructed of leafy 
bou^s of trees,* in tents and booths,-Mnr, at best, 
in temporary or moyable erections; somewhat su» 
perior perhaps in dignity to the cart of Thespis, 
or the 8caffi>ld of Susarion, though apparendy not 
much more luxurious in point of accommodation ; 
for in a passage of some classic author which dwells 
in my memory, though I cannot recal where I met 
with it, it is mentioned, that these temporaiy thea* 
tres were not allowed to be furnished with seats, lest 
the people should consume too much time in such 
firirdious diyersions. 

In spite of the prohibition of permanent thea- 
tres, however, which continued in force during the 
whole period of the Republic, 4t was during the Re* 
public that Rosdus lived and died ; and thus, by a 
strange apparent inconsistency, die theatrical art 
had reached its highest perfection before there was 
a theatre. 

Livy, indeed, mentions the erection of a theatre 
teir plays in the Capitol, near die Temple of Ap(dlo,f 
afanost two hundred years before the fall of the Re- 
puUic ; but it must have been one <^ those tempo- 

* Ovid somewhere calls them " Nemorosa Palatia." 
t Livy, lib.xl. cap. 61.— -A. C. 174. 



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42 BOM£. 

nry theatres vhich were removed after each series 
of dramatic eshitntum was over ; though the mag- 
naficenoe of some of these*-^ariiig that sudden burit 
of luxury in which the Republic expired^ and the 
empire received its birth«-*-&r surpassed all thcper- 
manent theatres of modem times. 

The theatre of M. Scaurus, which^ according to 
Pliay,* contained 80,000 spectators, was adorned 
with three hundred and sixty oolumns, and ihree 
thousand sUtues of bronze ; the .three orders of the 
stage were composed of mirbte, of glass, and of 
gilded tablets, and every pijttt of it was finished ^ith 
the same profuse and costly decorations. 

Scaurus, when Roman iEdile, despoiled the Tern* 
pies of Sicyon of their beautiful paintings to adom 
this temporary theatre. ^ . . '- 

Flbyf afeo describes Kmother tempo)rary theatre, 
which wassani-circular, i^d held tseo distinct audi- 
ences (dr pUsys ;' bu^ wheii^ the performances of the 
stage ended, it turned rbuiid kpan an axis with all 
the qpeetators in their sd|ts, a^d, in some manaer 
inconceivable to us, formed^n amphitheatre.. 

But the first theatre that was built of stable ma^ 
teriab in Rome, was the Theatte of Pompey ; J and 
yet not even his power and popularity could enaU^ 
him, in this respect, to infringe the ancient laws, 
without incurring severe censure and opposition. 
He was even obliged, in order to save it from derno^ 
lition by the Censor, to make a nominal pretence, 
not meant to impose upon any one, but merely to 

* Pliny, Nat* Hist. lib. xxx. c. 16. t Ibid. lib. xxxv. c. 40. 
i Tacitus^ Ann. lib. xiv. cap. 20. 



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"TZI 13 [3 [3" 



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ROME. 48 

elude die law, that the Aeatre wis didy intended to 
contain the peoj^le who aMemUed to wofsUpat the 
Temple cf Venus Victoriouss (Victrix,) niiidh he 
purposely erected in it. 

We may see in erery instance how earnestly Pom* 
pey and Caesar courted popularity, by the care and 
expense they bestowed to indulge the reigning pas- 
sion of the many-headed multitude for shows and en- 
tertainments of aU lands. 

Cicero informs us, that, at the dedication of this 
theatre, his friend Esopus, one of the most celebrated 
actors of antiquity, performed for die last time, but 
had not strength io go through his part. The dra* 
m'atic exhibitions given on this occasion, do not 
seem, {i*om Cicero^s description of them, to have been 
of the very highest order ; nor, indeed, to have ma» 
tesially differed from the Spectades exhibited in oar 
day on the London boarda. " A thousand mules 
pfancing about the stage, in the tragedy of Cly tern* 
nestra,*^ or, ^' whole legions accoutred in foreign ar« 
mour, and drawn up on the stage like mock armies 
in battle array, in the play of the Trojan horse,*"* 
remind us not a little of the melo-dramas of Covent 
Garden and Drury Lane. But, in fact, the Roman 
people, unlike the Grecians, had little taste for the 
pure drama, or for intellectaal amusement of any 
kind. So long as their eyes were daaaled with the 
pomp of a [Spectacle, and their senses agitated with 
the exertions of physical force--«with feats of danger 
and difficulty, and mortal contention^they were 



* Cic. Epist. lib. ii. cap. &• 

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44 ROHE. 

contented. They frequently interrupted the plays, 
by loudly calling out for showg of gladiators^ wild 
beasts, &c, 

media inter carmina poscant 

Aut ttnaniy ant pugOet ; his nam plebeenla gaudet. 
Hob. lib. li. Epiat. i. ver. 186. 

Terence comphuns* that the public attention was 
drawn from his phiy (Hecyra) by the exhibitions of 
a rope-dancer. This happened at ha first repre- 
sentation. At its second, some years after, the peo- 
ple again deserted it, to see a combat of gladiators. 
But Hecyta was by far the lea«t popular of the co- 
medies of Terence. 

Pompey^s Theatre was dedicated, not only by the 
efiuaions of the Tragic or Comic Muse, but by the 
bloody tragedy of the slaughter of five hundred lions, 
and the. farce of a battle of elephants with armed 
men.f The elephants were all massacred — ^but the 
piteous cries of these poor dying animals, whom the 
philosophers of antiquity, as well as the vulgar, be- 
lieved to be endowed with something more than 
** half-reasoning^ faculties, seem to have filled the 
minds, even of the Roman populace, with pity and 
horror. J *« Magnificent combats of wild beasts were 
eihiUted every morning and afternoon, during five 
successive days ;'' besides wrestling and other athletic 
games. Cicero complains heavily of the mortal en- 
nui and disgust he experienced during the whole of 
these exhibitions. 

* In his prologue to Hecyra. ** Ita populus studio stupi- 
du8 in fimambulo animum occupabat." 

t Plutarch's Life of Pcnnpey, and Cicero^ Epist. Fam. lib. 
ii. cap. 5. J Dion^ lib. xxxix. 



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SOME. 45 

Thii theatre ww built on the impraTdl plan of one 
which Pompey had seen at Mytdens,* and stood 
near his Cuzia, on the present Campo de Fiore f but 
there is not a shigle vestige of it remaining. It was 
rebuilt by Tiberias, and again by Claadhis.f 

Among the fragmoits of an ancient phm of Rone, 
there is a theatre believed to be that oi Pompey, as 
rebuilt by Claadios ; fiN>m the portico, the colon- 
nades, and the pabUc walks adjoimng it, which ex- 
actly agree with all the descripdons of it. As it is 
interesting, because authentic, I copy it for you, re- 
duced from Bellori^s engraving. 

From the orchestra (a), in which the Emperor,^ 
the Consuls, and Senators sat, the gradiif or rows 
of seats, not depicted in the plan, rose gradually in 
the same semi-circular line, one above another, to the 
top, but were divided by two precincHones ; one {b\ 
in which the equestrian order sat, and another (c), 
which was common to the plebeians, and above which 
there was only one circle of seats (d), supposed to be 
intended for die women* The seats from top to bot- 
tom were vertically cut by narrow staircases (j^), 
and every division between them {gg) was called a 
cuneus — from its wedge-like form. The straight 
line (h) divided the orchestra from the stages The 

* Plutarcli's Life of Fdmpey. t Suet Ckvd. 81. 

t Suetonius relates^ that at the re-opeaing of Pompey't 
theatrfij Claudivs^ hsTing lint paid his devotbiis in the upper 
part> descended through the Canea, and seated himself upon 
his thfone in. the Qrchestnu Augustas used to sit upon-a 
curule chair like a Consul ; for it is related^ that at the dedi«- 
cation of the theatre of Maroellus^ his i?ary sest hreke down 
with hiiuj and he feUupon. his back. Suet. Aug. 43. 



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46 &OM£. 

SeemA (i)^ *rWdbi unlite. <w.H!»c», im^isittUy 
fixed, was nMigBifie«iifcly adomed vUh fdl die xxiti- 
jcwedembeUwhneiits off aadboteclw^ gtntiuu^,- and 
pMiHix^. In bmA of k m» dif LJRi-aftffmiiin. (J^), 
where iho aotma A|»pcw»d, which w«»4eattmKl£dhy 
two 0raiid aeviLdrciilar receawftC^O tin €ach ode of 
the ccDisal oae. In ftMt of. the FnmeBimn was 
the Pulpitum, where the actors performed. 

The plan of. this tlieatre«precMely leaembletf one 
of those at FompeiL It has also the Postscenium, 
or coTered porticos («»), usually oocapied only by the 
actors who were not on the stegO) bat towhich Vitra- 
viuB* tells us,- the spectators redred for shelter when 
surprised by sudden rain, in whieh ease the perfoim- 
ances were necessarily suspended; for ancient thea- 
tres were ahttost mvariably open, f and the spectatmrs 
were shaded fioai the sim only by a movable awn- 
ing, which did not extend over the stage.* 

Befoe we begin to »clainiagainst<thefelly of the 
Gr«ftte and Bomana in this pai^ciilar, let ua remaa- 
ber> that without being guilty of any very groas ab- 
surdity, they -might in these chinfttfa find the £redi- 
ness of the open air preferaUe to the stifling stmo- 
sph^ffe of an imjnrvwned crowd. 

I have mysdf, with real enjiqrment, seen plays in 
the open air in Italy, in that hour of delidous cool- 
ness which in summer precedes the setting of the 

* VitniTiu8> lib* v* eap. 9. ^' Post b€«iuiii pcartictts sant 
constitaeads uticxunimbres rep^itinlludos interpellayeniitj 
habest populns, quo ae xedpeat ex theatro^" &c — '^ 1X4 sunt 
PorticaB Pompeiaiiae." 

t One of the theatres of Pompeii was ooyered. But this is 
the only instaaice of a theatrum tectum that I remembor. 



I 



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ttOMK. 47 

ma^ wlKfeii no^ttliftiaMbii MtOd bwa indiidediMe to 
have entered' tlib WftDi of 1^ clMtd' llMMm 

piiUtewdbt aaid ma^ficent MhMmJulM (nn), idon* 
ed ^iMriek^trndfe iMatues and^MrintoigBy i» oten al- 
' liided to by" the poets, and whiob so long oastmaed 
the ftMorite and fashiosaUe promcaada af tlie Bo» 
mans.* 

JNllhtt Ceesar intended to have built a theatre,f 
to outvie in magnificence that of his rital ; bat be 
was prevented by death, and his dedgn was earned 
into effect by Augustus, who built the dieatia of 
Mareellus, which he natted after bis beloved ne- 
pheiir, the pride a»d promise of the Romas youth, 
"M^Myse nntiindy death Virgil eemaieBBorated in dMt 
ddi^Mift and pathetfe strain of sorrowng panegyric, 
wlMsch slone might have lanfiiortaliaed both the poet 
andtbeheror 

Augustus dedicated this theatre by tile slmighter 
itf-'^'^fcrget hew manyw-hundreds of wiM beasts ; 
*ttti«tet<irds, Kkfe that of Pompey, if wai used for 
dfiiAailfc i^epi^eaftitatloiis otily. 
"If Ae bistricmie art was Ia(te tn getting a legal 
footmg in Rome, it was soon deprrred of it, fbr Ti- 
berius turned all the players out of Italy,f at the 

* Propertius, Kb. ii. Eleg. 3«. Martial, Ub. jL Epist. 14. 

t Suetonius, JuKtis Caesar, 44. 

} Tadtus, Aim. Kb. iv. csip. 14.*-The reasons asdgiied by 
the Empeior, in bis address to the Senate, for ataiug these 
unfortunate actors, were, '* that they frequently taised sedi- - 
twos tumults, and introduced licentiousness into private fkmU 
lies; and that the Oacaii fiarce, formerly the conten^tible 
^htof the vulgar, had now risen to such a pitch of uni- 



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4S BOME« 

sameiiine that he very ooniiatntly lebmlt the tbe»* 
tre of FiHnprf) wUek had hMD^bomt down. 

TheAeatfeof C. BalfamMahdll ki the age and 
at the desire of Ai g eatm^ *^ lu «te ia enkaowiu 

The Teatiges of the oiice'iiiagiiilioeBt»theatte of 
Maicellas,f are the oidyeBdatittg lemaiiii of tht 
theatres of anmnt Rome. 

Like the Colossenin, it was hoHt of Tibuaioe 
stone, and eonaisted of four ordeis of A t oa dco, of 
which the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian^ are 
supported bj semi-eohiiaiis, and the attic bjr Corm- 
thian pilasters* 

Their ardutecture is considered superior to duit 
of the Amphitheatre ; and although nothing now re- 
mains of due ottoe beantiliil edifice eicept a very 
sasall pordon of the two kwer Arcades, their beanty 
18 80 perfect, that they senreas ihe canon of ^the taae 
proportions of the Doric and Ionic orders, whw ntod 
in the same building. 

To the ardbitect, therefore, these mncilited ne- 
mains of the theatre of Mwreellns may be iisdhl^ and 
in hb eye beautiful ; but to the common observer 
they can only be. Asgnstiag. 

verBal popularity and enonoity^ that it xequired the authority 
of the Senate to check it." By the ohsequious conscript 
fathers^ accordingly, '^ the players were expelled from Italy." 
By '^ the vulgar," who took delight in the' contempdbii^ Os- 
can farce, I presume Tiherius aUiided to Cioero, Atdcns, 
Pompey, &e. the friends of Roscias, and the constant attend* 
era of the theatre, to admire hia inimitaUe performances. 

• Suet. Aug. ?9. 

t The statue of Augtutos, erected after his death by Ltvia, 
stood near the theatre of Maroellus. Tacitus, lih. iii. cap. 64. 
4 



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UOMB. 49 

I have been told that a palace bad been erected 
on the ruins of the theatre of MarcelluB — but such a 
a palace ! Good heaTens, could you but behold it ! 
Could you but see the den8» surrounded by filth, 
and inhabited by abandoned vice, sqpudid poiury, 
and revolting wretchedness, which bear the name I 

The noUe fiunily of Orsini, (once so princely and 
powerful,) who possessed it, are litendly beggars, 
and it ia now inhabited by the lowest orders of the 
people. 

Thinking that the inside might present something 
more pleasing than the exterior promised, we all en- 
tered upon a narrow staircase whidi so grievously 
molested our olfiictory nerves, that sU the party, ex« 
c^pt myself tinned back at tke threshold. I went 
through it, and gotinto a modem court adomed witii 
a bf» relief of a gladiator fighting with a lion, and 
two beautifiilly soulptuied marble sarcophagi. 

Nothing more was to be seen : I followed the in- 
ternal sweep of one of the ancient corridors a little 
way, but was glad to return. 

Like almost all the ruins of Rome, the theatre of 
Marcellus s^ved, during the disastrous times of ci* 
ril war^ as the stro^-hold of one of its torbukot 
nddes. It was, I think, the family of the Savelli 
who rdgBted here, the petty despots of the ancient 
mistress of the world. 



VOL. II. 



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LETTER XXVn. 

■ I 

PORTiCOa.— THS FOETICO <fF OCTAVU. 

r 

OF.idl ibe MbU Porticos of Ancient Bome^ s 
fhigilient of the Portioo of Octovia alone xemaiiu. 
It waa one of ibe many worka of roagmficenoevitb 
which Augostua adoniad the cky he enaUTcd; aad 
in honour of hu sister^ Ae virtuoaa and ncgketed 
wife, of Antony, he called it the Portioo of Oo* 
tavia, as he had already given the name <^ herk* 
mented son to the adjoining thealie of MvqH^ 
to which, indeed, it was an iqfqpendage. Th&^iib^ 
people used to loiter before the play, began, ,aD4 
there they found shelter when driven from it by md- 
den atoms. . .< 

The Portico of Octavia eonsisted*^bat a plsft 
will do more to make you understand it than along 
description, and I therefore subjoin a copy^ reduced 
from a fragment of the ioihnography of Rome». which 
contains a part of this Portico.-^It consisted; as ysa 
may see, of a double line of marble columns, s0- 
closing a large obbng square ; and although acces- 
sible at every intercolumniadon, it had ala9 tmo 
grand entninces in the narrower enda. Tbis^Mgai*- 
fioent double colonnade was^ roofed, «o as .ta.^^ 
shelter and shade to those who walked, lonngtfc^ ^^ 



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BOME. 51 

talked withm it; Thus the weather premised no 
obstacle to exercise or amusement, and at pleasure 
they could seek thfe open part in the centre, where 
stood the Temples of Jupiter and Juno, the first in 
Rome that were tiiik 0^ marble. 

Pliny relates, that, by mistake, the stetues of 
the god and goddess were carried' to the wrong 
temples; and the superstitious people, conceiving 
thec^st^pidity of the porters to be the will of the 
deities, durst not remove them, so that the statue 
of ' Jove ^ODtiiiued to stand in the Temple t)f Juno, 
and bis im occupied by her image, altkough the 
scilljiturt and painting with which each was adorn- 
ed- re^esented the iyiAbols of the deity fbr which 
^»^'^€r6 oi^aHy designed. 
' ' ^^™*tein^!efi8 w^re built by Metellus, ^m which 
circUfh^^g the Portico itself' sometime^ goes by 
fais^asiif^. Marty cff the beautiful columns which 
^^**^*^'*'*i^ ttre buiU up irf the miserable houses of 
the Jew$ lyjji^h now cover its ancient site. We 
^^^it& g wretched hole (No. 11, Via di San Jn^ 
ge/o in PBiokeria)^ whene we saw three magnificent 
lluted"Cbrni«Hia» cohmins of Grecian maorble, sup- 
po«cd to hb tevaeAsx^ot^t Temiple of Jano, Because 
that of cTupiter was Ionic. This is gathered from 
PI' ho^relsi*^^' *h*t *^^ Spartan architects who 
uimte^V^^' 1^ing dettied' permission td' put 
tipon their * work, devised 'a method 
their 'f "^^^^jg law. They were called Saurus and 
,felii*"g flitch' signify a liaard and a frog; and, 
i^ltay xfarved the figures ; of* these . rep- 



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58 noun. 

tikt aa 4ie Ionic Ciptiib of /d^ templar Now the 
UUh iii4tt«tmw jm]pii|«n<w of ^ti^tuaries h|» ena- 
Ued iheai lo detect anionic cftpital narked with 
Aese BiBgukr figures, in t^ old Cbipphx>f Lor^zo 
Juore le Muron This discovery was an ove^pt of 
great inportaoce to all the tribe; and^Nafdipi^ Ve- 
m^i aftid WiiULehnani severally make meiiti^n of 
them^ and eater into long discussicNDa— -which J will 
spare yoi^-^as to whether this be one of .the colons 
in quesliim or not.* 

I was> however, snmsed with the downii^t de- 
cision «f the auUv)r of one q( the profound Itinerarj 
of Rome^ upon the merits of this capkal, which 
WinhelmaQ (whom we have hitherto, it wpulid^sieein, 
erroneously considered a tolerable critic) pronounced 
to be^ ^^ Kun des plus beaux chapiteaux de toiite 
rantiqnil^ T but which this great ju^e JDpjodestly 
assiues us is far too bad to have been executed at 
any such period. '^ Winkehnan,^ he says, *' thcfpght 
he had found, in one of the Ionic capitals c^ this 
chuxch, the firog and lisard sculptured by the Spar- 
tan ardiiteetsi Saurus and Batracus. ^* Ma troppo 
sono inj/Uki queste smlture per foiede referk^ ci 
hum tempo di cm parJa PUnia^ 



* PUliy saySj ** in columbaram spiris ;" an epithet^ one 
woxdd thinks sufficiently descriptive of the volotes df an I^njc 
column ; but much cavilliiig Ims amen up9B it* In the h^^ 
capital at St Lorenzo^ the frog is sculptured instead d the 
Time, in Ibe eye of one-irdbte, and eu the-oth«¥-th»^^stf d> in 
its own natural poature^ encnclefi the rose. 



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SOltfE. 5S 

In the Pcn^co <H>ctiMM;*TB fldd^ piiiiltaiaMd 

to exhibit th^'wb^lcs fdi^ihe sAniivdMertrilkiaBi 

of ihe puUic Hi was, Mfideft, jwr mmi a l ly <d0Di>- 

raiedl Srftli paindi^ end ttaCdes fey ^ bmI «!»• 

Wated'mifete^a. FlhiypiuticddblyiaMirai aV««imi 

of feingdar h&Mj, die work ef PMOm, «Ueh-«ied 

In it ;"* ttid air it is genenOly bdiaredihe V«Mi^ 

Hf edids was femd here, I w^nte It^ltojuemgheta 

supposed to be Aat Tery Mrtue. Tke-gMNSf Imwh 

^, and finisii of its sT^le^ hairefa% eg Hms la Cut 

the acventy and gnmdetor iif ftat efWlHiie, I sloJd 

suppose, would prore h iucciiHaataUy tie wvik ci a 

later and more polished ttge^ e^ea if itr wssto>eertHa 

that it was found in this Portiev; hal^ en 4m con* 

brary, numy pretend that k ^aa diseoyend la ihe 

Villa Adriana I dionldnethavellMnghtaVflaus 

atdVed Wllre genios of Phidfias, any ai4irn<haalBngh 

itigr' Cbfttds and Graces to the pencfl of Mkhad An«> 

gelo, or a lore aongio ihe muse of Daatt. 

Otie of ffie three pnHiclibriries lAUtk Usaapoa* 
' seised in the Atignstan age, was la Ais Postiosb 
Anodier was in the Porde&of Ubmtfi oa die 
Arenlaie Mbnnt, Armed by Asimas PdUa, in die 
Republican age, which Ffiay teHs as waa^lke ftal 
poUic lilnrary in the world ; and the tUrd in the 
T^Dople of the Palatine Apollo. SyUa earned off 
the librtty of Apellioon from Athens to Borne ; f 
bat m^ h«fe eToiy reaaon to bdiere that it was 



* Pliny^ Nat. Hist. lib. xxxy. cap. 5. 
t Strabo^ lib. xiiL &c 



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54 HOME. 

placeicl in Ilia own house, and'Wi^er became' pdblic 
property. ■ - - 

The remuns of the Poftico of OctaVik ^tand Sn 
what I am convinced ia the filthiest spot upon tbi^ 
whoTe face of the glohe. It ia the Pesch^rid^ cfr flsll- 
market ;-^he Ghetto^ or crowded quarter wheve the 
Jew»— ^whatever be their numbers — are 'eond^mfned 
to r^idde; and' while miles of uninhalnted ground asrfe 
comprised within the walls of Rome — while it be-' 
oones yearly more intaluhtious from its desertion, 
and more deserted from its insalubrity^^these poor 
Israelites are cooped up in a confined hole, the dirt, 
the stench, and ^e disgusting appearance of which, 
it is utterly impossible to conceive. 

I thought its smells were enough to breed a pes^ 
tilence ; but it ia a singular, and apparently rather 
an unkccountable fact, that this very sp6fc, wftihr^ita 
narrow Tanes, crowded population, and extrettiity^of 
filth, is the healthiest quarter in Rome, anditsinha- 
Intants the most hardy and robust This erowd^d 
population, indeed, must be considered its security 
against the scourge of the malaria^ whieh-afliBets the 
mtire deseirted parti (tf Rotne in exact pi^E>por^n^^ 
thdrdesertion ; and, indeed; it = is obviont^li^ ibt 
city, but for its inhabitants, wodd be as unhetilhy 
as th^ death^giving Campi^a by^ which it fe sur- 
rounded on all sides. 

In opposition to all the rules that theory atid '^±4 
perience have established in other towits ; in Rome 
the most nnhcalthyparts are the high, the open, and 
the airy ; and the most healthy, the low, the crowd- 
ed, and the filthy. 



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ROME. A5 

PoseiUy tluft afaondfqik gaps tod. dkcqnfiirts of 
thetr Iiouses, which, both in winter and summery 
dii^ie the inhaUtants to lire a great deal out in the 
open air» and keep them thoroughly yentilated when 
th|sy. do stay within doors— as well as the fineness of 
t^e climate — may obviate some of the bad effects 
uaiudly experienced in coldn countries, from this 
condensed population and congregated filth. How^ 
ewer this may be^ the fact of its superior salubrity is 
undeniable. . . 

The Homan Jews are said to be the descendants 
of the captives whom Titus led from Jerusalem. 
Bu^ Jews inhabited Rome long before that period ; 
for at the death of JuUus Caesar, they were amongst 
t^ number of his mourners.* Claudius»f too, ^' ba- 
i|ii^hed all the Jews from the city, on account of the 
di^tu^cbances they were continually raising at the in* 
sMgiUion of one ChrestusJ^ It was probab][y the 
doctrine of Christy and not the cabals of any fiic- 
tiqm. Jiivingi Jew, that occasioned the commotions 
hei^e aUnded tQ. 

. But I must return again to the Portico rof Octa* 
via,, in which, with all my efforts, I never advance 
any fiurther. Its remains, however, mfy soon be de- 
scribedi They conwt of a small part of one of the 
ancieiiit ^tvapces, in which may be traced the sum 
total of four Corinthian columns, and three pilasteps 
af^hitenMorlde, much hidden by brick walls. Those, 
with a part of the ancient pediment, bbtched over 
wiih some ugly painted saints, are the sole ancient 

* Suet. Jul. Caesar, 85. f ^uet. Clauilitts^ 9S. 



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56 ROME* 

renums 0f the Portioo. But yoa waoat go to both of 
the outrides, and examine wdl the inride, and hunt 
on foot amidst inconcrivaUe filth, befixre yon am see 
these broken brick waUs, and half-hid colnmna. The 
tottering pediment has beelt abppottfed* hj aa areh 
built in the low ages, but with Roman bride. The 
eause of this singular caae in. pgo pp i m n p, instead of 
pulling down an old ruin, was explamed when our 
Cicerone pointed out to ua that thisfragasent •f Ae 
Fronaoa of the ancient Portioo» has had the honoor 
of serving as *ooifirt4o a wretched little ohunch be- 
hind i^ culled the Holy Angel of the Fi#h-Msdket 
'^SanfAngilo de" P^sckeria.) And as in tlwse 
early times it was essential to e^ery ditttich to Jbaire 
a couct in -fieont of it, in iafdtation of tbe.araa^.a 
Pagan templeythe poor remains of this. ^oi^J^tlir* 
CO were siicTed from destruodon, beeauae it) Wias.«^$iiP 
troublesome and expensive' to build anew ^owAihip 
to keep up the old one. . . i * 

The brick arches at the rides <on.t^J9ig||^tfind 
left of the modem arch in firont), ace anci^ol^ and 
are supposed to have formed the lateral entraMes to 
the entrance of the Portico. 

The inaciiplian now remaining upon the Por^a» 
attests its restosation after fire^ by ^eptimius Seir#- 
rus and GaraeaUa. I think ther^ is notUng ssopre 
worth notice about the Portico of Octavia».w)ucI^ 
truth to say, is the most filthy^ and abotit die leat^ 
interesting, of the antiquities of Rome. . 



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BOltfE. 67 



LETTER XXVIII. 

THK AltraiTHCATES* 

Thx fifst Attpltttheaftte iildeh we hesr of il 
Rone, w«8 boilt m the reign rf Atigagti]% hy Sm^ 
tylius Tmrnu,* and it is bdiered 0e«e Test^pet ef 
it, eo* ef ioBue other Amphitheatiey wdw diaco va pa d 
in am eseaTaCiim that was mioe made upon Monte 
CitoTio.f ' Caligula bq;aii an AmpUtheaCre whidi 
was 1^ unfiaished;)^ Nero ereeted one of irood,|t-^ 
and TrajattMlt oneof atone and mortar, whidi waa 
deatsfoyed by Hadri«n«$ Exeepting theae^ i^ch fiv 
the moat paH were never fimahed, or at beat were 
ephememl, Rome poaaeaaed only the Flavian Am- 
phidieal;re--4he atapendooa Coloaaeiim — die magni- 
tude and mi^nificenoe of which, indeed, aeemed to 
preclude the neeeaaity of any other. 

The Coloaseum ia, however, a modern naaae ; and 
whether it waa derived from the ooloaaal aise of the 
beading, or of die statue which atood before it — and 
whether the aaid attoie waa of marble or of bftmae, 
of ApoUo or of Neiio^-^are pointa that hate been 
much and vainly cBaeosaed. Upon tbeae momentoua 



* Suet. AnguBtus* t Nardioi, Boma Antiou 

t Suet Catigula. || Suet. Nero. 

§ Spartianus — Life. 



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58 ROME. 

questions I shall only observe, in the 6r8t place, tbat 
Pliny somewhere mentions — ^though I cannot reco- 
ver the passage — that Vespasian substituted the head 
of ApoUo for that of Nero upon his colos38l statue 
— which, according to him, was one hundred and 
twenty feet high ; — and, therefore, it seems probable, 
that the Colossus of the Amphitheatre was this iden- 
tical body of Nero, provided with the new and less 
obnoxious head of ApoUo ; indeed, in those days, 
the heads of statues were taken off with nearly as 
little ceremony as those of the persons they repre- 
sented,— and it was even eommon to make them with 
movable, heads^ in order that the anticipated deca- 
pitation might be more easily accomplished. Se- 
condly, I would observe, that, as it is still n^re un- 
likely that any statue of such magnitude— with wbair 
ever head — was standing there in the eightb century, 
when we hear for the first time of the Coloseeum, I 
conceive the statue has nothing to do with the name, 
and that it has been derived from the magnitude of 
the building. 

The Venerable Bede, who died in a. d. 7S5,.and 
in whose writings, this appellation is first founds re- 
cords the memorable |»rophecy of the pilgrims in that 
age—" While the Colosseum stands, Bc^ne will 
stand— when the Colosseum falls, Rome wUl fall-* 
when Home fiiHs, the world will fall.''* 

The world was very near its fiiU, indeed, a few 



Seeeoncludnig chapter of the Dedme and FalL 



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KOMt:. 59 

years ago, if its fate depended on that of the Colos- 
seum, which would inevitablj Have tuttUed dovn, 
had' it not bben propped by the immense buttress 
liow raised against the tottering extremity of its bro- 
ken circle, whi6h was begun by the Pope, carried on 
by the Fifench, and finished by the Pope. But I have 
begun at the wrong end, and have got to the fall of 
th^ Colosseum before I have related its erection. 

This wonderful Amphitheatre was the work of 
only four years. Vespasian began to build it upon 
the sitef of Nero^s great pond, which he had drained 
scarcely two years before his death ; and two yearn 
afterwards, it was finished at the dose of the diort. 
reign of Titus, who lived to dedicate it by the slaugh- 
ter of five thousand wild beasts,* before he fell, the 
first victim of the inhuman Domitian, who was sus- 
pe^^d of having commenced his reitiorseless career 
by the murder of his brother, t 

The exterior of the Colosseum — or Flavian Am- 
phithetoe, as it waii called in the times of the Ro- 
mans — is composed of four orders. The three first 
are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian opeb arcades ; Mid 
above them the attic jb sustained by Corinthian pi-^ 
tasters. However deficient in some minuter point's 
of correctness particular parts may be, no eye cail fiiil 



* Suet. Titus, vii. 

t And yet it is related, that this monster had at first such 
an abhorrence to the shedding of blood, that he mourned even 
over the death of animals, and endeavoured to prohibit the 
sacrifice o'f oxen. — Vide Suet. Dom. 



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60 ROME. 

to be ditruck with the^ gi^andeu^ and ^symmQtry of the 
whole, which is, perhaps, the noblest building in the 
worid^ You gtm on it with u];is^tid/te4 ^ix^ ip^on ; 
b^ th^ beraty, and refinement of ,tbf!^ axta^jfjluch 
adorn it, form a striking contr^t to the b^^jha:^ 
the pnppo^ fpr wbich. it was erected. . If Jmi^ht 
be pecmitted to find out a fiuilt, (and one rpm%,f0flk 
fiff ift-^it does not suggest itseL^) I should say that 
the Doric is scarcely sufiiciently massive* for the 
base of su<A a uilding ; and that, in psoportiaii to 
it, the Ionic and Corinthian orders are too solid. But 
tlie fault lies in the Doric, which gives the auperin- 
eumbent orders an appearance of heavin^scL 

We miss the ^glyphs in the IHnric frieze ;| and 
though its plainness might be pardoned^ and^ CTren 
thought to give greater simplidty to the /^luole^ th^ 
jpepetition of the same frieze, in tlm tpx^c, ^ of^- 
sive, and has an air of poverty. . . .«; ;, 

, In Rome, we see nothing of the ancient (rreqisn 
Doric — the fluted columns without ped^jt^|]j&--fhe 
first and grandest of all styles of ardiiteptiir^r !,P^^ 
however noble in itself, it would have been misplaced 
in this building* It would not have accorded with 
the superincumbent orders. Its proportions are too 
solLd^ and its simplicity too great, to harmoni2f jntb 
others. It should always stand alone, in its own n^ 
tivj^. migesty, as in the incomparable Tepppl^ ^^ 
Pgsstum. But the Colosseum owes its. beau^ to ibe 



*• ^he h«ie^t <tf (ihe Boric ecilunms is nin^'dilaiNiiM s&cl a 
half.', .•'■.«, ., t i.,. ... :. 1. .-s ■ .1' 



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nouE. 61 

gnndenr of the whole, .rsther than the p«frction 
of the parts i ite ImmeiisStT-'aires ds into adnflra* 
tion. " 

It certi&ilj hdd ^^ty tboosand, or, Aooorfiug 
to tnost accounts, eigfatjr-Bereii Aouaand apectston ; 
and by filling up die atiAeaaea, and standbg where* 
eVer there was a space, upwards of one hundred 
thonfiand people are BUf^posed to hav^ c»>wded In to 
Beetle games. This compntad0n,ofc9ur8e, includes 
the wooden gaUeries at the top. 

In dio iM»«m, or front cbde,- wm the Sugges^^^ 
ttiSj ot canopied box of ihe Empero^ ^ seats of 
the Imperial Family, of tfe Vestal Vttgins, Consdh^ 
Senators, and itf persenages^if die highest digfll^ 
in the state. They were defended, it is said, with a 
tmrafict^ a grating, and horisontal spikes of iton, 
from'the dangerous neighhourhoodiof die irild beasts^ 
It is cnrious, howerer, that in the Amphith^alie 
of Pompeii, winch remains as entire and ftesh is if 
the jgames had been ^ven yesterday, none of these 
safeguards axe to be seen; Kid I could not he^ 
thhiking, when I viewed it, that the Podium m^t 
be a d^nified, but wodd be far from a desirable si- 
tuation. That the august Romans, howerer, were 
eiFectualiy defended from the Jaws of the Uoda, there 
can be no doubt ; «id, at all er^ts, their safety dg- 
nlfies 1iti3e to us now. 

Above the PoSuniy the graiM^ ot eidaigikig 
drcle of seats^ were divided by a horisontd division 
into three pr6sciHciione$y emUx of whi<A oomfNOsed 
the iswa contained. in the h«ybit lof one <99^or. 
The first of these, whicKis calculated to have bad 



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63 ftoAifil 

twenty-four ranges of ceats^ was^ appropriated to the 
Equefitriaa oi^der, ot knights^ whose budge 'ef dis* 
tinction was a gold ring. Like' those of Consular 
rank, they were seated on cushions '(^^t4Si^ The 
second, supposed to have contamed- mmtn-^HikBi 
was occupied with the more boAoixratile n^et of 
citizens ; and the uneovered iharibkf 6ea«9<^ 'tke 
third prasoinctio above, called Populatia^ ii&» fiMed 
with the unprivileged oUisses, diminishing in obnise^ 
queace as they ascended. Last of all, at ^the^ery 
top — as the most unwortby**-sat the women in a 
wooden gallery ; for that despised sex was by law ex* 
eluded from the seats of the men, who appropriated 
all the best to themselves ; an arrangement wkidr, 
it must be acknowledged, aigues a very unenvittUe 
state of so(»ety. This, too, was an impvovenlent, or 
refinement in manners ; originally th^ irere ndt tbtK 
banished the presence of the lords of the cteaAdH: 
This gallery itself, according to some accounts^ 'sup- 
ported a terrace, from whence those iexehided tfitoi 
every other station sought to obtain a> distant pe^ 
of the games. . ^ 

The ranges of seats which aicixided the interim 
of the building, were exactly like steep steps, tod 
were divided vertically by narrow stairs of more 
gradual ascent, which led straight from top to bot- 
tom, through all the prcecinctiones, cutting the 
Amphitheatre perpendicularly into divisions. The 
space between each of these staircases was called^ 
from its triangular or wedge*like fbriU) a dmeus^^' 

There were so great a number of entranoes, or 
Vpmitoria^ from the corridors, that the. whole of this 



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BOME. 63 

amanag eitwdiocdidt wsemUe or difpene WidMNit 
thesiiudlMt«lffiettliy'OE'€biifiiflo» ; aatt to«he Arena 
tbcse vaa ft«e aoctes by the two great avoiies of en- 
tratide ait tbe oval ^«da. 

.Xbenataircases and seats were of iMtidey with 
wbi^ilbe whoktof the interior is supposed to have 
bf«n ttnsdB • The Arena was open^ b«t the seats 
weseiis^ftded by a .movable canvass awniDg^ ioduj 
or vdaria/^} to protect the spectators firom the sua; 
It was.A faToorite diversion of one of the Empefora 
(I ftrget which) to throw the sun sucklenly ftU in 
the &ce of some of his &voiurite% by poUii^ the 
oorda •that regulated its motions. When the sun 
wss insu^EaraUy hot, Caligula used to onfer the 
awning to be tak^ off, and.fwbid any osie to be let 
outt Omr the Aaphillieatre of Nero was extended 
a imt»^t«f cloth, painted asure, to. YesemUe the skyy 
andi^olted with stars. 

'jChc-only sports, I believe, except the navsl fighto 
ofilhs NsNMHshia, ever exhibited in the Amphishta^ 
tr«^«feimf««ihatsof wild beasts against gladiators^ 
or of gladiators against each other.j Sometimes, 
indeed the^ enhgfatened Bobbmss seem to haw en- 
joy^ the exquisitely gcatafyhig spectacle of wfld 

• iWP^i S^t.iv. line ISS. 

T Suet Calig. 26, Nero carried imprisonment in places of 
amusement still farther. During his own musical per&Krmance 
in the Theatre at Olympia, he confined tjie unfortunate audi* 
ende tiBtU 'ehildren were bom there, and several persons, 
feignisg tlieBfteilTesdead^ were catrie^ ont for l^lr fVtneral. 

t >Tkf{ nwpjben^^nd fteqpj^y of , thcKi^ sm^f^iijiary ^sports 
arc almost beyond belief. After the triumph of Trajan over 

7 



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6*1 EOHE. 

bea«te teiiuig to jmces eonAoBmi umlefiietoK,* 
or innooent ChristiiiM eaqpoted defenceless to their 
rage. Small bes reliefs found in the estaoosibs, 
and preserved in die Museo Smcro of the Viuican 
Library, represent these nartyrs awaiting the loosen- 
ing of the cluuned^up lion, raging to devour tbesL 
Human nature can scarcely bear to picture a satua* 
tlon of such overpowering horror, or adequately esti- 
mato the invincible constancy and sublime fiMiitnde 
of those who voluntarily supported its tremendous 
tortures. While we adore the memory of the hero 
who braved a death of glory and hmour^ and the 
patriot who perished for his country amidst its plaur 
dits and its tears, let us not be insensible to the 
transcendent virtue of the cUvine spirits who sub- 
mitted to this revolting and ignominious end for the 
sake <tf their God. The cold-hearted ridicule of this 
deriding age, which has levelled its attacks agsiinst 
some of the noblest feelings of our nature, has not 
spared the memory of the Christian martyrs ; and 
the absurd legends of monkish fraud and credulity 
have unhajqiily given support to its modtery. But the 
paper crown cannot debase the royalty of true virtue; 
and the heart must be cold Aat will not worsbip its 
image, and pay homage to its worth, however taunt- 
ed or reviled. Perhaps there may be others, like me, 



the Dadansy they were exhibited for four months^ without the 

eessatum of a smgle day. Ten thousand gla&tora fought, 

and eleven thousand wild beasts were slain.— Vide Dio, xlvi ii 

15. 

^ * Suet. Cahg. 27. 



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AOM£. 6S 

wliose adnintieii n h ri gh l m eaby tbe internal con* 
msmtmeBS, dmtlibe ammum ^ f ll i ey pia ise, they cewld 
not enmlttte. 

In tlie reign of CaligoU^ the wyd beaH* 1^ the 
Anphitfaeatte wetejbd irith oondeniniBd criwiinah 
wbete'V^r cattle were ^ar I * 

That tontal madman, CMMDodoe, who med lo caD 
himself Hc9«iiies, and go i^hont Aw—d in a limfs 
flhm^ Mid brandishing a dnb, with hia hair sprinkled 
wkh gold-dnst, te hnttate the gknry of the ran^-fre^ 
qimdy fooght in the Amphieheatiw as a gladiator^ 
and UUed both gfaMKalors and wild beasts. It is a 
thousand pities he bad not laAer ben killed as a 
wild beast himsel£ He had on^, indeed, very near* 
ly been unrdated here; not in Ae arena, bat in the 
jprivate passage fiisaa the Inpsrial Palaee toit, whcie 
he was alta^ed by Ae first ooaspkaters, bat unfcr* 
♦oMnftily eseaped from th«r hands. 

VfbeVr m giadiatoir was Tanqdahed and thrown 
upon the gnmnd, his life was net al the du^osal of 
his antagoaiat^ bnt of the spectators. If they grant* 
ed him n^rcy, they pressed the thuab down;f if 
/diey commanded hk dei^, they hsU it up, and the 
oonqoeror instantty murdered him. 

It is'seiroely cdnceivdMe the possibBi^ ef the 
mandatey thi» deliberately giiren, to plmge the dag* 
ger into, the panting bosom of a disarmed and unof. 
fending suppliant. Neither do I understand — since 

. 'z 1 ■ . ' 

f ^i^t. Calig. ^7^ 

t JPoUicm jmmere, was the sign given to spare his life ; 
PoiUcem vertere, to murder him. Fliny> Ub. 3umii cap. 6. 

VOL. II. E 



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66 ROMB. 

in Budi a multitude there must have been great di- 
Tcrdty of opinion, and lome at least, in every oue, 
would be found to lean to the natural side of mercj 
«— how the Yictor gathered the iense of the fipeeta- 
tors from this aign. 

The fall of the Amphitheatre may be nqpidly 
traced. It was first repaired by Antoninus Pius. 
Under Macrinus it was bumt-**-an aoeid^t^ if an 
accident it was, that seems somewhat inex{diciibl^ 
though it is said to have been occasioned by lights 
niiig.* The wood^ gallery at the top, and all the 
seats, (which, it is supposed, were covered with wood,) 
were consumed, and sueh was the devastatiott, that 
during many years the games were obliged to be ee- 
kbrated in the Circus, and the reigns and the re- 
pairs of three emperors were requisite £ot its reeUMra- 
tion. The annals of Heliogabaltts, and the medals 
of Alexander Severus and Ooidian, celebrate their 
labouts in its repairs and embellishments^ though 
that term osn scarcely be applied to the misshape 
columns and hideous sculpture attributed to the de- 
geilemte reign of the latter empemti which were dug 
up in the late excavations^ and are now standing in 
the Arena. 

Not to dwell upon the oscillations oi damage and 
xepair, it is certain that it must have been uninjured 
ih the beginning of the fifth century, when the fights 
of gladiators were celebrated for the last time;f and 
even in the sixth century,:}^ when the combats of wild 

* Bioti. Knidisn* f A. D. 404. In predeuee of Honbrius. 
:|: A. D. ^88. tn thd rdgn of Theodoric. 



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ROME. 67 

beasts with humaa brii^ for the iMt time moved the 
just indignation of the Christiaii Fathers.* 

Et&l at a considerably later period, (the eighth 
century,) the Colosseum is supposed, from the re- 
pots of the pilgrimstf to hare been entire ; nor is 
there any appesrance of its destruction having ba^ 
gun till die eleventh century, when it was converted 
into the strong-held of a Romsn baron ; and thus, 
by a sort of retributive jusUce, die building ihat mi<* 
nistered in one age tp the guilty passion of the Ro- 
mans for blood, became, in another, the instrument 
of their own oppression and destruction. 

It was one of the numerous castles of the Frangi- 
pani £unily, who seem to have possessed themselves 
of a system of fortresses erected on the ruins of Rome, 
and endrcling the Imperial Palace on the Paladne, 
which they slso occupied. The Arch of Titus and 
of Constantine, die Sepliaonium of Severus, the ruin- 
ed Palace of the Csesars, and the Arch of Janus 
Quadrifrontis, were dims ; as well as the immense 
fabric of the Colosseum, to which Popes and An« 
tipopes succesdvely lesorted for protection* It was 
stormed and besiq^ed, taken and retaken ; it was 
partially yielded to the Annibaldi ; it was reguned 



• St Augastin^ I believe, inveigbs against them with vir- 
tuous eloquence ; but I quote his authority at second hancL 
In the preceding century, a Christian poet (Prudentius) had 
ventured to address, even to an imperial ear, a pathetic and 
spirited remonstrance against these savage combats, so revolt- 
ing to religion and humanity. 

t Vide Gibbon's Decline and Fall, last Chapter. 



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68 ItoMS. 

by the Frangipani ; Imt thoagli it changed its ma^ 
ten, it continued a fortress till the beginning of the 
fourteenth oentory, when its hostile occupation vas 
finally relinquished 

Yet, even in that age, the Uood of men and beasts 
was once more mingled in savage combat on this 
Arena. On the third of September, 1S3S, it was the 
scene of a bull-fight^ attended with all the pomp and 
circumstance, and chivalrous spirit of a solemn tour- 
nament, but with a far more tragical terminalioB — 
for eighteen of the young and noble champions who 
entered the lists, bearing on tiieb shields romantic 
devices emblematical of their pasdon, perished in the 
unequal conflict with furious wild bulls, which they 
encountered sbgly. But it will become me best to 
pass over in silence what has been already so ably 
described 1^ the pen of Gibbon.* 

The Amphitheatre was converted into an hospital 
by the bretiuren of the Sancta Sanctorum Company, 
at the end of the fourteenth century ; and as tiieir 
arms are still visible, painted on the ruined arcades 
of the soutiiem side, the Roman antiquaries infer 
that this part must have been destroyed before that 
time, though there is no previous record of its spo- 
liation. To me the proof does not seem quite so con- 
clusive, because the Colosseum was the acknowledged 
property of these brethrra, even in the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century ; and therefore it i& 



* Vide Gibbon's DecUDe and Fall, last Chapter, containing 
an interesting account of the Colosseum^ and of the remains of 
ancient Rome. 



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ROME. 69 

by no means cletT) that the arms we now see were 
painted in the fourteenth. 

The '' indent Poggins'' htmenU, that in the 
'fifteenth century, the principal part of its stones had 
been burnt to lime ; hut surely this must refer to the 
interior coating, which was of maible ; f<Nr Tibortine 
stone would scarcely be used for such a purpose.* 

During the rixteenth century, it seems to have 
been first turned into a quarry. All the noble Ro- 
mans, Guelphs and Ghibellines, fin^ids and foes, all 
parties and factions, agreed on one thing — ^to pull 
down the walls of the Colosseum whenever they want- 
'ed stones. By common consent, they made a written 
compact for this laudable purpose ; and the Abb£ 
Bardielemy, the accurate and enlightened author of 
J^acharsis, mentions that this curious document was 
junong the archives of Rome.f 

It is related in many old books, and the tradition 
is confirmed by many old men, that Cardinal Far- 
nese, a nephew of Paul II L, obtained, after much 
importunity, a fretful permisision from his unde to 

* The laige blocks of Tiburtine stone, of which the Colos- 
seum is built, are too valuable in a dty which is twenty miks 
ifrom a quarry, to be used for lime. This scarcity of building 
materials in Rome, has been one great cause of the destruc- 
tion of ancient edifices. J.<eading the stones for St. Peter's 
cost more than the whole expense of building St. Paiil'«. 
Neither canals, rail- ways, nor even Macadamiaation, facili- 
tated the passage, from the Travertine quarries, near TivQli, 
to Rome--a distance which must be about sixteen or eighteen 
niiles, over extremely bad and rugged roads. 

t Oibbon's Decline and Fall, last Chapter, p. 377. It has 
never since been seen; 



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70 ROME. 

take sway the ttonea from this magraficent buiUaig 
for twelve hours only ; and that, profiting by the liU 
cence, he let loose an army of 4,000 workmen to as- 
bail it8 walls. It may be imagined the effects of the 
work of this day! 

Facts, however, are so difficult to ascertain in 
Rome, from the total disr^ard to trath preyalent 
here — I am sorry to say, among all classes— that I 
cannot answer for this statement But it is moet cer- 
tain, that, whaterer might haye been the dhariness of 
die said Pontiff, when he restricted its demolition u 
twelve hours, it was renuHrselessly pulled down du* 
ring his pontificate ; and it is at that period (the 
sixteenth century) that its ruin may be dated.* It 
was then that the immense bulk ci the Venetian and 
Famese Palaces, the Cancdiaria, the Palatnie Sum- 
mer-houses, and one half of the buildings of Rome, 
were erected with its materials. I could forgive Mi- 
diael Angdo the frightfulness of these Famese struc- 
tures, but never the source from whidi he took the 
stones. It seems as if the sacril^e he committed 
upon iSete glorious works of past ages cast a spdl over 
his own ; for the architecture of the buildings he 
raised is as Httle honourable to his genius, as the 
spoliation of the Colosseum to his taste. 

la the seventeenth century, Sixtos V. attempted 
to establish a woollen manufiietory here, but ibitu- 
nately the project failed. The sanctificadon of ita re- 
mains, about the middle of the last century, by Be- 

* The Theatre of IMarcellus also served as one of the quar- 
ries of this princely and palace-building family. 



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BOMB. 71 

iiedicl XIV., is l«to femmbrtnce of ilie UcmmI of dim 
bieMEBd marljTB wko ware Baerifiotd liete* aloM mwtd 
it firom utter destrnetioii. 

ir«t, even after it vee dedeced holy, and saosed to 

the memory of these Messed niArlyrs* the bweet oov- 

ridor was converted into a reoeptadt of dimg for Uui 

pmrpoae of maUng asltpetie, in which state il letoain- 

ed till the French eane and cleansed this Augeaft 

stable. There was a little henmtage* with its chapelt 

fow several centuries, in the Coloaseosn ; and it noTev 

failed to be inhabited by a henmt» till the French 

oanie and shot him ;-^proparly enoiffgh, indeed, if it 

be truethathehadfaesngnil^ofvobberyaDdmiiider* 

I gave the Pope eonsidemUe eiwUt when I came 

to Rome and foimd workmen employed in eanyiiig 

•way the mUnsh of ttuaoldden; but, alas! Uonly 

made way fixr a new one, in which a grey-bearded 

cnpiaehtn now sits, who, I enppose^ acts at piesent 

the part of hermit, and who begs most pertinacionsly 

&r the support of the Virgin, and the holy souls in 

purgatory, moSeatly nerer aentiomng bimselS 

Endless have been thedisenssifliis as to the pay#* 
ment of the Arena, or whether it bed any payement 
at aU. Some of the learned maintain it was coyerei 
with wood, and had moyaUe lids, or trap-doocsi 
through which the wild beasts qpning up fiom below, 
HkethegfaoBtsinaplay. Others say, the wild beaste 
walked in at the sides, like regular actors, and thot 
the Arena was pared with marble. 

The fact is, I beUere, that whatever the penna- 
nent flooring might be, it was uniformly coyered, 
during the games, with sand, or saw-diist, (as indeed 



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72 ROME* 

hs name implies^) to receive the blood oF tEe dead 
and wounded men and beasts, and prevent the ground 
firom becoming slippery with gore. 

The sand was frequently covered with venmlion, 
in order that the stains of blood might not shock the 
sight of the spectators. 

It is a disputed point, whether or not the ancient 
Arena was on the same level m the presoit. Several 
of the Boman antiquaries maintain, that it was finr* 
merly ten feet lower ; and, although they must all 
have seen its very substructions when they were laid 
bare by the French, they have not yet been able to 
settle the point amongst themsdves. 

There b a vaulted subterraneous passage recently 
discovered, which terminates at the Arena, and the 
roof of which is exactly below the level of its present 
surface ; but, as it has evidently led to it, I conclude 
it must have been upon the same level, and that the 
ancient one was exactly as much below the present, 
as the height of this passage, which is not very great 
It is called the private passage of the emperors. If 
sd, it certainly was not a very magnificent one. It 
is now, as it always must have been, low and dark ; 
for its stuccoed ceiling and mosaic pavem^t stUl re* 
main. It leads, too, in a direct line south, from the 
south side of the Colosseum, while the Imperial Pa* 
lace lies to the north-west. ^^ But,^ say the antiqua* 
rics, ** though it seems to go in a contrary dire<^on, 
it must have taken a bend round to the palace.** It 
may be so ; but it seems a singular contrivance to 
make the emperors describe a large circle, when they 
eouid have come in a straight line ; and more espe^ 



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ROME. 79 

daUy as the wty is so dismhl, dist it could not Imf^ 
been done for the plessme of the walk. 

JPor my part, I suspect this pieteuded prirate pas* 

sage of the emperors to have been the passage of the 

wild beasts. Thenatureof theanimalst mdeed, was 

so similar, that the mistake is little more than in 

name ; but it is certain that the passage in question 

leads directly in a line towards their dens— I mean 

the wild beasts— and therefore I cannot hdp suspect* 

ing it to hare been made for their accommodation. 

Some of these dens are still to be seen below the 

Convent of St John and St Paul, mi the Coelian 

Mount, in a building called by the absurd name of 

the Curia HoiiUia; but (for a mirade) all the an* 

tiqaaries seem agreed that it was a Vivarium finr 

kee^g the beasts before thm exhibition in the Co* 

losseum. I saw last winter <me of the iron rings to 

which they had been fastened, but I latdy sought 

for it in rain. It has, however, been seen by many 

eyes besides mine ; and this circumstance alone 

would be suffident to prore the desdnation of the 

building, if it admitted of doubt It is manifestly 

of the rame date, and built of the same materials, as 

the Colosseum, which it resembles so exscdy, that 

one m1|^t suppose a portion of the Arcades had been 

conveyed up die hilL It is supposed to have beea 

built by Domitian. The grand Vivarium was near 

the Porta Maggiore ; but its distance would render. 

another necessary near the Colosseum, for the wild 

beasts to be kept in before th^ were brought out ; as 

it would not be ei^y to bring down every lion as it 



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74 ROME. 

WM wanted from the atii«r end of tlie te«m. Bat 
though there «ee«it litde leaaon to doubt that this 
WM a ViTarium, I think it but fior to iofimn you, 
that the communication between it and the C^oa- 
ieam, by meane of the low vaokad passage, ia metely 
my own opinion, and theroPoie, perhaps, not entitkd 
to madb credit. 

The hcdes whtdi diafiguie the exterioir of the Co. 
losseom, in the p«t that remaina perfect, lurre ei* 
eited much speculation. They are evidently not the 
effects of chance or time, but of design md laborious 
execution ; but why they were made, it is not so easy 
to discover. The common opiai<m is, that it was to 
get at the cramps that fastened the stones together; 
and to give this notion some shadow of ptohabilityf 
it has been supposed that these eramps were of 
bronse. But we can scaiodly bdieve that the Bo» 
mans would use a very costly metal, comp«ativeIy 
unfit for thefar purpose, when a very cheap one was 
well adapted to it Bronae would seaieely hold stone 
walls together, iron might. The cramps, there&te, 
if any there were, must have been of iron* Bat in 
no part of the wall that has been laid open, is there 
any appearance of cramps, or of die holes they must 
have made. Grantmg, however, diere were audi 
things ; surely it must have cost less trouble to have 
made a piece of iron, (and in no age was that art fiir^ 
gotten,) than to have undergone the incredible la« 
bout of boring through those solid Uocks of stone, 
to get at such little bits of it ^ It once occurred to 
me that these might be the hde« in which the pdes 



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BOMfi. t5 

were fixed that sapported the Velaria, or simtiig ef 
the Amphitheatre; bat thej could only have been 
at the top of the building, and these are in all parts. 
There were also holes for pipes, firom which descend- 
ed showers of perfumes ; hut these holes are too large 
and too irregular tort that purpose. The more pro* 
heUe account of the matter is, that these holes were 
made for the poles that sapported the booths of the 
artisaas, who crowded these corridors with their tem* 
porory shops doring the fairs held here.* If that 
won'^t do, is it not possible that the holes may hare 
been made during the long coarse of years diat the 
ColoBseom was a fi>rtress, and attad[ed and defended 
with all the fury of mil combat? Or if this does not 
satisfy you, perhape they were made at the period 
that the people of Rome had a mania for searching 
old ruins tat hidden tressnres,— 4n one of which pa* 
roxysBM, they broke into the Ultle arch of Septimius 
Severus, in the Forum Boarium, and did an infinite 
deal of misdiief in the way of puUing down old walls, 
and ransacked every imaginable place in the unpro- 
fitable search. But if all, or none of these causes 
will content you, then I must*refer you to the elabo- 
rate and erudite treatise written by an ancient bishop, 
in folio, on all the possible and impossible causes of 
these boles : — l^e aspect of which profound work was 
so appallmg to me, diat I can give ih> other account 



• Gibbon's DecHne aiiS Fall, la»t Chapter. Donatus Homa 
VetuB, &c. 



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7tf ROME. 

of it than its dimensaons: but I think the task of 
reading it through will prove a sufficiexit atonement, 
if not cure, for your incredulity* 

On the outside of the Colosseum, are the crumb- 
ling remains of a building supposed to have been the 
Meta SudofiSj that famous fountain, -which existed 
even in Republican times ;* and after having been 
destroyed by Nero, and restored by Doniitian,'f* con- 
tinued, during many ages, to refresh, with its &st 
&lling waters, the thirsty combatants in the games 
ef the Amphitheatre.^ 

We have now finished the survey of this stupend- 
ous edifice. Since it was erected, what changes have 
covered the earth ! New arts, new institutions, new 
languages, and new religions, have sprung np ; new 
worlds have been discovered, and new nations have 
advanced to civilization, and sunk into decay ; and 
yet the Colosseum stands in its ruins unrivalled and 
alone. 

. But, all beautiful as it is, we must ever r^ard 
it with mingled admiration and horror. It is laid 



. • Seneca, Ep. 37. 

+ Cassiodorus, Chron. Dom. ix. 

X There is a fornitain, supposed to be die Meta SndanSy 
sculptured in bas relief, between two lions, on a marble tomb, 
(in the shape of a large tub,) which stands in the first gallery 
•of the Vatican, after passing the Gallery of Inscriptions, on the 
^Tit-hand side. It is supposed to have been called M^, 
from its resemblance to the form ofthe Meta of a Circus. The 
'vater descends from the top, into a basin. 



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ftOMK. 77 

hi everlasting rain, like the gigmtic power that nmd 
it. TVhat eye, in that proud day ^ its dedicatbn^ 
when the Roman sway extended over every part of 
the known world, firom the confines of India, and the 
deserts of Afirica, to utmost Thule— what eye could 
then have foreseen the fiiture fidl of that buildiog 
meant for eternity— «f that empire that grasped at 
infinity ! And yet may we not, in our retrospectiTe 
glance, trace the destroyer of both, in those very vices 
wl&ich this proud fiibric was destined to foster ? 

Certainly, if the characters of nations may he es- 
timated from their fayourite sports, that of the Ro* 
mans must bear the stain of th^ blackest crudty. 
No nation, in ancient or modem times, has reyellcd 
with the same savage avidity in human blood. This 
horrible passion did not appear in its full force till 
alter the final fall of the Republic. Vhrtne and li« 
berty vanished together. Unmitigated despotism^ 
unparalleled cruelty, imnatural depravity, unima- 
gined vices, and unpunished crimes^ rapidly increi^ 
sed with the appetite for those inhuman diversionst. 
which have left a foul blot upon our nature. 

The passion for these detestaUe sports is indeed 
a curious chapter of the history of the human mind^ 
and one which might furnish important materials to 
the philosopher. . It does not appear to be the re« 
proach of one people, or the barbarous taste of one 
age, acquired from some peculiar bias, or derived 
from imitation ; but, unnatural as it seems, it was the 
deUgJit of all the nations of antiquity ; and to this 
very day the same sports are practised in the remote 
In£an islands, whose sequestered inhabitants never 



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78 BOMfi. 

lieudofthe&OBianMme The JaTaneae have gMiei 
in wbicli tigers fight with other wild bei^ts, aad with 
eondemned criminals.* 

Nor need we go so far for exaipplei the bull- 
fi^ts in Spain, and in modem Rome itself,r-per^ 
haps, too, the bull-baitings and codk-fighls f in £]ig« 
land, are still food for the same pasaon «nd conchi- 
aire proofs of its existence, although no longer goi^ged 
with human blood. 

For Chrbtianity was reserred the mgnal Iriompb 
oyer this long indulged, most dierished) axul fiercest 
passion of the soul. The games of the Amphitheatre 
were finr erer aboUshed by Honorius* Th^ had, 
indeed, been prohibited by Constantine, but noTer 
discontinued. '^ Seyeral hundred, perhaps several 
thousand yietims, continued to be annuaUy alattgh- 
tered in the great cities of the Empire ; aaad the 
month of December, more peculiarly devoted to the 
combats of gladiatora, still exhibited to the eyes of 
the Roman people a gratefiil spectacle of blood and 
Gruelty.t"^ They were represented fi>r the last time 
in presence of die timorous Honorius and his pro- 
tector Stilicho, when Rome celebrated a humiliating 
triumph, not for her conquests oyer, but her escape 

• I asserted this upon the information of a friend who had 
been in Java ; and^ since my return to England, I have found 
this fact confirmed in Raffles's History of the Island. 

t Cock-fighting, that barbarous but classical diversion, was 
practised both by the ancient Greeks and Romans. F^^ 
ridges and quails were also made to fight in the same maiu^ 
«B eocks. Vide Arehaeologia, vol. iii, p. 1S3. 

t Decline and Fall, vol. v« p. 91. 



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.^^^ >^^ Romans 

"^ ^0 church 






fe^ 



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80 ROUE. 



LETTER XXIX. 

AKCIEKT THBEMJB— YEBTIGKB OF THB BATHS Of 
AGftlFFA AHD COMSTAKTIHE, OF THB PRKTEKD- 
KD BATHS OF FAULU8 JBMILIUfl, AM) OF THB 
BATHS OF SAVTA HELBKA.— •THB THEBKB OF 
CABACALLA.— PISCINA PDBLICA. 

The less that is known about anydung, dien<»v 
may be said Voluines without end have been writ- 
ten on the subject of the Baths or Themw of tbe 
Ancients, and nobody is any wiser ; — at least, I 
can answer for myself. I found indeed that the con- 
tradictory assertions, and iireconcilable hypotheses, 
contained in these elaborate treatises, only taided to 
make ** confusion worse confounded (^ and that tbe 
more I studied, the less I knew. I consulted the 
professed antiquaries : but what one told me was 
contradicted by another ; and the newly admitted 
belief of yesterday was chased out of my under- 
standing by the later imbibed ideas of to-day. I 
applied in my perplexity to a learned friend who 
has passed most of his life in Home. He g«^^ 
me all the information in his power ; but candidly 



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BOMB. 81 

ewned, that, after a long and dilige&l CTamiiiaCfam 
ef the remains of the andent Thermae, he had nerer 
been able to form any |KX»irate idea of their plan; ao 
that what he could not oomprehoid after twenty 
years of study, I need not pretend to expbun after 
a two years^ residenoe in Borne. 

I luiYe often wished, in my dilemma about all and 
each of the ruins of Rome, that I could '* call up 
sonae spirit from the mighty dead,^ to conduct me 
lii»ni|^ diem, remove my doubts, and answer my 
inquiries. What a Cicerone would an old Bomaa 
make f Not that I would recall a Cicero to a world 
unworthy of him, to fill the ignoUe office which is so 
impudently dignified by his name; or disturb the 
stoic shades of a Scipio, a Brutus, ot a Cato, to es- 
cort an inquiaitiye young barbarian like me over the 
scenes once consecrated by their presence. Their 
republican souls would know no more than we do of 
the remains of imperial luxury that now cover the 
City of the Se>rea Hills. Some Roman of the more 
d^enerate days of empire I would choose for my 
guide ; and, if I thought ^^ he would come when I 
did call on him,^ I would invdEC the shade of the 
younger Pliny ; and get him, among other things* 
to explain the plan of the Thermse. 

We need no ghost certainly to tell us that the use 
of baths was to bathe in ; but these baths had many 
odier uses besides. They were designed to unite 
every mode af recreation. They had spacious halls 
for social assemblies,— courts and theatres for athle- 
tic sports, — shady poTticos for the recitation of poets 

VOL. II. V 



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M BOME. 

mH the teetUfM of phUoicfhers^^'* and iUl lirii^ 
tbr an nen.^ In short, they were to dw Ronanfl 
n&fA^kimg like what «m eofSM^RMiinaaiidi nemu^rocfSDa 
are to the EnglUh ; otily that they had neither newa- 
^i^erfi nor coffeej^-^^faat the sole nefreahmeait was vx* 
ter, taken externally, inetead of ptmeh or negos in- 
temalfy ; and that they had pfailosophkal inatead of 
petitieid disptttes. 

Btit neither-cojfee-housesy nor any hiBlatnlioBa of 
wi^ent dcqrS) bear any teal simiMtude to tliein. We 
hare no buildkga to eompore them to,-*^iio ludiits to 
refer them to; they were atuted to a diffisredt age^ 
people, elimate, and state of society ; and am&ng all 
the dnIMous and perplexing antiqitities of Bonye, 
ttone oertainfy are so dubious and perplffichig as the 
iremahis ci these Thermse. Eren Vitmvius gives ns 
no light here ; for idtliough the Thermse of Agrip 
pa must have been built in his time, he deacabes 
Miy llie prtrato baths of the Romans, whicb, how- 
Wtff Insurious, bear no analogy whatever t^ tixsi 
public Thermae. 

An ancient aothorf tells us, that in the proud 
days of |tonian empire, the Thermce were like 
whole psonnces*^(iA modum Pravinciarum) ;''-'mid 
Pliny gives a qpieodtd description of the scnlp- 
%wes and patntiage, the magn^kent seats ofaolid . 



* The BoaiaBA, howersir, bad their newspapers mwA^ ^ 

QVxmSi&i, though it is not recorded that they were taken in ^ 

here ; and amongst all the lost treasures of classic literature, '« 

there are few that would prove so interesting and instructive ^ 
as a complete set of the Diuma PopuH Romanu 

t Ammian. Marcell. lib. xvi. 






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ROME. 

silrer,* j^fae silver pipes and iMiihSft 
TsieSy the payements of pYecioQS Btones, 
samptiums deootatiiuu, that filled the» 
tablishtneDts of pleasure. 

Their magnitude and xnagnifioence, 
aaidently attested by their migbty i 
e?in after the d^lapidAtions of ages of bi 
stand, incontestable monuments of the | 
hixorjr, and the idleness of the Romani 

Bat whatever might hare been the p 
the ancient Romans for bathbg, we mt 
modems of that, and of every other spe 
which bears the most remote affinity il 
Pliny, in Ins minute and interesting i 
his Lanrentinum ViUa,|] tells us, tha 
om private baths^ the neighbouxing r 
ed no less than tluree public baths, wl i 
ciently dc^nt and commodious, for I 
gaests. And besides all the Them 
baths of the dty, and many other pub 
vimns enumerates no less than 764 f 
hb survey of Rome* But Rome base 
fublie bath : and private baths rare! , 
a part even of the spacious and costl 
nobility. Excepting some, on a verj i 
beIon^Dgtooneofthehotels,anda i 
ly freqaentied by foreigners, there 
Rome* 

I have often regretted that some 
fountains, whose waste of waters so 

♦ Pliny, lib. xxxiii. cap. 1^. t 

t Seneca, Epist. 86. || 



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84 BOME. 

lielUshes Rome, were not uiedfor Uub purpose ; atid 
perhaps if the Popes had built fewer diurdbea and 
more baths, it would haye been better for the bodies 
of their subjects, and not worse for thdr souls* 

Eut I have somehow made a transition firom an- 
dent to modem Rome— and it is high dme to return 
firom these visionary baths of her Popes, to the ruin- 
•ed Thennse of her Emperors. 

Of the long list of Thennss that adorned imperial 
Rome, the ruins of those of Titus, of Caracalla, and 
of Diocletian, are all that now remain; except that 
the Rotunda of the Pantheon, and the broken Arco 
della Ciambella behind it, may be considered as res- 
tiges of the Baths of Agrippa ; and the ruins in 
ihe Colonna Gardens, of those of Constantine, — ^the 
first and the last Thermae that eyer were erected in 
Rome. 

Some remains of the Forum of Trajan, indeed, are 
vulgarly called the Baths of Paulus Emilius, al- 
though we have no reason to beUeve that he ever 
made any baths at all ; nor, as they were luxuries 
wholly unknown to the Republic, is it at all proba- 
ble he ever did. Indeed we may be sure, that had 
he built anything so extraordinary, Plutarch, who 
records the Banlica of his erection, would not have 
omitted to have mentioned it Juvenal indeed alludes 
to the Baths of Paulus ; * but it does not follow that 
there never was, at any period, any other Paulus 
than Paulus Emilius. 



* Ut forte rogatus 
Dum petit aut Thermas aut Balnea Pauli^ &c« 

JuvenaL 



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itrtMfi; 85 

' 'There are some inconsiderable vestiges of the 
Baths of the Empress Helena, in the grounds of the 
Villa Massimi, on the Esqniline HiH A few low 
broken fragments of brick wall might belong to any*' 
thing, but an inscription was found there which at- 
tested their identity.* 

Some uninteresting ruins of a Roman date, in a 
vineyard between the Arentine and the Tiber, (the 
entrance to which is through a red wooden gate on 
the right of the road going towards the Porta San 
Paolo,) are called, on conjecture, the Baths of De* 
cius ; alAough it seems more probable Aat the baths 
of that Empieror were upon the Aventine Hill.f 

But these are inconsiderable and unintelligiUe re* 
mains, scarcely worth notice. E^en the ruins of the 
three principal Thermse, immense as is their extent, 
have eyidently formed but a small part of their an* 
cient magnitude. The ingenuity of antiquaries has 
formed, fiom their confused remains, a variety of fan- 
ciful and conjectural plans ; but as they are all at 
▼anance with each other, — ^Hke thefoiv genuine and 
original portraits of Shakspeare, which bear between 
them no shade of resemblance,— -we may be allowed 
to doubt if any of them be the true one. 

The following figure, slightly sketched from the 
cadsting remains of the Baths of Caracalla and Dio- 
cletian, (which bear a much closer resemblance to 
each other than those of Titus,) without any attempt 

* It is now placed above the porphyry Sarcophagus of that 
Empress^ in the Sals della Croce Greca^ in the Vatican, 
t Vide Nardini^ Roma Antica. Aventino. 



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86 



BOME. 



at prefeuded aunuleiiegsor aeeuraey, wUdieiiiioiiIy 
flerre to mislead where there are no data to go upon^ 
may perhaps enable ychi to form oome general idea 




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thmf ill ieem to hmiie coDsiiCdl of m exloniftl 
part (A), the lower Hoiy of dbkh wm d«i, lubltv^ 
naeaa, lighted by lamps, and eontained die wliole 
raBge of the hot-batba. It sunounded the internal 
pan (C), fron which it was genenally divided by m 
cpm space (B), fiikd with shady fnlka, or garc^nay 
a Gynmasium, and sometimes with a sort of Stadiaa 
fiir mnniDg fiMt-raoei. 

The intenial pan <C)~which, ia tiie baths of 
Diodetiaa and CaraeaUa, had no aobterauieaii stery, 
-*-coii8tsted enturely of places fer vtcreatioii'^-oover* 
ed poitiaos for waUdng, thehend fiom the mn and 
rain ; courts and theatres for actiiFO sports; ^raxiei 
ft* etudy, and apartments for idling. There was 
generally, at least, one great eo^red hall, or Pino* 
coiheca (vide Plan, C), in every Thennie, sappcmd 
to be devoted to doa la^t laadd^le purposa, though, 
^^^coiOng to some awthotitiea, it was «spd as a 
^yitum; or place for wreatliag, in bad w»adicr, ai 
wdl 88 f«» a gi^at loungix^-room. 

Oneof these great covered halla (*«* ^^^ ®*** 
rf Modetiaii) is atiU entire, aod is now convert^ 
i«»to a chiwci ; fnit <^ ^'n* ^ ^«»^ «P^ '* ^^ ^** 
to these ruiii^/ 

Thereouiij^ f tSheT^ermeeof CaracaUa,*owbiA 
we must &f^?^^ o« «tepe, oonmt entirely of tl^ 
wpper story ^^**^ f the internal part ; which intemell 
P"*' « ' (>1J^^ uaeived, nover, In these beihs, had 
«y »ott^%r^ ^^ly* There is now no access 
into the ^^^^010^ \j^ story of the external p«rt 
(^iJ^^^j^r^^ iaaeed, no appea»nee of it in 



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88 BOH£« 

either of these Themue ; bat it is said, excaTikCtoiur 

hftve frequently been made into both. 

'. The. Baths of CaracaUa axe situated at the Imae 

of the most southern of the heights of the Ayentine^ 

on the Via Appia^ remote from the actual extent 

of the modem city> though within the circuit of its 

walls. 

They now present an immense mass of frowning 
and roofless ruins abandoned to decay; and their 
fallen grandeur, their ahnost immeasurable extent, 
-—the tremendous fragments of broken wall iliat fill 
them,— the wild weeds and bramUea which shade 
Aem, — their solitude and their silaice ; the magni- 
ficence they once displayed^ and the desolation they 
now exhibit,— ^are powerfully calculated to affect the 
imagination. 

. ' We passed through a loi^ succession of unmense 
Jialls, open to the sky, whose pairemei^ of costly 
marblea and rich mosaics, long since torn away,faaTe 
been supplied by the soft green tuif, that fofkns a car- 
p^ more in unison with their deserted state. The 
wind, sighing through the branches of the aged trees 
|3iat have taken root in them without rivalliiig their 
loftiness, was the only sound we heard; and the bird 
of prey, which burst through th^ thick ivy of the 
Inroken wall far above us, was the only living object 
we beheld/ 

' These immense halls formed a pari of the inUxBsl 
division of the Thermae, which was aitirely devoted 
to purposes of amusement 

The first of these halls, or r^her walled enclosiures, 



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BOMB. 89 

y<m alter, and seyentl of the others, have evidently 
been open in the centre. They were sunonnded 1^ 
covered porticos, supported by immense columns of 
granite^ which have long since been carried away, 
chiefly by the Popes, and Princes of the Famese 
&mily. In consequence of thar loss, the roofe fdl 
with a concussion so tremendous, diat it is said to 
have been felt, even in Rome, like the distant shock 
of an earthquake. Fragments of this vaulted roof 
are stili hanging at the comers of the portico. The 
open part in the centre was probably destined for 
athletic sports. 

• One of the halls, the famous Cetta Sclearis, which 
could not have been less than 150 feet in length, 
and held 160 marble seats, was entirely covered with 
a flat roof of stone, which was considered a miracle 
of architecture. It is supposed to have been sup- 
ported by flat crossing bands of metal, formbg a 
thick chequer work ; and, from their resemUance to 
the ioieoj or straps used to Und the sandals round 
the feet and ancles, the hall was denominated CeUa 
Sokaris. This astonishing work is said to have been 
executed by Egyptian artists. 
. Many have Ix^en the doubtd and disputes among 
antiquaries, which of these halls has the best claim 
to be considered as this once wonderful C^Sa^o2eam. 
All are roofless now ; but the most eastern of them, 
that which is furthest to the left on entering, and 
which has evidently had windows, seems generally to 
enjoy the reputation. 
Besides these enormous halls, there are, on the 



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90 kome; 

weBtem side cf tliese tuiiis, die moBfluii iifit iolttBib>i 
or large cbcular baBding, and a great mnnbcr rf 
laiaUer diruiaiia, of all fliaes andfonna, in tbevpur^ 
poie wholly incompreheiwiWe. We «Miy auppoae 
(hem to hare been placet in wbtdi tke learned ha^ 
langned their disdpLes, philottfdieni held thar coiw 
tiDTerriet, and poets recited their vewes ; or, ^nee 
ancient Rome was by no meana exdnn vdy pt^nla^ed 
with theM exalted minda— 4n whidi racae ordaary 
souls used to talk and amnse diemselTes. Such^ too, 
would sedc the SpherUHoj or temua eourts, er piacpa 
for playing at ball ; an amusement, indeed, whidi we 
know theatemest* of philoaophars and cenaors-— evoi 
the elder Cato him8elf--did not disdain to practiBe. 

In &ct, no satisfikctory idea can be formed from 
the remains we see, of the pecuMar destination of any 
pardoolar parts, and imagination at last desists, t^ 
tigiied with the ineffectual attempt to picture what 
they were. Excepting that they belonged to that 
part of the Thermas destined for purposes of amnse- 
ment, nodiing can now be known ; and, though the 
immenae extent of the baths may be traced far from 
hence by their wide-sj^eading ruins, it is equaHy ^-> 
ficult and unprofitable to explore them any farther. 

In the last of these halls there is a deep draw- 
wddi ; and in <me of our many Tisits to these ruins, 
we found a young Englishman of our acquaintance, 
aHho, in faia ardour for antiquities, was on the point 



• Platardi's Life. 



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BOME. 91 

ord0ae0BdiBgmiliebiMkefttotliebMani<^it Tfab 
was etfrying the maxim of Heekiiig ^* Iniik $tibm 
bottom of ft wdl^ rather too literally into exeootian» 
but he was so ware that he fllkmld make some woo* 
derf ul discoYery there, that we coold not soooeed in 
stopping him, till we called in the teadmony of the 
old woman who opens the door, in eonoboration of 
our own, to ptove that the well was not onrioo, but 
made for the use of the pigs that now revd nndistorlK 
ed in all the faixunes <tf these imperial halls* 

Splendid as they were, perhaps in ancient ^am$ 
as in the present, they were ofUn filled with the 
swinish muhitade. 

A broken staircase leads up to the top of the ruin% 
but it is in so dili^idated a state, that the asc»t has 
beoome extremely perilous. 

Thb immense interior is supposed to have been 
surrounded with an external part (vide Plan, A), of 
course still more immense, fwming a subterranean 
oUong square, which, besides the baths, contained 
the Exednti or buildings for the slairee who attend*- 
ed the baths, the police who regulated, and the soL 
diers who guarded them. 

The Thermae consisted of every possible modift. 
cation and auxiliary of bathing that luxury could de- 
vise. First, there was an JpodUeriumy or great un- 
dressing-room,— -a SudeOorium^ Laconicum^ or y»- 
pour-bath,-Hi Caldarnm^ or hot-bath,— hi Tepidm^ 
rium, or tepid-bath,— -a Frigidariumi or cold-bath, 
—and an Unctuarium^ or room for perfuming and 
anointing the body with oil ; and through the whole 



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92 ROME. 

^occss of these badis and atumitiiigs it is pretended 
each iNitlier generally passed. There was, besides, 
ft large open naiatioy or swimming-bath, the only one 
which enjoyed the light of beaven, all the rest being 
perfectly dark. 

The water was heated by means of a large hg^pa* 
caustum, or stove. 

- A bell was rang at a stated hour in the evening, 
to signify that the water was warm and the baths 
ready.* Those who used them at any other hour 
eould hare cold water only. 

It appears that the two sexes usnidly bathed to- 
gether, although the practice was prohibited by 
Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, and several of the em- 
perors. Even the dissolute Agrippina, the mother 
of Nero, was so much scandalized at the practice, 
that she built baths expressly for the use of women 
on the Viminal Hill. 

Above this outer square of the baths, there is sup 
posed to have been a terrace, or gallery, from whence 
the spectators could view, as from a theatre, the 
^qports and diversions in the Pakestrum^ or Gymna^ 
slum, the walks, (Ambulacra,) &c. &c., which filled 
the intermediate open space (B) between them and 
the interior building. 

I had understood that the whole outer subter- 
ranean story, in which were the range of baths, was 
buried under ground, and no remains of it to be seen ; 



* To this Martial alludes :— 
Redde pilam-HSonat ss thermarum ; ludere pergis ? 

Martial, 1. xiv. Ep. 163. 



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BOM£. 98 

laid gml wasmyddi^t tofindtefoalaMUiqittU 
mcBta with no %ht bat wlui brake in al the door» 
and containing what» in my innecfnee, I took to be 
bathe ML of cold pdludd water. Nerer doobta^ 
that this was aJrigidariuMj I hastened to impart my 
aatiflfiu^tioii to an anftiqiiary of our party, who nearly 
went distracted at this most heterodox idea. He do* 
clared, with mndi discomposure, that Ae under wa$ 
modern^ and that the receptades comtsinittg this mo* 
denx water— which he would upon no account sUow 
to be denominated baths, though we could devise no 
other .name for them~-were modem also ; and that 
the buUdii^^s — ^wer^ not modem, but had been places 
for the guards, slaves, officers,-— &r any thing, or any 
body, but baths and bathers. 

If I had had any idea it would have irritated him 
so much, I nefet would hare mentioned it, for he 
did not recover his temper during the rest of the day, 
and still continued to repeat to himself at intervals, 
^* Vaoqua i modema.'''' 

The Baths of Antoninus Caiacalla were finished 
by Heliogabalus and by Alexand^ Severus, whose 
name they sometimes have bome« 

It is surprising to me that the antiquaries have 
never begprn to dispute whether these Th^mse may 
not be those of Commodus, who did build baths on 
the Via Appia, though their site is unknown. At all 
events, the name of Thermce JntoniniancPj by which 
these are distinguished, would suit either Emperor 
equally well. 

The beautiful statues which now adorn Naples, 



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94 ROMS* 

tke FaroMan Bull, die Hefcules, the Flora, and 
the Callyp^gian Veniia, were toxaad here. Cazacslla 
pillaged Hadiian^s ?illa to adom liis bathe, aad pro- 
bablj these masterpeoes of eeulpture had been uken 
uToiA thence* 

The PiBdna Pubiica is euppofled to luive been in 
Aia neighboorhoed. Its name itnpliee that it was a 
publie reserroit of water. It is heard of at a yoy 
early period of Roman history, and is generally be- 
fiered (by the antiquaries) to lu^re been used for the 
purpose of swimming in. Yet, while they tell you 
this, with their usual consisteney they assime you, 
that, till the time of Augustus, die Romans had no 
other bath than the Tiber. 



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ROME. 91 



LETTER XXX. 
Ttt jugaaut OF tiT0t-^HOuw or xsciMAs- 

ANeiUliT rA»ltIMas-^ABABStMS8-^»AFHAX 
«^LAOC<K)N--«CH0m€H 09 #• B. MABTlltO K 8Y1 
▼S8TlO^POV98lll^$ jPAlKTtMOO—ftUllTBSBAKSik 
eaVBCH-^KASSKS AW llAftTTBDOlIS O^ TSI 
SAUlrCHUITIAM8«*^A]IJiXI.ITB]i0inUH<»SBTi; 
8AUJR. 

Ths ^atiquaricSy for the molt part, seem agrc ! 
that the Thenoae of Tifus diffmct firom those 
CaMcdla and DiocletiaQ, in having a subtcrran i 
atoiy beneath its intenial part, which Contained 
halfaB, and which^ inatead of being binlt like 
odien^ in the fosm of an oblong square, was ovi 
ciicular, and that the nuns wMck remain are of I 
patt 

To me, I own, it seems somewhat donbtfiil 
ther tkeser baths eter had imy estemal part- I 
which I can find no space— or were buUt acco 
^ the same plan as the later ones ; or ef^en wh ! 
there was any distinction of public and private i 
in them, as is pretended ; for Suetonius exp 
tells OS, that ^< Titus admitted the common 
into Ms baths, even, when he used them hims 

" " '■ ! ■■ " ; I I 

• Suet. TitUB, 8. 



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96 BOMS. 

and PaiiYmius, in his Survey, ennmenites no other 
baths than those of Titos, in Hq^on III. of Rome. 
Be this as it may, it is certain that the Batha of 
Titos, though open to the public, were attached to 
his own palace, some yestiges of which, or posdUy 
of the upper story of the baths, are still pointed out 
in a vineyard above die Patombaray or gunpowder 
manufactory. They consist of a broken seetion of a 
high semidroular hndi wall, with two rows of large 
niches, one above another ; but what particular pur- 
pose the building, of winch we see this fragment, may 
have served in die days of Titos, it would require 
considerable hardihood now even to hasard a conjec- 
ture. 

The Thermae and Pabu» of Titos were built with 
the ruins, and on the site of the wide-spreadiDg 
buildings and pleasure-grounds of Noro^s Golden 
Palace ; and they extend from tiie base of the Es- 
qniline HiU, near the Colosseum, to one of its sum- 
mits at the Churches of S. S. Martino e Sylvestro, 
and to another at S. Pietro in Vinooli. 

That part of these interesting ruins whidi has 
been excavated is near the Colosseum. We passed 
the mouths of nine long eorridors, as the Ita&ans 
call them— not that this is a very appropriate term 
(though I cannot find a better) for long passages 
converging together like the radii of the sqpment of 
a circle, divided firom each other by dead walls, co- 
vered at the top, and closed at the end. They must 
always have been dmrk. They are supposed to have 
been entrances to the baths, and they are supposed 

2 



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ROMX. 97 

to liaTeMrT0dM«l»tnmlMiiif tollMthMlreal^ 
which is 0uppo$€d to h^ye foimcd a part cf the up- 
per story, of whidi not s tiaoe feraains ; and the 
whole isS these siqppootions have their seuree in the 
infljMpmahle imngmtioos of B<Mnap entiqneries. No- 
thing 10 ocvtem akout them» exocptfng that thejr u% 
not worth laoldng at In one of then aie piled op 
various ]pesea of hioken am^iene, tsna eott% mair- 
bles of variouB kinds, and other helewigeneoua fn%* 
ments fooad in ^ kte exeevations bj die Frendi, 
among which were eone pots of ooIdciis. They were 
aaalyeedy bat nothi^f new was di s covere d , and we 
are edll as ignorant as ever as to the cause of die bdOU 
Uaacy and dovability of the hues of ancient painting. 
Having passed tbese oenidon, we enlersd the 
portal ef what is called the House of MeqwMis, n 
name so jusOy dear to every admirer of taste SDod 
lUentore, that we did net feel disposed too scrupa- 
loudy to qnesdon the grounds of the belief, that we 
aetnidly stood withm die walls of that dasne hafai- 
tatioD, where Horace and Vii^il, and Ovid and An- 
guBtns,''^ mmt have so often met In fact, this can* 
not now adndt of any veiy demonstrative proof; bat 
it is known that the House and Gardens of Mecs^ 
naa stood in this part of the EsfdUne Hill, whidb, 
before it was giv^ to him by Auguslais, was the 
chamel ground of the common people ;t that the < 



* Augn^^Ktey irhen kidSspbsed, tiled to take up hii abode in 
tfaeheoidofMecieiias. Suet Aug. 79. 
tlfoMoe^UkLOAee^ 

VOL. II. O 



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98 KOME. 

flagration of Neio^s reign* did not fweh to them ; 
and whether spared fiom oonyenience, or firom re- 
spect to the memory of that great patron of arts and 
literature, it is believed a part of them was taken by 
Nero into his buildings, and by Titos into his baths-f 
Antiqaaries think they can trace a difference in the 
bridc.work and style of building, between what they 
consider the erection of Augustuses and of Titus'*s 
age ; and on these grounds, die parts they point out 
to you as vestiges of the House of Mecasnas, are, 
the entrance I have already named, which leads into 
a range of square roofless chambers, (christened, on 
supposition, the Public Baths,) and the wall on the 
right, in passing through thcni, which is partially 
fonned of reticulated building in patches. 

From these real or imaginary classic remains, we 
jentered a damp and dark corridor, the ceiling of 
which is still adorned with some of the most beauti- 
fid specimens that now remain of the paintings of 
antiquity. Their colouring is fiist fading away, and 
dieir very outline, I should fear, must be oNiterated 
at no very distant pmod, so extreme is the humidity 
of the place, and so incessantly does the water*diop 
ML By the light cf a few trembling tapers elevated 
on the top of a long bending cane, we saw, at least 



* Tacitus, lib. xv. cap. 39, mentions, that the flames were 
extinguished at the base of the Esquiline HilL' 

t Jntea septdcra erant in loco in quo suni HorH MaeenaHs 
iibi sunt modo ThemuB^ — ^AcaoN. Naidini otintasts, I ibiafc 
without any just grounds, the authmiicity of the abcle pss- 
aage. 



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ROME. 99 



twenty ftet dboye oar heads, pMiitiiigs i 
ezecDled with a gmoe, a ft eedwn, a oonecteees of 
desigii, aiidamMterlycomiDaiidef paMil, thatawa- 
kmned oar highest ednumtioiif in spite of ell the dis- 
adTsntages ondfir which they were viewed* Insensi- 
Ue of the pcnetnCiBg damps and dulling eold, we 
oontnraed to stretdi oar neefcs with adniiing tfe 
Faun, the Nymph, the Baeehante, the Merenry, the 
L.OWC8 and Graoes, the twiung flowets i 
groups of gay imag^y, which the dasnc 
ticm of the Roman paintsr had assemhled i 
centuries ago. 

To Raphael these exquisite figures were a sdiool 
of art He transfused much of their soul and spirit 
into his own compositions, hot made no shmdi copy 
of them. The senseless assertion made by the ma- 
lignity of those who wish to dqjirade lofty gemos to 
the lefdl of their own groTelling minds, that Raphael 
sought to conceal these masterpieces of ancient art, 
by causing the excavations to be filled up, and tried 
to pass off this style of painting as Ids own, I should 
have thought too oontemptiUe finr notice, but fiir 
yomr obeervatiens on the subject. 

Not a shadow of proof can be broi^fat in support 
of the calumny, but there is abundant e^ence of 
its fidsehood. For, besides that arabesques are de- 
scribed by Vitruvius, whose works were in the hands 
of Raphael, as well as of every other architect of his 
day, and that it can scarcely be supposed he would 
lay claim to the invention when the whole body of 
hb rivals could pnrre its amiipii^; and besides that 
the corridors of Hadrian's villa, painted in arabesque, 



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100 ROME. 

hare been opm to pnblie iiMpeetion emk firom the 
dayi of thai emperar ; every oae who has may ae- 
qnaintanfe wifth the hietay of art muBt be aware^ 
that these idmiticai anbesques were MTer ooncealed, 
never filled ap^-^mt were openly stodied, as wdil by 
RaphaeTs schobrs and cantempecaiies ar by himselC 
To take at random the first instanee of their noto- 
riety that occurs to my memory, Bmvenuto Cdtini, 
in his Memoirs, casually alludes to these paintings 
in Titos^s Baths as univatai% known, and as the 
avowed source firom whidi Raphael had tsken die 
idea of the designs with which he had recently adorn- 
ed die Vatican* A thousand oAer instances might 
be.adduced, if it could be necessary to confute what 
has not a shadow of proof. 

A moral confiitation, not less conviMing, I need 
scarcely mention, that a being possessed of the gene- 
rous qnrit, the great mind, and the high consdous 
powers of unequalled genks of Raphael, could net 
beguilty of anact of such metoi liltienesB and shame- 
ful disi]iigeiiiiou8ness« 

There aeems to be something in the Works of the 
ancients, in their poetry, their eloqoente, their foalp- 
ture, their artUtecture, and even in ihat nost fin- 
gile <tf the fine arts, their painting, that wai isipe* 
rishable in its nature. Raphaers arabe^ues in the 
Vatican have sufiered nearly as much in three oea- 
turies as these have done in seventeen. 

I have hem accused of valuing them on secount 
oftheiraiktiquily,anditistrue. That antiqvliQr bM 
an unspeakable diann for me ; and I own, I sdmiie 



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BfOME. 101 



ihem not only, becaose thej ate beMitiM> bat be^ 
cause they are andent. 

How 06x109 m I have >gaied open die eaqabite ara- 
besfaeaof dieseniiBty or on die paintisga taken fton 
the wdb of Pompeii, with incBeasiBg interest and ad- 
mintion— hag die sense of their unimpaired oudine, 
theb halliaDcy and harmony of eolouring, and the 
long saopession of ages that haTo rolled away since 
those hiii^f fanns and dnta were hastily impressed 
on the waU^^ren me a delight that no prodnctioai 
of yestesday, however perfect, conld hare nwakmied i 

Of lh^ merit, distinct fioom sneh feelings, I am 
not, porhaps, an unpfejudieed or a competent judga 
Bat the troth, the freedom, die correctness of desigi^ 
the exquisite grace of atfitude, and die felimty eT 
fimcy that hieathe from every specimen of the paint- 
ings of the ancients, mnst diarm eroiy ^je^-^uni are 
anefa as m^;ht be expeoted from die p^ection of theiv 
Bculptuse, and the purity of their taste. 

The £ew designs of landscapes I hare seen, lunM 
evef— one of which was excavated beBate my eyes is 
a house at Poibpeii-p*are strangely infaior to theis 
hiBtorical pamtings, and are, in fiiict, Imieadi crid^ 
cism ; total violation of the laws of perqpeedve, whe^ 
ther proceeding from ignorance or inattention, ha^, 
ving produced total failure. They are scarcdy one 
d^ree ^vated above the drawing on a duna plate; 

But we ought, in estimating the merits of ancient 
pamtmg, to remember, that die specimens of it we 
possess are probably not of the first order. Ara. 
besques, diat covered an immepse eii^teiit of rooms and 
passages, ought rather to Imt regarded as intended oal- 



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lOfi BOM£. 

kettTely fin* general enwonenfail e ft c t, dun as fso* 
ducdons of indiyidual ezoelleBee. 

Anbesque peintingg^ ve know, were dengned as 
nddteduial or funiiahing deeoradons, and, aa aodiy 
were oondemned by Yknmas ; and, even if we diould 
admit the Tiolent improbebility, diat Ae greatest 
mastetB of the art had exerted dieb Aill in embpHiA* 
kig the humUe dwellings of a distant aea^pert like 
Pompeii, or the acres of boilcKngsdMit composed the 
Theimie of Titu8,iti8 impossible diat, on dn small 
scale and restricted plan of diis dass of paindngs, 
dieir great powers should appear to advantage. What 
diould we have diought of Raphael, had he left be- 
hind him nothing but his arabesques ? How do diejr 
&de before the immortal frescoes of his Camere ? 

These very frescoes may be cited as a proof, duit, 
as the greatest masters of modem times did not dis- 
daih to embellish the walls of a papal palace, the first 
among die ancients would exert thmr skill to deco- 
rate the Thermce of a R(nnan emperor. Bat the im- 
mense extent of the Baths <^ Titus, and the short- 
ness of the period in whidi diey were finished,* are 
oondudye proofi that they could not haye been sole- 
ly executed by the labours of one or two of superior 
genius. A multitude of artists must haye been em- 
ployed ; and that the works of no pre-eminent mas* 
ter haye esci^»ed in the few relics which remain, I 
aigue firam die general equality that runs thrpi^h 
die whole. 

* Suetonius particularly mentions the remarkable expedi- 
tion with whidi they were built 



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BOM£« lOS 

The Immi paating dun hm hma ftiiad ia iha 
Baths of Titos, is the fionous iVoxx^ JUhbrmdim.^ 
Its oiserir beMifty of dedgn, cwipwitiiin^ and ex- 
pwiiep, which wete adequle to fom the geniiis ot 
m Pouiwiij do net leqoiie my feeUe pauee. Yet one 
other peintingy whioh still reiiine in the conridor of 
these bethsy repiesenting e group of figures, dedgn^ 
ed with csquisite skill; end many of those taken fifon 
Merculaneom and Pompeii, are of scaredy inferior 
esecUenee ; and I theiefi»re conclude, thai they are 
nil the werk of artists of mediocrity— that they proTe 
n obtain di^gree of perfection in the ait, and a oor<* 
rect knowledge of its most important principlss, to 
faftTe been very generally diffused—and that the best 
woricsof the first masters must have been of very hij^ 
superiority ; for, if an undistinguished artbt paint* 
ed these, what must have been the perfection of the 
works of an Apdks or a Zeuxis ? 

There are, however, two caidtal defects observable 
in all the spedmens of ancient painting which have 
come down to our time. First, the fiuilts in perspeo- 
tiTe*-^the figures, like a basso relievo painted, be* 
iDg represented, as it were^ on the same phun ; and, 
secjpndly, the want of lights, and the consequent ab* 
sence of all the effects of light and shadow, and all 
the magic of chiaro oscuro, on the scientific manage- 

* So csUsd, from the AldobrsBdini GeBery, to which it 
origmsUybeloiiged* It is now to be ieen st the home of 
Signore Nellie 15S Cono. .It is supposed to represent the 
inanriage of Peleos and Thetis. The figure of the Muse, who 
is singing the Epithalamium^ is singularly beautiful* 



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104 BOMS. 



iiMnlofwIiidiMi 
ingdependk 

We muflt Mippoie thne prindplet of the art to 
keve been uidmowii, eren te the gieeteet aitaeCs, 
odwrwise ione ma^ of dwm woQld be TiaUe^ eve^ 
m the woiks of the meeneBt ; end yet, if I lemem- 
ber right, VitruTiua, in his seventh book, mei^ianfl 
e treatise on penpeetiTe, written by AnezagHas and 
-HMNDobody else. 

The Romans, in the ine arts, were only the pa- 
pik and copyists of the Greeks ; and to die kst, the 
bitter preserved their superiority over the enskvers 
of thsir country. 

But this bug disquisition on wdcnt painting 
must have been insupportably wearisome to you, and 
it is certamly doubly hard to hear so mudi f£ it 
when you can see nothing. 

Leaving the painted corridor of the Baths of Titus, 
which is adorned with these beautifiil spedmens of 
andent art, we entered haUs, which, like it^ must air- 
ways have been dark,* but are still magnificent The 
bright colouring of the crims<m stucco, the aksore 
still adorned with gilding, and the ceilings beauti- 
fully pamted with fimtastic designs, still remain in 



* This corridor has had a glimmering artificial ray of bor- 
rowed lig^t from the upper storj^ admitted through square 
apertures in the painted ceiling, whidi were probably tover- 
ed with a grate. I suspect, however, that they were nierdy 
int^ided for the porpose of ventilation, since the leehle my 
that ^tered here could scarcely serve eren to render '^ dark- 
ness visible." 



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HOME. 105 

pwliofdMni; tatt hair cMH, hour diBipi» Imr 
desolate, are now these gloomy halls * of fanpeikl 
liuniry! No sound is to he heafd thimi|^ Aem but 
diftt'oftiiieslovwiatOEwdffop. Certaialy the ideas of 
pleasate in diffiraftt ages have beeft of TCiy oppesile 
desoriptmis* Who would, at this day, fipom choiea, 
bury themselTes in snbteRinean doageons, or cx« 
dia^bge all the sptendoor of the son, Ae ftee air and 
common sky, for the red and dusky j^aie of stifling 
torses f Yet, what is now ccmsidefed aponishnMiit 
too gi«at eren for crimhmk, was then the ehossn en- 
joyment of luxurious Romans ; and the poorest hi- 
hahitant of Britain would not ezdiange his eheetftll 
eottage^ ftr the daric magnifioenoe of Ae imperial 
pslaoeof the Master of the World. 

Yet, the unifinm temperature obtained by the ex- 
clurion of light and sir, the eoolness in summer, aad 
warmth in winter, may ha^e sufficiently eompenaated 
for the want of those Uesrings ; and, indeed, we 
ought to remember, that as the Baths were dbirily 
frequmited at night, the admissbn of %ht, as in our 
theatres, was vnneoessaiy, and they may hare had 
means of vmitilation which we cannot now trace. Wb 
are certainly wholly inadequate judges of what the 
Therms were in dieir days of ^lendour; bat as 
they appear to us now, they cffet little adapted to 
modem ideas of enjoyment. 

In one of the splendtd dungeons of Titus^s Badis 
—thirty-six 6f which hare now been opetied — ^we saw 
the remains of a bath, supposed to have been for the 
priTate use of the Emperor. In another we wece 



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106 nous. 

mwfoiincL* 

It WM difloorered in the time of Leo the Tenlh, 
at wUdi period the rubbiflh wfaidi filled Owse biths 
WM 80 thoroughly sifted, that I should fear these is 
little probability that any such prise reasaiDS to re- 
wavd the labours of fiitunadTfl8ituTer& TheFieodi, 
who cleared out a great many of these chanAers, 
found nothmg bat the Pluto and Cerbems, now in 
ihe Capitd, a work of very indifferent seulptoze. 

Still, as it is well known that the finest statues 
were plaeed in the Baths, either beeauise they were 
the iGiTourite retreats of imperial luxury and pies- 
sure, or beeause they appeared.to most advantage by 
the light of torches, the only ray that penetrated 
their darkness; and as, if report say true, whole 
miles of ancient Thermas remain unexpired, many 
hidden treasures of sculpture may yet be discovered. 

* Nardini says it was found in a vineyard near the Palom- 
bara, bat Winkelman exposes his mbtake, and proyes tbat it 
was diaoovered in this peeclse spot. Its disaovery ia recorded 
on the tomb. of its diseoyerer^ in the Church of Ara Coeli, as 
" his praise in death." It appears, therefore, that this part 
of the ruins belonged to the Palace of Titus, in which Pliny 
telh us it stood in his time. It is satisfactory to have a new 
prosf that this is the identical masterpiece of Grecian scnlp- 
tore which he extolled. Yet, though answering in style, in 
age, in perfection, and even ia its exact local situation to that 
description, it has, hy the unaccountable perversity of some 
antiquaries, been pronounced a copy, not the original; an 
opinion which seems to me so wholly unsupported by proba- 
InHty or evidence, that I shall not stop to notice it. 



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XOMC. lOT 



reputed hooae of MecKnas* some hrokeii^dinni brick 
wilki and a moal UdeoiiB waahedUout Madonna, 
whidi bdkmged (o a chuidi or chapd that oaoa 
irtoodhere. - 

From benee we went to tbeChwdi of S. S. Mar* 
tino and Sylreatio, whidi is also built <m the mino 
of the Battia of Titos, though at least half a mile 
from the part we had been ezaminiBg« 

Tlie interior of this churdi stnidc me as one of the 
aoet chaste and beaotifiil in Borne, Th)e phitftnn 
and tribonet where the high altar is rsised above the 
Confession, or Tomb of the Sttnts, suirounded bj 
the Tidiest pavement of inlaid marbles, have a meal 
striking eflfi^t. The naves ave formed by a doable 
range of ancient columns of beautiiul marble. But 
these spmls of ancimt Borne are treated like the 
victims on the bed of Procrustes* If too long, they 
are cat down, — ^if too short, they are extended ; and 
these having been in the latter predicament, ^are 
stuck on pedestals of the most dwarfish disprapovf 
tion; and pedestals , even when formed ^don ks 
rigkSy I always entertained a most anti-Palladian 
aversion to. This I cannot allow to be a proof of 
want of taste, since I find, to my great satisfaction, 
no pedestals used in any of the ancient buildings of 
Greece, w Bome ; and Palladio, with all his diurches 
and pdaoes, wiU never rival the Pantheon or the 
Parthenon. To solitary pillars, of course, pedestals 
are indispensable ; bat in buildings, how beautiful it 



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108 moMX. 

k to see the gkriovt matyof dn coknMdeviB&ig- 
ii^ from the earth, and not propped up on. stilta ! 
, The most attEactm tight in the ehureh, p3 na, 
waa a aeries of landacapea by Oaaper PouaaiB, paont^ 
ed whilst he took refiige in this conyent fiom ihe 
plague wMch depopulated Rame. Thqr are unipies. 
tionaUy beautifiil compositions, but vapidly execn;- 
ted, widi no depth, no effect, apparently dene before 
his genius had reached maturity. 

Our examination of them was intermpted by the 
arriral of a lay-brother, with tapera and keys, to 
guide us to the crypt below the ehoreh, wUeh an- 
ciently fonned a part of the Baths of Tittts, and is 
Moi to have been oouTerted into a fdaee of worslcqi 
by St Sylvester I. during the persecutionB against 
the Christians. 

Under his ausjAces also, the first Gen^al.CowioM 
was h^d in thia dismal dimgeon, after the coi rve sra i on 
of Constantino. 

There was sometlni^ in the deep obscoxity and 
unbroken silence of die phu» that impreaned a ftri- 
ing of awe and mdancholy on the mind. We stood 
before the plain and simple altar of the early Cht^ 
tians, where the incense of prayer and supfdication 
had been offered up in solemn secrecy. We dhady 
saw around us the forgotten tombs of princes and 
abbots mouldering in-obscnrity. The flickering glare 
of the taper fell on the discoloured red hat of aCar^ 
dinal, suspended above his monument, and dropping 
into dust, like the bones of him that slept below% 



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ROM B. 1«9 

'' Vamtyof twttei,'' 

We'tfod on a fragmat of the > 
wliite MonicpaTnwiit of die TiMrmttrf Ti^ 
imi^^, Mit waSfWiditluitofkteragWyitnedlad 
to OS the time when tfah flinty floor, ** thai lioly 
knees had woni,^ had lesonoded to ibt taead of die 
proud maatera of die irarld. Aa we ranged duough 
these damp and dlent chambers, whidi, after being 
tbe alternate scene of iflsperial loxarj, and of hnm* 
Ue piety, were now abandoned to the iqiose of the 
die ad tb e voices oftheQgmditemonks in the ehetr 
above, diantbg the evening service, readied oar 
ear through these echeing Tanks, in a fall and pro- 
lottged swell* These solemn soonds of praise, drai 
raisedto God by the unseen inhabitants ef dm dois- 
ter-po^ien who had voluntarily algured the hopes and 
pkasores of life to devote themsdves to hMven-— 
breathed the snUime spirit of devotion; and, joined 
to die deep gloom of die place,«-ito wide eatent,— its 
remote anidqatty,-*--4md die tembs of die dead dimly 
SisiUe around ns,^-i>toucbed onr hearts with erne- 
timis not bom of th» world. Under their influence 
we lingered till the strain ceased ; we returned to die 
upper church ; the spell of feeling was broken, and 
Bnason resumed her empire. 

She imme£ately began to make her mquiries; 
and being, like most of her sex, a lady of an inqoi^ 
sitiye turn, b^ged to know how it happened that M 
St Sylvester, or any other Saint, chose one of the 
Tfamnas, the most puUic places in Rome, and the 



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110 BOBCE. 



fiequented by dw idle and dkaolole Paginsy 
to perform the forbidden rites, and hold the secret 
neetings of the early Christians? 

Nor could it, she said, be pretended that these 
ThemMe were deserted at that period, (the end o£ 
' the third century,) when even the Christians vere 
rebuked fw resorting to them even in the sixth. 

Moreover, she was confounded by the Mj^t o£ 
long lists of martyrdoms, which, if the legend and its 
date be true, must have happened in the reign of 
Ccmstantine ; and she asked, if the Christians were 
tortured by the very same Emperor who established 
Christianity P 

But Reason in vain proposed her questions and 
remarks. She got no satisfiiction from the monks. 
They continued in the same tone to assert, that» in 
<' i^mfi anHchi;' St Sylvester, and all the rest of 
the Christians, w^ie persecuted^ and had their church 
here ; that in <^ tempt anMiT these were Titas^s 
Baths; in " tempi antichT the first Council was 
held here under Constantine ; and in '^ tempi amr 
HMT the Saints were martyred here ; but all times 
past and events were jumbled by them into one ge- 
neral <^ temfi onHchu^ 

It was impossible to make than attoid to dates <Mr 
circumstances, to observe their own contradietions^ 
or allow the most notorious facts of history. They 
paused with a stupid gase of astonishment ; and, 
fbr all rejjdy, began again with ^' tempi ontiM.^ 

But, even with this co^gent argument, nothing they 
4^uld say o£ the merito and mirades of St. Sylvester 



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BOMS. Ill 

— not eren the aigbt of die Toy dkair he had tit m 
— HDor his picture on the wall-— nor the rdies of the 
martyrs— nor the instruments of their martyrdom'^ 
consisting of heavy Roman weights, said to have been 
soqpended ronnd their Christian necka— nor the re^ 
dtal of all the tortures thqr underwent, with these 
most uncomfortable necklaces,— ^nor anything dse, 
—could convince me, that, befSne the estaUidiment 
of Christianity, old St. Sylvester was sudi a fool aa 
to say mass in the Baths of Titus, or that the Bo^ 
mans were civil enough to allow him; or that after it, 
this long string of saints were put to death fiir being 
Christians. 

I did not leave the Church of the Samts Martin 
and Sylvester without forming a fervent wish that 
the monks of this convent, and of every other in 
Rome, were enjoined, by way of a wholes(»ne pe^ 
nance for the good of their aoula— <md bodies,— to 
dig for a certain number of hours every day at the 
ruins of Rome ; which, besides bong a great advan* 
tage to themselves, might Wing to light unsuspect- 
ed treasures of art. While speculating upon this, 
and all the other clever things I would do iif I were 
Pope, we arrived at the Setie SalUf a ruin whidi 
stands in another part of the Esquiline Hill, in a 
londy vineyard near the Pahmbaraf and those re»- 
mains of the upper story of the 7%en»ur, or Palace 
of Titus, that I mentioned before. 

These seven halls are better than they promise, 
for they proved to be nine, and an equal number, 
it is said, are beneath them, which make e^hteen. . 



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112 BOMIL 



Thej hare enieniHj been imiiiciifle reserroin <^ 
witer, not only fiir the me of the Beths of Titns^ 
which could not require so enormous a supply, bat 
likewise to fill at pleasure the immense arena of 
the Colosseum, whidi was occasionally used for a 
Nanmaehia,* as well as an Amphitfaeatre. If a doubt 
could remain of their destination, which their form 
and structure suffidendy explain, it might be ob- 
served, that the tartareous d^odt, which has pene- 
trated the stucco,— «the same that is found in the 
dbannels of many of the aqueducts, and to this day 
is left in the bed of Anio,*«4s a decifiTie proof that 
these buildings must have contained water. It is 
precisely similar to the substance found on the walls 
of the great Teservoir,^the PUcina MirabUe at 
Bai8s,i-«and, like that, polishes into a sort of marble. 

These halls communicate with each other by means 
of four apertures in each of the diTision walls« so , 
^aced as to intersect them diagonally ; so that stand* 
ing at the most remote, you see the long diagwiid I 
line of the whole of the nine halls in beautifUL per- 
spective* 

I forgot to say, that Trajan finished or enlarged 
(3ie Baths of Titus, in consequence of which t^hey 
hove been called Themue Trofqnce ; and they w«re \ 
afterwards repaired and embellidbed by Hadrian, and I 
have also borne his name. 

* Domitian^ as well as Titos^ exhibited a grand naval fight 

111 the Amphkbeatte, beafides sereral engagements in the Nan- j 

macbia which he b«uK near the Tiber, beliweeD fleets ahnost I 

aa numerous as those in real battles. Suet Dom. 4. i 

4 



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KOMS. lis 



LETTER XXXT. 

THERMJB OF BIOCLKTIAH — ^BOTOKDA, OB CROTtCB 
OF 8. BSftl^A&i>0— GTMNi^STIC THEATmK— OmBAT 
COTEBSi) HALL OF THE BATHS, OB CHITBCH OF 
THE CABTHUSIANfr-— OOMENICHIKO^S FBE8C0 OF 
ST. SEBASTIAN — TOKB OF SALTATOB B08A, AKD 
CABLO MABATTI— BIANCHIl^I^S KEBIDIAK— -CAB* 
THUSXAN K0KX5?— TILLA MA68IMI*— BIBLIOTHB- 
CA ULPIA — ^THB EIGHTY TU01JSAJRD MABTTBS-— 
BIOCLBTIAN'— TKBBMJS OF qOKSTAVTlHE— BITIIT 
OF TH^ THEBKiB. 

We droTe this moniing to the Baths of Diode** 
tiapy which are scattered over the summit of the 
Quinnal and Yiminal Hill, and which, in extent, as 
well.as splendour, are said to have surpassed allAhe 
Thermae of Ancient Rome. 

Though they do not stand in the same imposing 
loneliness of situation, as those of Caiacalla, the wide 
space of vacant and grass-grown ground over which 
their ruins may be teaeed, tells a melancholy tale of 
departed magnificence. 

The Thermse of Diocletian were finished by Mazi- 

VOL. II. H 



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114 ROME. 

roiMi- They have, appwenUy, been built in the form 
of an immense oblong square, with a circular hall, 
according to some accounts, at all the four comers, 
but more probably at two only, and these are still 
standing. One of them, which is much dilapidated, 
has been converted into a granary ; and the other 
owes its prescrvatbn to- the piety (rfim old countess, 
who, some centuries back, transformed it into the 
Church of San Bernardo, and endowed the convent 
<6 which it belongs. 

It has been said by some antiquaries, that this ball 
was anciently a Caldarium^ or Tepidarium. I would 
by no means presume to contradict anything they 
say, but, in this instance, they contradict themselves ; 
for if, as they pretend, dU the baths were always in 
the subterranean story, then these halls could not 
have been baths, because they were in the upper. 
Setting this aside, if, by a Caldarium, or Tepida- 
rium, it is meant that each of these lofty halls was a 
sort of huge cauldron, or great bath, in which the 
people bathed sociably all together, with a little wa- 
tcr at the bottom, and a great air-hole at the top, — 
where, I would ask, were the means of heating or 
filling them ? One of them is in perfect* preserra- 
tion, and yet no tubes, channels, or other convey- 
ance for water, such as we see in the ruins of all an- 
cient baths, have ever been found in the walls or the 
pavement— in the roof above, or the earth beneath 
them. If we are to suppose that they were filled 
with a variety of little baths, the difficulty is still the 
same, — how were they filled or heated ? 



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ROME. 115 

If, IioweT^, they were not InOlit, I see still \em 
reason to imagine that they were temfdes, wfakh they 
have been Bometiines called. They bear no appear- 
ance of ever haring had that indispensable part of 
temples^-^i portico ; nor can I find any authority for 
the beUef-^now, I think, nearly exploded^^hat any 
of the TA^rfiup erer contained temples; or see, in 
any part of their wide- spread ruins, the vestiges of 
any building bearing any resemblance to them. 

It seems most probable, that the cirenlar halls in 
question were neither baths nor temples, but belo^g- 
ed to that part of the Thermae which was devoted to 
purposes of amusement, though what may have been 
their peculiar destination, it would be vain now to 
inquire. 

Into that ancient haU, which now serves the worthy 
purpose of a granary, we could get no admittance; 
but the other, the Churdi of St. Bernard, into wUdi 
we atlast effected an entrance, is really a noUe build- 
ing, and the light pouring in thxbugh the top ef the 
lofty dome, accorded well idth the stillness and si- 
lence that rdfpMd through it, and with the figure of 
the only human being it contained*-— an old monk, 
who was kneeliog before the altar of his patnm saint. 
Perhaps he was imploring the image to grant him 
padence, for we had disturbed him from his siesta to 
admit u8,-7havittg come to the gate while the holy 
fathers were, indulging, as usual, in a comfortable 
nap after the labours of theb noonday repasfc,«-and 
long and loudly had we rung, before we succosded in 
awakening this One unwilling inonk-<-?*for a monit hfc 



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116. UQME. 

was ; I hdl irilhMitod him cttmdy, bf tri^ 
for a Iqr-hrodier. 

We asked lum to show at aome xoaaina at the 
baths, which are still to be seen ia Ae gaxdeH of hk 
conrent ; bat nather «itrea^, impartanity, nor bri- 
bery, could pievail on hm to let as see them ; none 
^ the female ser, It seeBM, bemg ever admitted 
among their cabbages. 

Our despair, hdwerer, at this refiual, iras after- 
wards ameliorated, wheu we frimd another entrance 
into an adjoining garden, opposite the Churdi of 
Santa Maiia d<«li Angeli, which equally gave us 
access to the ruins we wished to see. 

This garden cTidently occupies the arena of a 
Gymnasium, Palsestra, or some theatre, which, ttcm 
its feim and stroetnre, must have served for pen- 
tatWc games. It is surrounded by a semicircukr 
poirfico, the central part of which has apparently 
been the seat, far Suggukts^ of the EiqMMir. By 
the monks, it has been converted into a small Ora- 
torio, or diBpel, but it is iiow fiilling into ruin. In 
another part of this pottieo, an bumbk but decent 
dwelling has been ftrmed, the mistress of which in- 
vited us to enter^ and accepted our acknowledgments 
with the << Padromer and the pee^aily wfaaaniig 
amile and gnture with which the Roman femalcB 
pronounce this courteous word. Having asocnded 
her naisow staircase, we waUcedakn^g the raised ter- 
taoe of diis portico, but saw notUag to adnare ex- 
cept die <»ai^ trees, whose mii^tod flowers and 
^fiuit were flomishinff wMnn it 



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BOME. 117 



of tli» Tkam^y wUdi feons to Imto ilMd in dit 
eotter ^m eiwortcd iato Ae Cbnidft of 8Mta lift, 
lia dvgli Angdiy hy M* A« BiMMMtlit but it bw 
ban cMwJcwJJy abend, and paAapa not fir tba 
better, hjr aaeeeeding aidiitaoli. The entnnoa ta it 
is now at tbe nda inatead of tbe end, throng a cb^ 
cnUur yealibiile, figbtaAfroDLtba top^ and finulai m 
fimntotiieCbiinl&ofSanBemaido. AfteralldM 
chnnggji that baire been inaA% bowavac, dua noMa 
ban retatnt mneh of its oeigiBal fins and baan^* 
PeriuQw^ indeed, it owea its giawbui of eAct aa 
well to nagnitiida as to design, and I wiH not deny 
Ant ita aidntectme may be dungaabla witb baari- 
neaa; bnt abbonf^ it waa bdt at a period wban 
tlie attsy and their piumi taste, bad gieady ^ ^ijKiih^ 
ftom tbeb iUl perftctien, it ia one dt tbe iKiat par* 
ftct and beantiU rsmaina of antiipvty tbat Bone 
ean boast, and on^ wbi^ it ia impniwibbi to bdiold 
witbont admiration* 

Yon sund ki a baB Axee bmdied and fil^ fiiRt 
in kngdi, and idnety in height, tbe uniftmiity of 
tbe foim of wUeb ia iwried by tbe^ cirenlar ball of 
entranoe opcaMiV to it in the eantra of one aide, and 
a deep iecess» V rather oUong ebamber, en Ibo 
olhar, in whisb slanda tbe high altar. 

The YSttlted roof, stSl studded witb the netalBe 
carelea to which the lamps were sospended, is sop- 
parted by sist^cn noble Corinthian edumns, eight of 
whidi oidy are ancient, and are of Egyptian gipanita; 
tbe rest ai^ painted so iogeniooaly in imitation of 



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118 BOMK« 

tbehf that, «fc a little diitalioe, to the c)Fe diejr pto- 
doee cottipkte unifiiraitty. The proportien of the 
cehuoDt^ as well at of the haD, was iBfoied bj iai-» 
img the paranent above the ancieiit level, wUch 
was done bjr.MidbaelJAiigdei to goaid aganst the 
hiinidity of the grouad* Woi|ld it not have been 
bettec to have dog it ont.to a siiflbdent depth ? 
- This nobh. chuvck'ia adoiind with a yariety of 
paintbgSy none of whiah, however, excited my ad-> 
HBtation,: except the martyrdom of St- Sehastiatt, in 
fietoo, by Demenichino, oiiginaBy painted in St Pe- 
ter's, where the mosaic copy now sup^es.its piace^ 
and afterwards brought here« The compoeitioii is- 
too crowded and confused, but every fignre is a atudy^ 
that might ferm a painter. It is masked tfareoghout 
ifilh die boldness df conception, the force, the crigi- 
naUty, the nature and the pathos of his vigorous 
and expressive penciL The dying resignation of the 
BtiSEenng samt»--4he agoniaing despair of his firiends- 
— the hsrdened indifference of the brutal execution** 
ets-^above all, the beauty and smiling inaocenee of 
tbe diildren, hanging by their affiij^tted mothci^i 
contrasted with the dark ferocity of the Roman com* 
xAanders, are indeed worthy of that lofty genius which 
bi^ed only to the supremacy of RaphaeL 

Whd can turn from this to the fe^leness of Cario 
Mftratti, on the opposite wall ! 

Not only the work, but the tomb of that ardst,, 
stands in this church, and we contemplated it with 
the respect due to merit, which, however inferior to 
diat which had gone before, at least sprpas4^ any 



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SOM& 149 

lluifelMBttiice^TwkidtheMrid. XfaeMii 
SalraKNT Bata^.oppeiite, amkcaed £u deapcr 
rest ; md ike .iBseriiitoaii, whidi zcminded «% lluift 
genioB, wkoie earily pronia^ vat pcematmly blif^ 
ed and cut <^ by dark and uniadatad paarioiHj dap^ 
bclow«<*drew a ^gfa froaa many a boflom that galba^ 
ed round to view it. 

On the^pa^Miaptrf thk dnntch, a meridian waa 
traced in tlie year 1701> by Bimichini, tha antiqaaiy^ 
I foUawad ite eloping line mdigieat abow jc£ via* 
dmn, looked Jip at tbeeolar ray which enten iimm^ 
a amall fMinetore in the rQof» and vaa pcrfiwtlji 
fied that it might be one i^ the meet perfect i 
dimoB that erer waa tcaoed ; bat it ia equally i 
that if it had been one of the wertt, I never ahouU 
haTe-fbimd it out ; for the fiu^t ia, 1 know nothing of 
the matter* If, hoveTer, you ahould wiab finr a fiill 
and particular account of thia meridian, I ahould * 
suppose you would find it in afolio deacription of it 
pdbttafaed in Rome, the dimenriona of which were 
the only part I examined. 

This <^urdli bdonga to the CerUmOy or Conrcnt 
of Carthusians, who are of the same <»dcr aa the 
Chartreuse, eaoeptii^ that their rules are leas rigid 
in Italy than in France. We aeem deatined to-disy 
to disturb the peace of Cloiflters ; for having been 
informed that some remains of the Thermae were en- 
closed within the eourt of the Convent; and know* 
ing by experience the inefficacy of jKiIicitatbas for 
admittance^ we walked through the forbidden gate# 
way,, and proceeded straight onwards to the objects 



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ISO WOMK, 



eviofi^, tikiag eve Mi 10 hMnr ih0 ' 
I «f ft moakf who pnmml w Hi fiMfe «i iw oon.* 
Mtent^with his digaity, calling to ui, in a iiaice of 
honor, to ilop. Inniogoatftidfaq;^d<"^to Ids 
orie8» he hod r^oouiee to the graot Convent b^ 4» 
e4iidi ho nu^i so loud onidanun^ that the wh^ €oiifr« 
munity ran oat in the utmoot oonoteraation. They 
diqpotohod one of thair body in aolenni dopitation^ 
to iifaaom to ua the enomity of our crffinaoe ; but 
not even his threata of excommnnicatJon in this 
world, end something wone in the MKt^ had any ef- 
fiMt npon our hacdenod oonk. Te ^oaae then^ how- 
ever, we finiahod as ^piieldy as possifab our forroy 
of the rains which had boon die solo caUBo of owr 
imqption herc^ <and wiuich seomod. to hsYO fbraacd 
f9i>x% of a pertioo,) and assuring him we had no eyil 
intention upon the goodfiitheriy and had not so mocb 
' aa the least wish to aee thenwwbut that, sinoe they 
had chosen to tidte up their abode among the ruins 
of Borne, they mAst ley ihetr account wiih hmng 
occasicnial visits from ladies, who had come from the 
other extiemity of Europe to view them — ^we took 
our departure, and quietness was rostorod widiki the 
Ponvent They took care to shut the gates behind 
us 9 venfying the psoveib, of barring the stable-door 
wheh the stOed is rtolen^ 

Thus, these kaUs^ that wore built for Pagan in* 
dulgenooy are now conrerted into the scene of mo* 
nastic austerity. The monks of St Benuird, and tfae 
Carthusians, divide between them the ruins of the 
spleiidid Therms of Diocletian, Ufa hs solo remaiDA 



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BOME. 131 

art eemppehwrftd in ilie ti»o dMMrohq^* the gWBMiff , 
and dM huimA thealie, aliMdj^ meiitJoB«d» in. thtir 



There ise^ indeed) eeme other ineoneideniUe i 
terad Testages : One day, in wandenttg nhoiit theaei 
nBBi^ I CRine to ^building, onee perlmpB a m9gai&^ 
cent haU» but new the luaersble dwdUing of a mil* 
kteer, whose bHrge huikf of mules and diildmn were 
aS eomfiHTtably aooomflaodated together beneaikh ita^ 
lirftyroof. 

The Vilb Massimi, and its apaeieoa gardens, eo- 
espy apart ef the site of these Thermaa; it is i& the 
Btetoof leddeas neglect, dirt, and c&vepak, so oom** 
men in Italian henses, and is whdly nnliimished 
and abandoiied; li onee posseaaed a valuable cottesbr 
tion of anrient statues and has reliefts and e^n of 
Roman paindngs, fomid in Ae excaTations made 
h^e; bttt I nnderatand they passed inta the posses- 
sisn of the kte Lord Brietri, so wcU known fi» hia 
ecee n trici ty and pasuoB for the wts. 

The BiUicAeea Ulpia was broi^hi to these Tier^ 
marbyDiodetian,from the Forum of Tnyan. Above 
three thousand bagnaruoky as the Italians call them» 
or bathing vesads, {Lavacrih} each hewn ont of one 
immense Uodt of the most costly Grecian marble, or 
Oriental granite^ adorned those baths. Settle of them 
areprescnred in the nuiseum of the Vatican. 

I camxot quit the churches wluch now occupy the 



* The famous Hermaphrodite was found behind the Church 
of St Maria de' AnffH, in Ae gireands ^ these Carthuaigiia. 



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122 HOME. 

site and the niins of ihe Thennie <if IMoektiaii, with- - 
out obflerring that the raenuxry of the fiirty cmt dghty 
thousand martyrs, who, as rarying monkish l^fends: 
crediUy inform us, were massacred at these Baths in 
recompense for having biult them, is still held in de- 
served veneration here. It seems stnmge, however, 
that more respect was not paid to their labours by 
the sacrilegious Pope, who pulled down a consider- 
lible part of the buUdings thus sanctified with their 
blood. 

^ It may seem somewhat improbable that the mild, 
the enlightened, the philosophic Emperor, whose 
name they bear, should, in the short and single visit* 
he ever paid to Rome, amuse himself with the ddi- 
berate massacre of rither forty or eighty thousand of 
his subjects. The enormous amount, as well as con- 
tradictory statement of the numbers, is an ample re- 
futation of a preposterous accusation, unsupported 
hy any admissible evidence. But while we acquit 
him of such exterminating barbarity, we are com-, 
pelled to acknowledge, that, however little cittis&nant 
to his character, the stain of persecution is indeUUy 
i^xed to the memory of Diocletian- When, after a 
reign of twenty-one years of glory and of virtue, he 
entered Rome, for the first time, to share with his 
mipenal colleague the last proud triumph Borne was 
ever destined to witness,-.when, even in that proud 
— t, he meditated the abdication of the purple. 



moment. 



Vide Gibbon. He only staid two months. 



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nOME. 19S 

atid needed Hot the whisper of the monitor ^ tx»r^ 
member *' be irns only a man ;** Ae fiery mandate to 
extirpate Cbrisdanity and Christians, iras already 
gone abroad, and for ten succeeding years, that on*. 
fortunate sect was porsued with infle^dble hostility. 

But when a slarc, a peasant, and a shepherd,f sal 
in conjunction on the throne of the Csesars, the op- 



* Am attendant was always stationed behind the victor in 
the triumphal car^ to repeat to him, as the proud procession 
mored along, " Remember thou art a man T In republican 
times, at least, such was the custom ; I do not remember whe*' 
tfaer it was afterwards preserred, or whether tradi was al« 
lowed to be whispered iato an imperial ear. So^ in the no* 
ment of hif exaltation to the chair of St. Peter, the bei^> , 
eveu now, lights the smoking flax, and, as it consumes away, 
exclaims to the spiritual monarch of the world, the earthly 
king of kings, " Sancte Pater ! Sic transit gloria mundi,'* 

f Diodetim, Maxiinian, and Galerius. Diocletian was 
the son of a Dahnatian slave ; Maximian, a Pannonian pea* 
santy who ser?ed as a common soldier; Galerius, a Dacian 
shephexd> or cow-herd. Galerius, however, (like ConsUntiua 
Chloms, who was then employed in subduing Carausius, the 
Roman usurper, in Britain,) was Caesar only, not Emperor; 
but his influence was thought to have been chiefly instm- 
mental m first causing^ the persecntion against the Christians, 
andeairying it on after the abdication of Diocletian, when 
Miximiao had elevated him and the mild and merdfiil Con* 
stantius to supreme power. So foreign was persecution to the 
nature of Constantius, that, on his death-bed, at York, he 
recommended the Christians to the special protection of his 
son and successor, by whom their faith wad soon afterwards 
established. - . 



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124 ROME. 



pEdbnam imitt «l least be dSvided; wd Oie ka- 
plaeaUe hostility of la* coUeagoes and suooesms 
tmrndta ihtt unfiMrtanate aeet^ would seem to piom» 
that Ihe long yean of peifecl tokmtioQ they had m- 
joyed dining the whok of hk pieeediBg ragn, mic^t. 
be more certainly iaqpiited to Iom mildness and mc^ 
dcntaon, than lihe edict of perseeutbn which dis- 
graced its close, to his cruelty. That mandate was 
extorted by the long-continaed importunity, perhaps 
misrepresentation^ of his coOeagues, ftom a bo^ ea- 
feehled fay disease^ and a mind harassed with the 
caies and Tezations of era^re. 

Fwm tlie works of the perseoi^or, we most turn 
to those of the pro t ector of Chrisdanity— fiom Mo- 
detian to Constantme. Both built baths ; bat, with 
all my pasdon for antiquities, I could nerer find 
much satisfihCtioBL in grojdng amongst the old bat- 
tered brick walls in ike Colonna Gardens, whidi 
constitute the sole remains of the Thermae of the 
latter Emperor. An antiquary, who in an ctiI howr 
once lud hold of me in this place, demonstrated to 
me, with much learning and length, that these afore- 
said Tfaermse difiered from every other in having had 
throe stories-^^whidi I was quite wilbug to believe* 
in order to get away from him. I moreover saw an 
ugly piece of coarse mosaic ; and I did not see six- 
teen ancient pamtings taken from these Baths, and 
formerly in ^e Falaza«i Bospigliosi, but which are 
these no longer. I also heard a gres^t deal about 
the two Colossal Groups of Castor and Polhix, 
now on Monte Cavallo, which were found here, 



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IS 



»»« 



/ 



^ty ^"^i^ andgiMad 
k^ ^^^% ^Ibdeatroy- 

>-^^ Vistitute their 



#-^\^'^ 



>cC^ 



idea of what 

Thermae are 

duU detail of 



^^f^ long and iin- 
^^Wtidid Thermae 



'^* >%l* *t** P" t^\ ^ ^^^« ^^ become dubious. 

. «»-- -A> -i.»- A- -.lAvV* ■ ^ -* 












•^ 



cpp 



• V\3Lel.ett«^^^* 



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l!26 HOME. 

wer^ei, bedhue ihe Catk^c predilecHoii ftr fltrf eK- 

isied even in the days of the fatbeni-^-lmt because 

thejr were {daces of lioentiodsness and immotality ; a 

' ch«ge which we have every reason to belieye was 

true, in its fullest extent. 

They were not, however, deserted until the de- 
atnietioa of the Aqueducts, by Vitiges, or Totila, in 
the sixth century, had deprived tbean of theit ele- 
ment of life ; when, like a body irithott a aoolf thcgr 
deeayed away. 



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ROME. 127 



LETTER XXXIl. 

BftlDGSf — ^THE ANCIENT AND HOMRW BELDGU OF 
ROMS-*-BK»GES OYEE THE ANIO— POlfXE LA- 
MEMXAMO — THE 8AiCES9 MOUNT, A^D TH^ TW0 
AETEEATS OF THE EOMAJ? FSOFUB TO IT-^li»9 
I NSN1U8 .A6B1FFA-— VILLA. OF. FH40NT£»5 THE 

. 8CSME OF. THE BSATH OF NEEO-^FONTS SAtA* 
EIO— COMBAT OF TOEQUATUS WITH THE GAVL— 

I Hannibal's CAMP — beidc^s of ancient eomE) 

OF ENGLAND, &C. 

The first, and for a long time the only bfid^e of 
Borne, was the Pom S%Micius—ot ilSmilias, E8 it 

I was afterwards ciAed---built, as its naase signifies, of 
wood, and ereeted, as Livy informs ns, by Ancas 

I Martius. It was here that Horatios Codes pcrfoirm'^ 

j ed those pro^gies of valour, which, as that ingeniouB 
bistorian observes, ^< ai« iQoxe easily admired tl^n 
credited by posterity.'' • 

I This bri^e was afterwards rebuilt, without nails; 
to facilitate its destruction, in case of the recuirenci^ 
of any such exigency. It does not appear to have 
been made <tf any more solid material than wood, tiU 



^ Lify, lib. xxxvi* cap. 16. 



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laS HOME. 

dM time of tbe Emperon, wlm AmomnuB Viub 
built it of marble. One solitary fivgment of a broken 
pier, or fidlen arch, now lies in the Tiber, between 
dM Arsntbe and the Bipa Grande, and aerres to 
mark its ancient sitwation. It is visiUe only when 
the water is low. 

Amraally on dM 15th ef May , in the times ^ tlie 
Kings, men-were thrown fieom thb bridge into tbe 
Tlber,'and images madeef rashes or of day were 
aftsi w aid s substituted Avr them by Junius Brutim. 

In later times, the maa|^ed' bodies of Commodus 
and Heliogldbttlus were ignemimously hurled from it 

This bridgewas the great station of tbe bqggars, 
lAo used to sit there aslmg charity.''^ 

The Palatine Bridge, {Pons PaJoHmiS,) or, as 
acme of the antiquaries have chiistened it. Pons Se- 
natmios, (though there never was any such bridge,) 
at present eaHed the Broken Bridge, (Ponle R^to,) 
andin.tamthnolndge at all, finr there is nothing 1^ 
of it~was the first bridge of stone that was erected 
at' Borne. It waa&uahed by Scipio Afiicanus and 
L. lifummias, ini their Censorship; the ^piers. bad 
been prenously built by two former Cmsors^f 

It was rebuilt for the last time by Gregogr the 
IM rt e tth , and 'finally destroyed in the flood of 

From the spot where it once cn)ssed. the Tiber, 
the esftbouchure 4^ the Ckaea Maxima is visible, 



' Seneca, Ep^ xxr, f Livy, lib. xl cap. 51. 

15 



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whM ilie wucr 18 biT) in tl» knk ft I 
ftbeirrar. 

The brancli of tbe Tiber leaimg to the Imdm S^ 
crih iiow the Idead ef St Barthokmew, wet cnMnd 
by the/\iii# FaftridM, ie celeifien eD JEdflb ef 
thet neme, whe erigiiiellj boik it m dieyeer ef Bene 
7S8»eediectinkgibbinacrirlieniqMNiilpio«ee. It 
ie menliflned by Hence, ee if die ■ecne ef e bmA- 
tetedeuidde.* Thbbnd^ it eft pmnt celled Penle 
di Qnettaro C^ ttom Ae litdt HenMe» wkk tar 
ieees» tet up open it in eiediin timet. 

The other brtncfa ef die Tiber betmoi tl» UmI 
md Tfettercre, wet cretaed by ibe Jhms CeMms^ m 
called, undrabtediy, fieet liie neme of its erighMl 
fbimder;thof^gh whohe weeienetToycleer. It it 
new callfid dM Ponte di Saa Bertohmee, and been 
an inscnpdon, whidi statet diet it wet rebnilf by db 
Emperoxe Ydentinian, Falent, and Gieden, in a. n. 
STSy fiom wlieace it wat ence catted dM 
Bndge* 

Bodi dieie biidget, which eouMtt die i 
the bonkt of die mer, w«e erighndly beiift hi the 
eigfhth oentmy of B<Miie« 

The origmal date of die eiecden of dM fdmJa^ 
mcttimm, I bdieve, is not atcertained, hot diere are 
noremaiiisofit. The Ponte Sitto, bnflt by Stztnt 
Foanh, oeenpi^ itt ancient tilaadon* 

A Teefige ai die f^m$ Tnun^lMU, er what it 
gencraDy Tcpoted tuch, it tdll imUe in die Tiber, 

^ Hot. lib. ii Stt S. 

VOL. II. I 



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180 BOMir. 

opposile the hoipital (^tlie Spiiito Santo. The dattf 
of its erection is unknown. The victorious Consols 
to whomthe Smate decreed the honour of a triumph, 
crossed this bridge, followed by their soldiers, their 
captives, their trophies, and their spoils ; entered the- 
Campus Martius by the Porta TriumphaUs; pass- 
ed the Circus of Flora, the Circus FJaminiuft, the 
Theatres of Pompey and Maroellus, the Portico of 
Octavia, and the Circus Maximus; traversed die 
course of the Via Triumphalu, which terminated at 
the base of the Palatine near the arch of Constantine, 
tad entered the Via Sacra ; passed between the Co- 
losseum and the T^nple of Venus and Rome, in 
fioot of the Temple of Peace and the Temple of 
Antoninus and Faustina ; and crossing the B<Hnan 
Forum, ascended to the Temple of Jupiter Capito- 
linus. ' 

SdfHo, Marias, Sylla, Pompey, Ca&sar, Cicero, 
Augustus, Clau^us, Trajan, Aurelius, Severus, — 
how many names of infamy or glory might. we not 
recajHtulate of those who have passed here, in the 
short-lived trium|di of man over his fellow, crea- 
tures! 

> The Pons ^Uus^ so called from Mlam Hacbia- 
nus, by whom it was built as a passage to his mag^ 
nificent tomb, is now transformed into the Ponte San 
Angelo. The jners and arches are ancient, l>ut have 
been It good deal repaired ; not indeed till It was ne- 
cessary, for in die Pontificate of Clement VII. when 
crowds were pressing forwards to St. Peter^s, to share 
in the benefits and indulgences offered to the pious 



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ROKE. 1S1 

there, the bridge gare way, and a hnndnd and se- 
Tcnty-tiro people peridied in Ae Tiber. 

Clement IX. repuied it mote thuroogUy, and to 
him and Bernini are doe Ae merit of all the sainii 
and angdfl Aat are flntlering upon it 

These fix bridges of Ancient Rome (finr I eoont 
die tiro wbkh comeet the idand with the oppoiite 
shores of the Tiber as one) aie now rednced to three. 
These are, 

1st, The Bridges of the Island. 

M, The Prate Sisto; and, 

Sd, The Ponte San Angdo. 

Out of Home there is only one bridge orer the 
Tiber. It is the Mil^ian or ^miKan Bridge, built 
by M. Emiliiis Scauros in the seventh eentory of die 
Republic, on the ViaFlammia, about two miles from 
tbe Porta del Popola The present bridge of six 
arches wm rebuilt by Nicholas Fifft nearly on the 
fimndationsofthe Roman one. Its name is now oor- . 
rupted into Ponte Molle. 

It is famous as the scene of the erentftil battle in 
which Constantine defeated Maxcniaas, and the pre- 
vious apparition of the fiery cross in the heavens, in 
thefidth of which he conquered, and which announ- 
ced his own approaching triumph, and that of Cbria- 
tianity. 

That it was really the spot where the battle was 
fought, is matter of historical fact 

It was here, too, that the ambassadors of the Ai« 
lobroges were overtaken on their return to their own 
country by the vigilance of Cicero, when the treason- 



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1S8 KOME. 

aUe difpatches with which they were eharged, finr*- 
nished proof af the oonspincy of Catiline. 

It was here, too, im the dtaaolnle tin^s of the em- 
pire, that the Roman youth reaarted for the pur^ 
poses of midnight rerehry «id debauch ; «xd here, ^ 
in the porsuit of these illicit pkaswres, the monster 
Nero once narrowly escaped aasawnnatioB^* by re- 
taming throi^h the Gardens of SaUnst. 

The Anio, now the Tererone, which flows into 
the Tiber, is crossed iat the distance of a few miles 
firom Rome by three bridges, aU of Aem the woriic of 
the low ages ; excepting perhaps the Ptmte Mam^ 
molOi a name supposed to have been a cormption 
itam Manimea, die mother of Alexander Seyeras, by 
whom it is reputed to hare been built It is ibout 
fcur mites fiom BMoey on the road to Tivoli, 

The Pon^ Lamentana^ formerly the Pon0 No^ 
fnentemta, is about three miles from Rome» on the 
Via Nomentana, which led to the andieBt dty of that 
name, as now to the miserable village that occupies 
ifes site. It was rebuilt by Narses, having been de- 
stroyed in the unceasiiig conflicts of duit bloody pe* 
riod. In the bridge itaelf these is nothing remark* 
aUe ; but beyond it rises the bread green height of 
Ifon^ Soffro, as it is st31 called— that very Mons 
Sacer to which the Roman army and people retired 
fipom the city when oppressed by the tjrranny and 
exactions of the Patiidans, and tr^m whence the 
rough eloquence of Menemiis Agrippa, and his in« 

* Vide Tacittts^ Ann. lib. ziii. eap. 47. SueteDios. Ner. 



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BOJfJB. 18S 



genioiia afologOB sf Ae B^iymod Ait '. 
duced them to ietiini,oQ iMOigalbired to Iuito m»* 
gistntaB 4ji Aw avn-^tabiines of the people, to 
guard their n^^bts. 

Thcjr reined to it a Moosd time^ whea dsfami into 
redstance by the tyranny of the DeeemTin, after die 
nurder of Virginia by her fidiher ; and then only re» 
qinred of the Senate, that the Deeemvin ahonU Imj 
down their illegal authority » that the tribmaea of die 
people dM>ald be jreatoned, and diat fbU innnnnity 
dftoold be gnntod to thenaahres; deaaanda ao mo* 
demle, diat the depsdes of the Senate lieaipd them 
with admiratiaBj and dedaring that daay were each 
at diey ahonid thonaelwea ham o ft a e d, inpiadiBtely 
oonoided dienu* 

It is Bome t ihing to .ftel we aland wpen the aacaad 
qnt wheie ilm aeme of Reaum fiiifwij and afaneet 
philoBophical moderation, watf twice exhiUtod^*^ 
wb^fe an army, fluahed with leoent conqoeat, aend a 
people, irritated by long oantinoadoppeesium, calm* 
ly demanded diat redveas.of didr wvonga, and aeoa- 
mtyibrtdieirKbaEilieB, which tbemeat dnpaaaumate 
»a^>]re meal haire awarded diem, and, guided by die 
Hgfct of yoaaon, aaked for justice^ and^io meee. 

Fortunately^ fiar onoe, ne doabt antnidea itaelf on 
die consciousness that we do indeed stand on dus 
spot. The site of the Monte Sagro seems ascer- 



* Venuti asserts^ that the second leceenon of the people to 
Mobs Saeer was tenniiiBted hj die establisiimmit of Plebeian 
JBfdMe^ fiat this was not a atifiilation at the time the j Isid 
down their anns, ahhough the office was soon after created. 



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134 ROME. 

ttkatd beyond the cmk of criticbni. Livy meiF- 
tioDs, that it was three milei fiom the city, on the 
'Other side of the Anio;* and JDioiiysiiiB HaUcar- 
naanu describes it even more partkulaily, so that 
we asoeiaded it in the innraTering fioth; Aat the 
earth we trod was ** holy ground*"^ 

The hill that ezdndyely bears the name of MoBte 
Sagro, is on the right of the road, thoogh that on the 
.oppodte side seems also to form a part of it 

A ruined sepulchre stands at the foot of the hiU 
on either side of the road. That on the lefty which 
is larger and in better preservation than the other, is 
called the tomb of Menenins Agrippa; bat this is 
vague siyposition. We know that he died in honour- 
able poverty, and that the expenses of his fimeral 
were definayed by a volnntary assessment of the peo- 
plcf^ But history is siknt as to the place of his in- 
terment. 

About a mile fiuriher on this road, a little to the 
left, firom the description of historians, muti h«ve 
been the vilk of Fhaontes, Nero^s Fteedman, where 
that monster fled to seek that refuge whidi the world, 
so lately his own, could no longer afford him, and 
where he killed himsdf, to escape the more cruel «nd 
ignominious death that was overtaking him4 



* Trans Anionem amoem tria ab Urbe millia .passuum. 
Lib. ii. cap. 32. 

t Livy, lib. ii. cap. 32. 

t Suetoniua aays, Neio fled by the Via Numentana to the 
villa of Phaontes, which was between that road and the Via 
Sakra, and about four miles from.Rmne. 



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ROME. 1S< 



^ ThePvnU Solano, wbicli tim rnifi ihe Aim, 
about time ailes baywd the gale fiftkeiaaMinaie, 
18 a very magiikr and pidumque stnicUm. Upoa 
its oe&tre is cveded ahightowerof datece,lMBaath 
whidi tlie road paaaes, and a saall ataBcaaa at the 
side leads up to it. The inseripckna upon it leoHd* 
tlHit hsnng been desteojed bjr Tetib, it was rebuilt 
iqr Nasses, and it baa appaiently stood unuqued 
from that day. 

But its interest takes its rise ham an eady period 
of history. On diefbrmidableinTaaionof tbeGanls, 
when their thieatening hosts had advanesd even 
here, and Binne trtmUed at the impending bomn 
of a seeond pillage^ this bridge was the sesne of th^ 
^desperate eombat ftof^t between the intrepid Man- 
liuB and the gigantie Ganl, wbieb tenninated in the 
defeat of the Barbarian^ and delivered the B^wmans 
from the paralysing dread of their arms» by dMiwing 
they were not invincible ; for, previons to this, thdr 
very name had stnick every Roman heart with ter- 
ror. You must know I have disoovered that this 
great Gaul waa dressed in tartan^ like our High- 
landers; fiir livy says, he wore versicolori vesUy 
which I can translate by nothing eke ; and this be- 
ing the case^ yon will, I hope, henoefi»waid, have a 
proper reverence for the high antiquity of the plaid.. 
Well may we look down from our mountains with 
omtempt upon broad doth and duffle ! 

But, to return to the combat between this great 
Gaul and Manlius, at the end of which ^' the sol- 
diers,''' says Livy, " burst forth into extempore songs 
in praise of his valour — (these extempore songs, by 



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186 BOMB. 



ikBMMfj laAcfl rt w md yjwif Ae«ftof theawdem 
impnnutUori mm of U|^ mrifoity u Italy)-— and 
iM^ed Urn Torg^mteff, .fiwi the iarfmSj or goU 
dudn or coUttr, widi wliiish hit ndovhtftUe wnfy 
ttist was deearated, a naae mkkk ha and his d^r 
aeendsnta ever ftftcrwaida boie."'* 

It isTerysingnlarthatii hnoof^heaaaa 
aad fiuniiy ahonld twioe myc Bame fiom Ike 
barbarians ; for Manlius Capitoiuras was the anees- 
lor of Medina Toi^natns. He was the saase Man- 
fine ToDfuatus whtr-gsve «ftdi a -signal uutaBoe of 
filial dn^ to bis £ithcr, and of paasntal aepetity to 
Us son. The craeky of bis father towaids him had 
been aneh m to joouse the indignation of At whde 
Roman fsoflc ; and he had beai conagfiif nlily cited 
to answer before Asm for tlihese nBheanLof acta ot 
ktaimky ; bnt yoong Manlins, who wdl knew,fiom 
ibe hatred uairersaHy fok against him, that his ooii- 
deamafien was oortain—- ^uiprisiag his acenmr in a 
aeoret pboe» dnw his swesd npon him, aadomapel- 
led hhn to take a scdemn .oath netwr to biing for- 
ward tbe chaiges j^gainat his fodier ; and Ihus haft 
himself withont means of rediMs from his ^anny.f 

TQna indeed was Tivtue, sabMatte as it is me^ and 
worthy to beheldinoi^erlastingrcmembranoe; )mt 
bis^sondnct to his 4Hni son, ihongh dictated by fiJae 
notions of virtue, can only exdto onr ahhoiMDoe. 
For no fault bnt that of disobedience to a general 
order he had issued to his aimy not to leaw the 

* Livy, lib. vii. cap. 10. f Ibid. 



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ROME; 1S7 



tsnkiy lie oomieuDM ai8 MMHe-maaM aoa^ wM» 
Uke Umid^ Iwi ipnag fbnraid to accept the bra- 
TaUnfrehdnaieeof oneof Aeeneny, eadgnfaed 
a^enoiu wtory^—to be beheedad on ibewp&^wal 
saa ^ i^^iiM* **" to wDeH coe cvoBt eKBCQDBB» 

Siidi uBsaftmal Ttftooa ave em man lawollu^ 
than iiataid mea, and BO hnnaa bean can erer riii- 
earaly appbaid them. 

But to letoin to the Ponie Salario :— I Afaikire 
wmmf conehidey that the gfoimd on the oAor ade of 
it ia dwt en wUdi Hannibal encamped daring Ae 
few dajrs he lenunned before JRene; ftrAoogfaLifj 
doea net mention this bridge, he nrfa the Cardiagi. 
nian pitched his camp on the Anio, thiee ndlea ftom 
Home, andndfaneed to the Porte Collma, now Sa- 
laria, which he wonld natnraDy 4eftom hence. 

Bnt I amtcBingyoQoldatoricaoatof theRoman 
hiatorjr, instead of ftrinhing my aooemit of Roman 
bri^ gcD w hich I may do widiont ftatbcr 4May , tot 
I xaanet mooUect that I have anydung mere to add 
abeutlheai. I wiHtherefore diamsto them with one 
genasd maoark, that none ef the bridgM, or Temaina 
of bri^gea, at Berne, can eaooite any extracfdinary 
admiwtien. ThebarcUtectiire iahy nomeanafine 
The meat noble itraetue ^ this kmd m Italy, ia 
tbe Pom NanUefmij the ndned <bridge of Nami, 
the work of Augustus. But the Pont du Gard, near 
Nismes, a work truly Roman, is incomparably supe- 
rior to it The fnest bridge in l!he world, that built 
by Trajan over the Danube, was destroyed by the 
mean enyy of Hadrian, that gseat protector of the 



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mS SOME* 

arts. What it may have been we know not* hu in 
all that now remain, Italy is outdone by England. 
TheancicBt Ronums, in tfaia branch of arehitectare, 
are ezodled by die modem Bitlona. Nor is there, 
through the whole of this land of arts, a abgle bridge, 
dther andoit or modern, that can Tie widi the gran- 
deur and beauty of Waterloo-bridge in London. 

Neither, in the ingenuity and curious medianism 
of our iron bridges, our duun badges, and all our 
wonderfid fidvications of bridges, did they ever bear 
the most remote competition with us. They no more 
dreamt of crossing waters by such madiines, than of 
sailing upon them by steam, or descending into them 
in a diving-bell. 

What would the heroes of Sakmis and Actium 
think of a British ship of war, or a whole fleet of such 
ships? What would they say at the sight of a steam- 
packet P How would the bewildered old philosophers 
gaae at our carriages, our mail-coaches, our rail-ways, 
our steam-engines, our mauufMstories, our printuig- 
presses, our telegraphs,* our guns, our artillery, our 
telescopes, and all our innumerable and magical in- 
ventions? What would they think of mm flying 
about through the air in baUoons, or descending into 
the boweb of the eard^—deeper dum ifineas in his 
visit to the infernal regions— and walking about Id- 



imL^,?!^'/^'''^*' ^** Tiberius, at Capre«, received 

««Ph8! Tacit^ iT^*^ P^^**y ""^"^ approach to tele- 
Ann. lib. V. c. 88. Suet, Tib. 65. 



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SOME. 199 



surely at the bottom of the ae a m y, upon the lop 
of it?* 

I am penoadedy that if theae aacieiit vovtUci 
ooiiU be brooj^t bade agmn, and see all theae Aiogi 
going OH) they woold nerer behflffe they were in the 
> old world they had left. 



* A feat performed lately in many parts of Great Britain, 
by means of a new-inyented machine. 



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140 ROM£4 



LETTER XXXIII. 

AECHES— AECH OF CLAUDIUS DBUSUS— TRIUMPHAL 
ARCHES OF TITUS, OF SEPTIMIUS SEVKHUS, AND 

OF CONSTANTINE — ^AECH OF GALLIENUS ARCH 

OF DOLABELLA AKD SYLAKUS AECH OF S. LAZA- 

RO— THE DESTEOYED AECHES OF MARCUS AURE- 
LIDS, CLAUDIUS, AND GOEDIAN. 

Without the limits of the andeni city, and close 
to the present Porta di San Sebastiano, stands an 
arch, believed to be the arch of Claudius Drusus 
Nero, dedicated to him by the Senate, in the year of 
Rome 746, for his victories over the Rhceti in the 
reign of Augustus. He was the first who received 
the title of Germanicus, which his son afterwards so 
nobly won, and one of the youngest who ever obtain- 
ed the honour of a triumph. He died in the bloom 
of youth, and in the rank of a private citizen, though 
he was the son, the brother, and the father of an Em- 
peror.* 

• He was the son of livia^ the step<-8on of Augustus, the 
brother of Tiberias^ and the father of Claudius. But a great- 
er hwiour was his, he was the father of Germanicus. 



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SOME. 141 



TUs arck caaiM be rlwtiii vith ikb dvee Tii* 
unphtl Aidhes of the Enporon. It boesti^ indeedy 
Htde ef ipkndmir or omaBDiaii; but its aarchilectoM 
is mUe, and bespeekt tiiefe en when tke arte trailed 
fe elfect to grandtev of deB%n, ndier than nduMM 
of deooratioiL It cansista of a m^ ardb, and ia 
hdkrflaqieinaaaeaofTifaiiituie alane. The tiro 
lemabiBg colaniia. of Aficican macbk oa one of ita 
fronts, are pronaioiced fagr oonnoiaaeiira to be la a 
9tf\e so inferior to that of the ardi, that they aaoat 
have been added in a latter age, probaUy that of 
Catacda, at whicb perkd this arch waa foreed into 
the service of an aqneduet, and ae^ed fat the eon- 
▼eyanee of the Aqna Antoniana to the TherfMB of 
CancaUa. 

In die opinion of mairf^ indeed, it waa origmidly 
bo^^t for tUs purpose by that emperor ; bat, bealdeo 
that the ardhitectfffe does hot seem to correspond 
▼ith tbit period, it ia not likely that he would take 
the troitble to erect another arch over the Via Ap- 
pu, when he must hare fiiund one ready bdlt ;*— 
I mean the arch of Dnisus, whidi Suetonioa and 
Tadtia place here, and which I believe this to be. 
A medal of Claudiu8''s reign, bearing that areh on 
its reverse, proves that, like this, it consisted of one 
arch only* 

The Arch of Titus-~die most andent, and per« 
haps die most faultless, of the Triumphal Aichcfr-* 
was the work of an ^ when the arts, which, in the 
reign of Domitian, had degenerated from their an^ 
<aeiit sinplidty into a style of fidse and meretaicbus 
ornament, had reviyed fai their fullest purity and 



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142 KOliE. 

vigour, benetih ibe paftraiage of Trmjab. Bai we 
now see it to great disadTantage. The hand of time 
has robbed it of modi of its a&cieiit beauty ; his 
*' eflhobg fingers^ hare obliterated mudi of the ex- 
presnon and grace, and even outline of Ae has re- 
lie&, the design and oomposttion of whidi, we can 
yet admire. It consists of a single ardi ; of eig^t 
maiUe columns that once adorned it, four have en- 
tirely disappeared, and two only are entire. The 
interior of Ihe arch is decorated with two fine has 
rdieft, representing, on one side, Titus in hia car of 
triumph, conducted by the Grenius of Rome, and 
crowned by the hand of Victory ; on the other, the 
ispoils of the Temple of Jerusalem, the seven branch- 
ed candlesticks, the trumpets, the gulden taUe with 
the show-bread^ and the captive Jews. On die roof 
is the apotheosis of Titus ; for this arch of his tri- 
umph was not erected till the victor was cold in the 
grave. But this beautiful monument, raised by the 
taste and generosity of one emperor to the virtues 
and glory of another, now totters to its fall ; and no 
distant generation may perhaps see even its ruins 
only in descriptioxL Yet, mutilated and mouldered 
as it is, it affords the earliest, and perhaps the most 
fauldess, specimen of the composite order which an- 
cient taste has bequeathed to modem times. It is 
accordingly received as the canon of that order, which 
was probably introduced about this period. In the 
age of Augustus, at least, it was certainly unknown, 
for Vitruvius does not describe it 

The Arch of Severus is much less beautiful, and 
more^tire. It consists rf three arches, one large, 



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ROME. 143 

and two imudler ones, of Gfecian mftirlde, die smoolh- 
ness and colour of whidb are so completely gone, 
that the material is now scarcely recognisable. I 
wfll spare yon any crittcitm upon it. The Iwavy 
and dumsy style of its arehitectore is sufficiently 
striking, when viewed beside the notde buildings ai 
the Forum, in which it stands. Indeed, I Imow tew 
andent edifices in which the arts have been so com- 
pletdy tortured out of their natire graces. The 
whole fauiyKng is covered with a confusion of bas 
reliefr, and thdr deftrmity of design and execution 
is suffidently evident through all the injioies of time 
and accident. The Dacians and the Romans, the 
victors and the vanquidied, are all levelled m eqb»* 
lity of ugliness ; and nothing can be understood where 
the artist had iM>t sidll enough to tell his story. 
Though this arch is entire, the sculpture has evi- 
dently suffered from fire. Indeed, it is only wonder* 
ftd that it should have sustained so little injury ; 
for, during many ages, a part of it was built up in 
the old church of SS. Seigius and Bacchus^ (who, 
by the way, I suspect was another Pagan Deity 
sainted)— and the Fentehcon marfale of the arch 
served as a basement for the brick bdfiry. When 
this nuisance was removed I know not, but we are 
assured that the two lateral arches were usiBd as shops 
even in the nineteenth century.* 

The Arch of Constantine, though of a later and 
a darker period, when the arts had fallen into still 

* Del Foro Romano, p. 116. 



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144 WXMEi 

deeper degnAAn^ k, I tUnk, bjr fir the 
ttoUe of die Tiiiuf^lMd Aiches of fioBie. Its ni. 
periof i^, no doubt, portly aiuee ttom ito fiae pre* 
■enFOlioii, but chiefly ftom ito jSikged eokuBiiB, ita 
beautiful eadptaxed medaffioae, and boe idieb, 
wbidi coMmemomte the Tictoiiea of Tmjaii, ead 
haw evidently been torn fimn one of hie Triumphel 
Aiches. But luqr not die Aich itsd^ as wdl as 
the coliB&M and the sadptme, have been a tnas* 
fbmed AiohofTnyan?* I see no odm supposi- 
tion that can account fiir the striking superiostty of 
its architecturef over every odier baiMing of the age 
of C<m8tantin& Its aadcnt magnificence still stands 
umapamd. Eight fluted Cbnntfaian oe hMa n s ef 
giaOo antioo maiUe support the figures of eq^tDa- 
ciam captive kings, of PawmazxeHo, violet-Teined, 
or Phrygian martde ; and aldiough one oohinm, one 
Dadan^f and all their e^ht heads, ase modem, the 
gensnl efieet is scaicdly impabtd by diese lestonh 



The has xdiefr on the eastern and westem sides 
of the Arch represent die bettb of Trajan mgami 
dieDacians* In one of those in the interior of the 
gieat arch we see another batde, in which the va^ 
kur and Ae demency of Trajan are s^paUsed, by 
killing with his own hand a reristing enemy, and 

* Forsyth seems also to lean to tliis opinion. 

t The modem column is the angular one at the north-east 
toraer, and is of a while sort of m«ble. The modem Daeian 
is the last statue but one on the south-east corner, and is also 
of white marble. 



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ROME. 145 

fifnmg Ae* Wk •/ a^kBeeUng suppliimt. In the other, 
ihe Imtlle lemimte» ift vietery, and he makes bis 
triMfiphftt entry kite Rome. One of the cmirfar 
bfts vdittft sgatn KpreBents hiir trinin}iha] entry into 
Roney GffFwned fey l^ioloryy and attended by Mercy. 
The elhera reprewnt Trajan dcpiMng a bfloribaiian 
king, beUevcd to he the ffing of Armenia, of his 
donkuons-^iifvestHig anoAer monaareh, supposed to 
be the'Siing of PaflMa^ lAf^ the cronn' 'haranginttg 
die seK B ets go ing out to the chase—sfaiying a bear 
' 'eoLtendittg the Aj^an W^ay fiMn Benevenlum to 
BiPiiwhMimB ftn Jiiig fihij pooii sBiiMghigl»Apeile 
—to Diana— to> Man) and to Hereules* In anollier 
is Bsps e a e nted Ae e xp i atory saciMee of the <f tiocv- 
Um rtl im, m iriudl • sor, • sheep, and a bdl, were 
ofoed «p e^rery hntram ; and in the last, ire see the 
RoncHBi aoldlets dr agging beftire Trajan the prelend* 
edPdtoefters sent by Decebahu to aMasrinate him. 

Tkeee has relieft are eertaidy amongst the finest 
that time has spaved ; and <he beanty of theb eon- 
tour, and pei feotJ ton' of Aetr design, are sfffi apparent 
throi^ all' the injuries of neglect and exposure. 

'Bbe^ sIriUngty do lAese exquisitely seulptured 
piekires of TrajanVvietories contrast with the Ktde^ 
mis-shapen, unintelligible figures on Constantinels 
ftieae ! One might misisdre the ktteer for the first 
Hide essays cS art, but that they bear not the pro- 
ndse of itts infancy. It is apparent that they are the 
feeUe efforts of decay and ccnrruption. Sculpture 
had then fallen into second chilcBiood*-^into the mere, 
oblivion of old age. 

VOL. II. . K 



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146 HOME. 

The Victor, the Triamphal Car, and Ae Fkqr 
Steeds, no longer hold their appro(nia(e station on 
the grass-grown platform at the top of this Arch, or 
on that of Septbnius Severtia. In the interior of' 
both are chambers, to which those who have suffi- 
cient activity and curiosity may asc^id on laddars, 
for tiiere is no entrance*from bdow. 

I have ahready described the Ardi of the Porta 
Maggiore, the little Arch <^ Septimius Sevems, snd 
die Arch of Janus, in the Forum Boarium ; and 
there is no other arch now existing in Rome which 
can awaken interest or admiration, though there are 
some which we must briefly mention. 

The Arch of Gallienus— ^r rather its remains— 
for the central arch is alone staading, and two small 
ones, which it is said to have formerly boasted, hsye 
disappeared, — ^is a stone structure, of mean archi- 
tecture, which stands on the Esquiline Hill, near the 
Church of Santo Maria Ma^ore. The inscription 
records, that it was raised to that emperor by one of 
his aervile subjects--by a slave to a tyrant A tro- 
phy worthy of it— a chain, to which the keys of 
Tusculum were once attached, in commemoration of 
^Homan tHumph of the tu>dfth centuru^-^ stiU 
WMpended upon it 

Near the Church of San Tomaso in Formis, on 
*e CoeUan HiU, is a plain arch, erected, as its in- 
J«^ption shows, by the Consuls Dolabella and Sir 
«^, in the reign of Augustus, but for what pur- 
^tT^^""' Nero took it into his Aqueduct 
« t^Me of the Aventine HiU, on the road 



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ROME. 147 

towards die Piyrte Sao Paola, the road pasaes under 
a low brick arch, now called Aieo di San Lamts 
bat popiolarly belieyed to have been originaUy erect- 
ed to H<Hratiu8 Codes, in honour of his memecable 
sbgle-handed combat with the Etruscan army near 
the adjacent Pons SubKcius. But Livj» who relates 
that the Commonwealth awarded him as much ground 
as he coold encirele with a plough, and the honour 
of a statue in the Comitium, makes i&o mention of 
any arch ; and the silence of so correct and minute a 
writer is, I think, a decisive proof that none was eyer 
built. 

Two inscriptions, belonging to a Triumphal Arch 
of Garmanicus, it seems, were found near here, firom 
whence Venuti sagely conjectures this to be that Tri- 
umphal Arch. It is most strange that any person in 
his right senses could look at this trumpery erection, 
and mistake it for a Triumphal Arch at all ; much 
less that the extravagant imagination could ever have 
occurred to him that this little paltry brick struc- 
ture was erected, in that age of taste and magnifi- 
cence, to a conqueror of imperial blood — ^to a hero 
who had refused the empire— to a prince idolised by 
the people ; whose triumphant return was hailed with 
wild rejoicings, that made the dark soul of Tiberius 
tremMe on his throne— whose supposed recovery 
from his last sickness caused the gates of the tem- 
ples to be broken open at midnight, to otBet up thanks 
to the gods^ — and whose death filled luly with one 
loud and deep voice of lamentation ! 

* Tadtus, Ann. lib. ii. 



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146 EOM£. 

The Aidi «f Gemapicwi i^ emm^ be, and wh«t 
i^ was, i« alike unasoerlauial^ asd ujv^^ 
accept Ihal it is ancieat, it ig rea% much such «b 
wch aa would bo thiowA oyer a Tillage brook. 

Theae are all the ancienfc arches that now remain. 
Seyeral have heen demolished eveain modem times. 
The most beautifiil was koocheddown by Alexander 
. VL, who is called, by the good Catholioathemflelyes, 
the Devil of a Pope ; and we hscstioi, therefore* 
may be paidoned f<ox wishing him at. the devit before 
he had done the deed. The people of Rome, to 
this day, are persuaded he was little better than Xu« 
ca&r, if not that affch-fiend himself It was to im- 
prove the city that this worthy perswage s^paalised 
htt taste and ju^ment by puffing down the Tri- 
umphal Arch of Marcus Auxelins, which» indiis tin^ 
adotaed the Corso, in order that the direct line of 
the ^reet might no longer be interrupted. This 
beautifiil monumemt of antufuity slood at the Piasia 
di San Loienao in Lucina^ beside the IfiaaoiPahice, 
then eaUed di rartogaUo^ which gave its name also^ 
to the arch. The admirable baa relAefe which weie 
tafce^ fifom thia arch at the peziodof itsdes«iictipn, 
^a iwe now preserved o« the first landiig of the 
fST^^^*^. ^^"^^ ^^^ of the C^l, gave 
JiS^^^'l^r*^^^ TwoofitscXmuTof 
JS?^ "^^^^ ^^ ^ *»^^ Co,^ Palace at St. 

VicpIpTSSel It^^^' t^ *^ ^^"^ "^ ^' 
IV., CeT^^J^""^ "? the ppntificate of PiuS: 

-^ and hrokea columns of a magnificent Tri. 



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ROME. 149 

umphal Arcb, of Grecian marble, erected in honour 
of the Emperor Ckudius after his triumphal return 
from Britain, and described by Suetonius. 

Some remains of an arch dedicated to the Empe- 
ror Gordian, were found in the Corso, near the Pi- 
azza Sdjura ; but, from the state of the arts at that 
period, its destruction can ezdte comparatively little 
n^ret. 



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150 



ROME. 



LETTER XXXIV. 



AQUKDUCT8. 



We drove this morning to the BasQica of Santa 
Croce in Gierusalemme, on the Esquiline Hill, and 
leaving the carriage, walked through an adjoiniBg 
field, or vineyard, to see the magnificent ruins ot the 
Claudian Aqueduct, whose lofty arches of stone stand 
at the walls of Rome, an everlasting monument ot 
her power and splendour. This mighty work, which 
was carried through the hills, and across the valleys 
of Latiura, for a distance of fifty miles, terminated at 
this spot, where it is joined by the brick arches of 
the Aqueduct of Nero, which extended to the brink 
of the Coelian Hill, where it supplied his Nymphseum, 
his fountains, his lakes, his baths, and all the pro- 
digal luxuries of the gardens of his Golden House. 
It was not till long after the bounds of the imperial 
palace were circumscribed, that the aqueduct was 
prolonged by Septimius Severus to the Palatine Hill. 



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ROME. 151 

The ruined Aqueducts, which stretch oyer the 
Ctmp^a to the south, in long and broken lines of 
lolly ardies, are the Martian and the CUudian. 

Of all the Aqueducts of ancient Rome, these alone 
remam, even in ruin ; yet, shattered and fallen as 
they are, we still see tlMsir former greatness in their 
present decay, and yainly ask oursdves when earth 
will view such works again ? 
. As if to oontrast their grandeur with its own mean- 
ness, run parallel to it the low arches of a wretched 
little modem Aqueduct, like a pigmy beside a giant 
We needed not this at Rome to make us feel that we 
are the dwindled sons of little men. 

An elaborate work was written on the Aqueducts 
of ande&t Rome, in the age of Trajan, by Fronti- 
nuB, who was employed by Nerva to repair the Aque- 
ducts. To say the truth, I have never read a word 
of it myself, but I mention it, that you may, if you 
please. I contented myself with Nardini, and other 
Italian authors, who no doubt borrowed their know- 
ledge from his lucubrations, as I shall do from theirs ; 
and who proved quite as tiresome to me, as I can pos- 
siHy do to you. Since I cannot be learned, however, 
I will endeavour not to be long. 

For nearly four centuries and a half after the 
building of Rome, its inhabitants had no water ex- 
cept what the Tiber and the natural springs supplied^ 
At that period, in the year of Rome 441, Appius 
Claudius Caucus, thto Censor, after he had finished 
the Appian Way, constructed the first aqueduct,* 

* Died. lib. XX. cap. 36. 



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152 BOMB. 

wUdi conTcyed a stream cf voUer, caUe^ firam liim. 
Aqua AfipitL, fiom a distuioe of eleireA miles on the 
way to Pneneste, fiv the moat port mader fpromuL 

TUrly years afterwasda, a seeond aqiiedmct was 
made, which Inaiiglit the water of tlie Anio fiom 
the neij^ibom^liood of TivoB^ and the dpeaoe of its 
€roDtion was defirq^ed. by As ifoils taken fiom 
Pyirhus. 

The Mavtian Aquedoct^ die nims of which still 
xemam, and fonn cne of the few vestiges of tikm wodks 
mI the Repdblicy was built by Qtmatiifi liailaaa B£x, 
4^nm»f a hundred and twent^five years before 
Christ. The Jgua Mariia was esteemed tbe most 
ari«bmus amoog the andents, but the waler no 
longer flows to Borne. It is lost in die Ai»io> now 
the TeTBTQsie. 

Bettdes the Agua Martia'--^t Aqua T^ntl» sod 
(bhe j/^iua Julia were subsequently cosainsyed ta Rom« 
in different channeb, but in tbe same aqueduct. 

Close to the Porta Maggiore, we obs^red, in th^ 
mined wall of the Martian Aqueduct, the three dis- 
tinct dbannels &i these three ^ff(»ent waters. The 
lowest oontaioed the Aqua Mar&a^ the central the 
Aqua Teptda, and the highest tbe Aqm /W^ 
v^cb WAS brought to Borne by Marcos Agrippa, 
who gtive it that name in honour of Jufius Csesar. 
Agrippd also bronght the Agm Virgo to Eome, for 
tbe ug^ of his badis, which is said to ha?e reoeiv^ 
its name irom a virgin, who showed the swr^ tp 
mmo thirsty Boman soldiers; &C9 aeoordiiig ^ 
other acc ount s, merely firom its puiil^* This water, 



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ROME. 158. 

aftof beiag lost finr a ieiigth of tilne, was raoo^ered, 
and agaai brooglit to Rwie by Nieolas V., wmi it 
st^ flom imo the feuatain of Tieri 

Some femainB of tke ancient Aquedoet of llrit 
wabor, retiung, in Italian, its andeat naae, the 
Aqua Vgrgine, west hami onder gnnmd» near dte 
cWch of St Ignatus. 

An^urtos bxeogbt a Btieam of water fiKim Aidnn, 
on &e opposite mde of the Tiber, for 4be me of Ae 
NaaiaaciBa.-Soine vemains of his Aijaedaot^aie nod 
to be preserved in that of F^nl V., whidx faribigs a 
copioixB, bat a diflfer^t stream of water over Momt 
Jaaicalus to his Fontana Paolina. 

That noUe A^educt of fifty miles in kiigdi, built 
by the Emperor Chndius, the roined arefaes of whidi 
still bestride the Campagna, and terminate where we 
now gaae upon them, conveyed two waters to Rome, 
— the Jgm Cbmdia,* which, after the Aqua Mar* 
tioy was considered the best, — and a branch of the 
Anio, oaUed Anio Ncnms^ (to distingmA it from an- 
other called the Amo Vetu^;) which had the highest 
level of any water in Rome. 

The first was conveyed a distance of thirty-five, 
the hst of sixty»two miloB, as one of the inscriptions 
on the Porta Maggie records. 



• " Claudius brought to Rome in a stone aqueduct the cod 
and i^entiM springs of the Claudian Waters^ one of which 
was odied CttrvksoM, the other Curtius, or Albudinos. Ho 
also koQgjht the AaioNoYWk" SueU Ckiid. 20. 



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ferried the .Ij^^^W^^-^eobe^ea 

bi^Oi.. I* «*»^*^ "» the cC '.''*' ^uXlfr 

ClawBus I>ru«is, st the p***** abore tfc^ *° *^ 

«,merime» called -rfyua^„^ ^^baati^^ ^ ^f 

a stream of water fiom tbrr***- Traf^ . '' '^*» 

and probdblj made use of 1°***' «de of S J*?^'* 

its conveyance, for it ig nJ^^'S'wtas's ^on^ "'***'. 

«y. *•** '"corded ^t"*?*'' 

Alexander Severus hro„rf., * '^^ 

ed by his name ; .ad the ^ *° ^'•We a w-^ 

Aqueduct which meet thT """8»uficent rul^* *^- 

trina are believed .obl*i\2'« °« *e «,St ^,^- 

waters were brought !«, r** "'action. sT •^^•les- 

*««• State- 



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I 



BOME. 155 

mait, whi^ rests on die authoritjr of Victor done, 
is supposed to be exaggerated ; it is probaUe thai he 
counted the different diannels, or conduits of water, 
not the Aqueducts. Whaterer was the reason of 
building these mighty bridges of water, however, it 
is certain, that in the time of Trajan at least> the 
Romans were not ignorant of the simple principla 
that water will rise to the height of its source. Pliny 
says,— ^' Jqua in plumbo mibU aUUudinem ewartii 
tui."^* They could not possihty suppose this faculty 
of water was exercised only in lead pipes. 

By some the ruin of the Aqueducts is ascribed to 
Vitjges; by some to Attila; and by others, with 
more appearance of reason, to Totila, — ^fbr this act 
of wanton destruction is sufficiently consonant with 
his actual demolition of one-third of the walls, and 
his declared resolution of raxing the whole city to 
the ground. Perhaps all these barbarians contributed 
to their ruin ; but, be this as it may, it is certain the 
Aqueducts were ruined in the sixth century ; yet 
their remains seem destined to strike &ture ages with 
wonder ; and, if exempted from violence, to last as 
long as the world itself. 

Notwithstanding their destruction, Rome is now, 
as anciently, the city in the world llie best supplied 
with water. Three Popes have conducted to it three 
noble streams ; though why they thought it neces^ 
sary to construct aqueducts, instead of employin^p 



* Hist lib. XXX. cap. e. § 31. 



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15€ ROME. 

dw iiore humMe and ordmaiy mode ef omT^ 
pijM) is mate then I en imagiBe. 

TlKbest of dwBemodemiratenu the Acqoa Fe- 
licei biovgfat by Sixtos V. to the Fontana di Ter- 
inini^ partly in the repaired aidies of the ClaodiaB 
Aquedodt ; the next is the Acqua Verpne, the only 
a&dent irater that flows to Rome, leoonducted by 
Nicolas y. to the Fontana di Trevi ; the kst is that 
bvougbt orer Mount Janicolus by Paul V. to the 
F^nitana £ Paolina, which is so un^olesome that 
its use is prohibited. 

Upon the wide waste of the Esquiline Hill stands 
a brick baiMnig called the << Trophies of Matins,'' 
from two sculptured marUe troplnes which adorned 
two of its niches, and which are now in the Piazza 
dd Campidoglio. Of these trophies, and of the dis- 
oordam opmaoa entertained respecting them Iqr the 
learned, I have already given you some account* 

With respect to the building itself, I brieve there 
is but one opinion, viz. that it is a castle of the Ju- 
lian water, whidi, as we have just seen, was brought 
by Agrippa in the Martian Aqueduct. 

This cctsteUum was one of tlmse immense reser- 
voirs from which ihe water was distributed to difler. 
ent parts of the city. 

There are some remains of another in the vine- 
yard in which the Temple of Minerva Medica stands, 
now converted into a scnrt of dwelling-house ; and 
scattered vestiges of many more may still be traced. 

Before leaving the vineyard adjoining the Santa 

* Vide Letter XV. 



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BOlfE. U7 

Crooe in Gienisalemme, we traced^ or fimcied we 
tiaoed, the remains of the Agger of TarquiniuB Su- 
perbns. 

We lingered long amidst the ruins that coTer ^^ the 
wide fidd of the Esquiline.^ Though yet early in 
February, the ground beneath our feet was thickly 
painted with the blue scentless yiolet, and our senses 
were r^;aled with the odoriferous smell of bean bios* 
som. 

The extraordinary effect of perfumes in this dU 
mate, which our countrymen aie so apt to impute to 
the prejudice or affectation of the Romans, was here 
exeavpUfied upon oise of our own nation^ and ose of 
the moat hKredulous of them-^ady ■■ ■» who neaiu 
ly faiated firom the scent of the bean fields and re- 
vived as soon i^ she was earned out of it and placed^ 
in the open carriage, atthou^ still exposed to diet 
beams of the sun, which I fimcied had been thecsue* 
of her indisposition. Either the pctfiime or the heal, 
(wluch e?)Mi at thb early season was pKirerfiil,) pravaMl 
o^eipowenng to several others of the pv^ ; bat thcgr 
w»e so tenqpeied by the soft Favonian fareeie^ duit 
I feU only thai exhih»ation of i^«its whidh the. de« 
lightfiil sensation of returning qnring^ and the sig^ 
of nature rgokang beneath its general iafiuenoe, neiraa 
&illoinfipira 

But my present busmess is not to describe Ae 
beauties of spring, nor anything but Aqueducts ; and 
I am sure you will rejoice to hear that yon have got 
to an end of them, and of this letter. 



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158 ROME. 



LETTER XXXV. 

OBSLI8C8* 

Rome alone, of all the dties of the world, boasts 
the Obelises <^ Egypt. These sublime monuments 
of the grandeur of past, ages, were not formed, like 
the wOTks of our degenerate days, by the slow ag- 
gr^ation of minute parts, but hewn out of one tre- 
Bicndous block of everlasting granite. They were 
destined to perpetuate the memory of Egyptian 
Kings, whose very existence is now forgotten. They 
were brought hither to swell the triumph of Roman 
Emperors, whose long line they have seen pass away. 
They were overthrown by barbarians, whose civilized 
descendants now lament their fall ; and they have 
been re^rected to the gkry of Popes, with whose 
obscure names they are now inscribed. It is a strange, 
and somewhat a humiliating contrast, that it has been 
considered a triumph in modern art, even to raise 
from the ground, those masses, which were brought 
fixim the remote rc^ons of Nubia, to grace the an- 
cient capital of the world. 



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BOM£. 159 

So srduooB did thi< e&terpriie q^pear^ and so gnu 
were the difficulties attending it, that when the re- 
moyal of the Obelise, in the grand Piasza of St. Pe- 
ter's, was determined upon, sereral years of prepa- 
ration elapsed before it could be carried into effect 
Men of science, all over Europe, were consulted upon 
the means of accomplishing it Proposals from archi- 
tects, engineers, and mathematicians, were sent in 
from all quarters ; and when, after mature delibera- 
tion, the plan of Fontana was adopted, and every, 
thing was at last in readiness for the great attempt, 
the day was usher^ in by the celebration of high 
mass in St Peter^s, after which, the architect and 
the workman reeeiyed the solemn benediction of the 
Pope,^ who implored the blessing of Heaven to pros- 
per their grtot undertaking. The engines were then 
set in motion, and an incredible number <^ labourers 
and horses strained every nerve to aid their efiect ; 
but it was not until after fifty-two- unsuccessful ef- 
forts, that the mighty mass was raised from the earth 
and swung in air. Then the shouts of assembled 
thousands rent the air ; — ^the cannon from the Castle 
San Angelo proclaimed the triumphant tidings, and 
the bdls of all the churches rang peals of joy. 

This obelise has no hieroglyphics upon it All au- 
thorities agree that it was erected in Heliopolis by a 
son of Sesostris. According to Pliny, this son was 
Nuncoreus ; according to Herodotus, he was Phe- 



* Sixtus V. A. n. 1589. 



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osBy^ iri»^ OK tte »eo«T«7 of Us. aq^V coaggcrated 
il and amlber to die Suil It was Inmiglit £tom 
Egypt Iqr CaHgnla, who crested it in the Vaticn 
Ciceoi^f^ whoie it leiiuuiied, exactly on Ae ^et sow 
occupied by the Sacristy of St. Pet^e, tiil it waa re« 
■Myrod to its pramit dtiiatioii in the centre of the 
Piasia, by Sixtua V* It is the only Obdfisc at Home 
that has not been broken and ovvrthjxmn ; and £rom 
ka atate of penfect preservation^ ita purity of colour, 
and fredwess of finish, it is perhapa the most beau^ 
laifiil of them alL 

The Obdiae that standa in the PiaaEa del Popolo, 
the first that now strHbea the eye of the strainer on 
Ilia entrmce into the Eternal City-^was also the first 
tiiat was ever seen m Rome. It was brooght firom 
Egypt by Augustus, and plaesd in the Circus Maxi- 
aiixa, where it served aa die gnomon of a disd; 

According to Pliny, it waa the work of Senneser- 
teos, or Semnesyrtffius, who was King of Egypt in 
t&e time of Pythagoras^ and who is believed to be 
tile same with Psammudiis, or Psammts, the son of 
Nedios, or Necbao,:]: whose temb has recently been 
diaeovered at Thebes, ly Mr Belaoni, adorned with 
the finest, spedraens of Egyptian paintmg which 



•If wenwybdiere some ancbniwiiters, this prince lived 
longb^re the siege of Troy; but there is nothing so uncer- 
^^'^^'^'^'^'^^^^^h chronology ofEgyj^t. 
'T V^ Hiafc libs xxx¥i> cap. 8i 

I^deUie article Egypt, in the Supplement to the Ency- 
«*<^«dia Bntannica, voh IV; Pwt T. 



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ROME. 161 

have come down to our time. The names of the fa- 
ther and the 8on are inscribed on all the middle lines 
of the hieroglyphics of this Obdisc, and on one side 
of it the king is represented as doing homage to his 



The last Obelise that was ever brought to Rome, 
and the largest of them all, was transported from 
Egypt by Constantius, and erected on the Spinse of 
the Circus Maadmus. It was originally dedicated, in 
Thebes, to the Sun, by Bamesses, or Ramises, or 
Bhamestes, the son of Heron, (according to Herma- 
pion,) who is supposed to have flourished fifteen hun- 
dred years before Christ. The name of Mesphres, 
(the fifth King of the eighteenth dynasty, according 
to Manetho,) who flourished seventeen hundred years 
before Christ, is inscribed in hieroglyphics on idl the 
four ddes. Thus, if the opinion of Herodotus be en- 
titled to credit, that the pyramid of Cheops was built 
only twelve generations before Cambyses, this Obe- 
lise is of far higher antiquity ; and so indeed are all 
the true Obelises of Egypt. This great Obelise 
now stands in firont of the Lateran Church, where it 
was re-erected by Sixtus V. From its extraordinary 
height, it sustained great injury by its fall ; yet, after 
lying on the ground for ages, and its shattered frag- 
ments being patched together, and elevated once 
more, its diminished height still reaches to upwards 
of a hundred feet. 

The Obelise, mentioned by Pliny, which was 



* Vide Encyc. Brit. SuppL vol. iv. page 02. 

VOL. II. L 



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L6t J«>^«- 

prottght to lUme by Angustta, and erected in the 
-ampos Mtttius, in older to server • gnomon or 
neridittD, now «taii& on Monte Citono-* 

This Obelise is said by Pfiny t ^ ^^^ *?f V~ 
fork of Sesostris ; but it is attributed, by the higbest 
mthority rf the present day,t to Phercwi^ son, 
[who, aooordiiig to Herodotus, erected two ObcHscs,) 
though it bears the name of his &lher,Mwen*s his 
>wn. The inscription is now believed to contain only 
the powpous list of the generiogy and the pwMos of 
die SiHg, instead of those annals of anrfcnt Egyp- 
tian learning and sdence which, in the time of Pliny? 
it was supposed to record. 

The column of red granite erected by Mtfrcus Aw- 
relius and Lnehis Verus to Antonmns Pins, which 
was dug uphere, wasnsed in the repair and re-eieo- 
don of this ObeUsc by Pius VI. 

The two Obefisca that stood at the entrance of the 
Mausolenm of Augustus are beliered to have be€» 



• MoBte Citorio is rather a rise than a hiU, and is wholly 
mmentioiied in all we hear of Ancient Rome* Its name^ how- 
5ver, is deduced from antiquity. Nardini, lib. vi. 3, supposes 
t to be comipted from CUarorio, or the place where the Cen- 
iorions were dted one by one. The Tulgar bcHcvc that this 
wrnnt was raised by the earth, with which they suppose Ae 
c^antheon to hare been filled^ in order to build the dome upon 
t ! We can scarcely imagine that the great architects of an- 
iquity would be obliged to have recourse to sin* a dvmsy 
ontrivance. 

t Pliay, Nat. Hist. lib. xxxv. cap. 15. 

t Dr. Voong — ^Vide Supplement to the Encydop«di» Bri- 
uinica, t^. fr. p. «i. ""^ ^ 



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broiqilu 10 SMie by Chnrinii. TlMyM»h9*«^ 
fmed to hsve been cNQlei nun dum lOM fMn bo* 
fore Christ, hy Smams and Vapliri«t» Vm Egyptim 
tinigg. Itisrstbermwectrtamlhiit^oMof Amwat 
erected in fnmt of the ChisA of SanU Mii» Magu 
giore, by Biacf v., «id the other b ei oo eo the efwe 
tnas etattfte of Caitor md PoHoat on MoateCa^raOlo^ 
byPiaeVL Bodi aredcrtitsUof hieioglypUcl. 

TfaoObriiMfMiiid m tboCiieMof CoraeaDaiiov 
atanda on the FooDtaui of the Piaau Na^ona. Itl 
Inetoiy ia mkaawn^ by wkma nado, or by lAoai 
tea nip orted to BoMft Kireherooiijoetiiiiedittohavo 
been erected in Hdiop^ by Soliiia. Xtwaaienored 
here by Innocent X. 

Two Utde Obelieee, ^diieh am beliered to haft 
stood of old before dtt Tenplae of leb aad Serafu^ 
were found hi the gaidens cf Ae Deniaican Convent, 
beUnd Ae Chnrdi of Santo Maria eqpra Minerra. 
One of theiB, eadly vedaced ftom ita anciant altitodOy 
k now elerated on the back of a maiUa ehi|^iant m 
front of that chnreh ; die odMr adomedie Foantam 
in the Piaisa deUa Rotonda. 

I capnot admire the tasto of den^gObeUeoe on 
the badci of animals, or stiddng them upon the ti^ 
of n little perpendicular pedeetal; in one of which ei^ 
toatiflne they are wraridbly placed at Romob They 
ong^t to BtMid, as in ancient Egypt, on a platform 
of atone, raised only two or diree steps from the 
ground* 

An Obdise, the history of which aeenMi tety ob- 
aeoie, etands in the grounds of the V31a Mattel, on 
dwCedianHffl; and anodler, wimli was^Mindki 



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164 SOME. 

tbe Civciu of Hdiogabalns, near the Porta Maggiore, 
now lies broken on the ground in a back Court of 
the Vatican Palace. 

The andent history of the Obelise which stooi^in 
the Circus of Sallust is a little obscure, but its au« 
thenticity is indisputable. It is not known by what 
Egyptian King it was made, nor by what Boman 
Emperor it was transported to Rome. The names of 
the same n^al father and son, which are inscribed 
four times upon the Obelise in the Piasao del Popolo, 
are once repeated here, and are supposed to have been 
copied from it, as well as many of the other luerogly- 
phics, which are exact duplicates of those upon that 
Obelise. Some of the hieroglyphics which appear 
on the shattered parts of the Sdlustian Obelise are 
spurious, bdng modem restorations. 

This Obelise now crowns the lofty summit of the 
Pindan Hill, m firamt of the Churdi of the Triniti 
de* Monti, towering fiur above the domes, the towers, 
and the palaces of ^^ the Eternal City,^^ and enjoys 
by fiff the most beautiful situation of all the Obe* 
liscs of Rome. But no cold description can convey 
to you, at a distance, the feelings with which such 
monuments as these are viewed here. How often, 
when the calm moonbeams have shone on the beauti- 
ful solitude of the Trinitsl de^ Monti, and involunta- 
rily awakened feelings too deep for expression, have 
I gazed, in the silence of the night, on die tall suifit- 
mit of that stupendous Obelise pointing to the skies, 
and thought that, among the works of men, there are 
none more subline than these ! Their formation is 
lost in the earliness of time, and they will probably 



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ROME. 165 

last till time be no more ; till tbe earth, and ** all 
that it inherits,^ have passed away. In them, art 
seems for once to have vied in dnrahility with the 
works of nature. Formed of the most imperishable 
of materials, they are fitthiimed by the being of a day, 
bat they haye remained, while ooontless generations 
have gone down to the dost They haye surriyed all ' 
that mankind deem most stable— 4awB,langaages, in- 
stitations,*nadon8, dynasties, goyemments, and gods. 
They are the woric of a people now no more— 4he 
monuments of a religion passed away, and eoycred 
with the characters of a language that is ftigotten. 
The unknown antiquity, and the mysterious obscu* 
rity that inyolye their or^in— the long flight of ages 
past which they have seen, and the dark and distant 
futurity to come which they seem destined to witness 
—open on our mind while we contempbite them, and 
make us sensU^le of our own littleness— make us re- 
member, that, in the passage of a moment, we who 
now feel, think, admire, and meditate, shall be no 
more; while they will still stand, the wonder and 
sdmiratioa of the world. 



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LETTER XXXVI. 

KlCnWs or TBB TSKAX VIKGtHS, Of* BIBIII«irS9 
OF THS eUkVMAK FAVILT, OF TiBAJAX, OF THE 
SCUNQS, OF THX XAVH&LIA FAVI3UY«««*TilS CO'- 
UBirBAHnrM of TIIS Fm^EDiCESf OF AX^GirSTVfr-*- 
TOWXS OF CECUilA METBLIJL— FBAGMBVTf OF 
IHIK SBFULCHBB OF TBM 6BBVXLIAK FAMILT. 



Tombs fionBei a ftr mare iiraxHBCDt feston n 
uieint coBinunilaes tban in warn. Tliey i««ie b^ 
crowded into obscnre churclripaiids, nor Uddcn in i^ 
raible Yatibsy but were aedulouslf spread abvoad is 
die most oeiuqBGaoBflpUoefly and by die sides of tkc 
public wayv. It would s^ett as if diese BMBentos of 
mortality were not so painfid nor so BeMaaang to 
Pagans as to Christians ; and that death, when be- 
lieved to be final dissolution, was not so awful and 
revolting as when known to be the passive to im- 
mortality. Is it that, in the secret heart of man, 
the small still voice of conscience bids him to tremble, 
rather than rejoice in a judgment to come, so distinct- 
ly announced — a state of future existence so dimly 
unveiled ? . Fear is a more powerful passion of the 
mind than hope, and therefore the threatened tenors 



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«f iifttiuity may , 

BM«ed joy«_thez«£c>sr« 
over the vaUex o** ^ 
gloom, rather tluui. a 1 
tend not to explwum. ^l:: 
certain it is, tb«aA. ,evc 
num ^ssolutioiKi^ 
9xi«ti0Q,aQd is 
it ever wag in. <-j 
had not dawii«»d mx^- 
Tlftetomhs erf* ti» 

the long line of t^tM. 

ss^Uacbenin^ i^^ 
Tombs that lt> ff^^*= 
on the sculptixr^^^L 
u^gsofthede&d. 
^^d^ouced their »x^ 

Theandent I:m.«-»****' 
be buried -witl^Jca. -fcX*-^ 
the imi^tioix o^ "^^"^ ^"^ 
must be unde^xTi 
natc occasioviaUy 



tiDguished iii.^15-"^^^^ 
within the w**^'*^ ^^*^ 



FublicolA -^^.a-^^ *^ 






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I 



168 R01l£. 

tbe Hill,* and hiB desoendaaCs possessed, thoogh 
they did not exercise, the right of interment there. 
FabricittSjf too, was buried within the dty ; and it 
would appear that the Vestal Virgins who died spot- 
less received the same honourable tomb4 

Trajan was the first Emperor, but not, as the anti«- 
qoaries pretend, the first man, who received the ho- 
nour of sepulture in Rome. Indeed, the vestiges of 
two tombs, of far more ancient date, stand in the 
heart of the city ; and though it has pleased some of 
the leaici^ed to assert that they were not within the 
walls, until, (as they say,) Trajan enlarged their cir- 
cle to comprehend his Forum,|| I cannot see how 
buildings situated on the declivity of the Capitoline 
(the central) Hill, could ever have been excluded 
from the walls that inclosed the Seven Hills of 
Rome. 

Indeed, the inscription on one of the tombs § proves 



* Plutarch's Life of Publioola. t Cie. Ijegg. iL 23. 

t Serv. in Virg. ^n. ix. 

(I I believe this assertion to be entirely devoid of founda- 
tion. The inscription upon Trajan's Pillar records the cutting 
down of the Qnirinal Hill to form a plain for his Forum, but 
mentions no extension of the walls ; a circumstance which, if 
it had happened, would surely not have been left unnotioed. 

§ The inscription is as follows :— 

C. POBLICIO. L. F. BIBVLO. AED. PL. HONORIS. 

, VIRTVTISQVE. CAVSSA. SENATVS. 

CONSVLTO. POPVUQVE. IVSSV. LOCVS. 

MONVMENTO. QVO. IPSE. POSTERIQVE. 
EIVS.— INFERRENTVR. PVBLICE. DATVS. EST. 



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HOME. 169 

that tbe plaee of its erection was sn honour accorded 
by the Senate and people of Rome to the merits and 
seTvices of Caius Publicins Bibnlas— -a name which, 
however, makes no great figore in history ; and, in 
fact, after the most diligent research, it has been im- 
possible to discover who he was. 

He could not have been thai colleague of Caesar, 
whose useful properties, as a cipher, made the Ro> 
man wits remark, that it was not the consulship of 
Bibulus and Caesar, but of Julius and Caesar. The 
Sibttlas of this tomb, whatever may have been his 
active or negative virtues, was an JSdile only, not a 
Consul. 

Livy mentions C. Publicius Bibulus, Pro Questor, 
in the Consulship of Q. Fabius Flaccus, and Tri- 
bune of the people three years after, in the Consul- 
ship of Q. Fabius Maximus ; but I cannot find that 
he was ever .^Bdile, much less that he either merited 
or received the honour of such a burial. 

There was an Mdile of that name certainly, in the 
reign of Tiberius, whom Tacitus casually mentions, 
but not in a way which can lead us to infer that so 
rare an honour had been conferred upon him. The 
obsequious Senate, indeed, might never have remark- 
ed the absence of merit, if such had been the will 
of the tynmt, but the historian, in that case, would 
scarcely have omitted to record the fact. 

A broken wall of Tiburtine stone, adorned with 
four mutilated pilasters, is all that remains of the se- 
pulchre of this unknown Bibulus, which now forms a 
part of a mean dwelling-house on the left side of a 
dirty narrow lane, leading from the Piazza Trajana 



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170 BOM£. 

to ibe Vk Mtfforie. It ii m wdbdnguiahed b 

its appewanoe, that we pasted k twice without ob- 

ser viog it, eren when looking for it, having been led, 

by the pompous deacriptiooa of books and antiquaries, 

to expect something mvch more importa»t. TW 

present " tenant of the tomb'' willingiy permitted 

us to enter ; but, in tiuth, there was nothing to see 

in the bside except dirt. 

Not fiur from hence are some obscwe Tcstiges, said 

to be the tomb of the Claudian familj, bia I $Bgm 

you, ypon my word, that they are by no means worth 

sU the pains and labowr, and fikhy odoinrs, I wwt 

through to find them out. 

The Roman aadrists, Jorenal and Horaee^ een- 
^re the pomip and spleadotnr x>f the Tombfi» psrtica- 
larly of those on the Via ApiMa. Chi that ^ Qineen of 
ways/' and way to the Qaeen of cities, were crowd- 
ed the proud sepulchres of the most distmgaiabad 
Jtomans ; and their mouldering remains still attest 
their ancient grandeur. 

Their magnitude and magnificence, indeed, suffi- 
ciently prove, that, even in the dust, man is proud, 
but they may ako teach him a lesson of humility ; for? 
with two or three excepticna, the whole of these sepul- 
cbres, destined to perpetuate the memory of their im- 
coDscious tenants fiMrerer, are whoUy unknown. Vague 
^tijectuTo has afiixed to them, at random* the illus- 
inlT '^'^^ «^ tie mighty dead, but all a«e involved 
^C^d'ir'"'''? obUTion. The tomb of the Scipioa is 

imtauce^^^^i^ '"'^''^^ *^ <«>wd ; and, in tto 
^ ? ^am« lias been Juat. 



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Moum. 171 



It k imij thifft]M«v«i yean mm ihif i 
mm ditciPcied. Became Lhry and Cie 
tbe Tenb of llu Sdpioe as beb^^ wUboiit the Porta 
CiqMna, tlie anliqaariea aagacseody eooduded it 
fliiist also be vitboQftits iwcaettlanbstitate, the Porta 
San Sebasiiano ; never ceoaideiiDg that, as the eft» 
tenwm ef the walls }af AHnrlian had rameved that 
gate Bune dun a nile beyond the skuafekm ef the 
ancient one, a bnil^&aig which was then wtthouft i^ 
ircold now, most pcobaUy, be com}»n8ed within it 
Having, however, fixed on one of the many old 
tanbs beyond the modon gate for ihe'Tomb of the 
Scipios, and having once called it ench— 4he Tomb 
of the Scipios they resolved to maintain it to be, al 
aU haiaids ; and, although a sepulchral inscription 
of one of the Scipios was discovered two hundred 
years ago, on the spot where their sepulchre has since 
been found, a number of profound antiquaries, (among 
whom was the cdebrated Maffi»,) instead of causmg 
the place to be examined, which would have settled 
the matter at once — in the true Italian style, set to 
work and wrote a variety of long treatises, to prove 
that this inscription was a fingory,* because it was 
not written as they thought it ought to be, and it 
was found where they thought it ought not to be. 

It would seem impossflbfe for a ray of truth to pe- 



* Mafibi, Art. Critici Laptdftria, p. 450. It was called the 
Barfoerini maible/ because in the Barberini Collectioii. The 
inseription, in the carious antique Latin of that early period. 



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172 ROME. 

netrate the thidt miflts of prgndioe in which anti- 
quaries inyolve themselves, or else one would im^ 
gine that the discovery of another sepulchral inscrip- 
tion,* to another of the Sdpios, on the Tety same 
spot, about fifty years after, might have so &r sha- 
ken their faith in their own conclusions, as to have 
had recourse to the simple eiqiedient of ezaminii% 
the ground. No ! Inscriptions declaring the Sdjnos 
to be buried here, brought no conviction to anriqua- 
ries who had previously settled that they were buried 
elsewhere ; and, but for the accidental circumstance 
of a man digging in the vineyard to make a cellar, 
the Tomb of the Sdpios might have remained un- 
discovered to this day. 



I have thought worth preservings as it is one of the most an- 
cient extant It is as follows : — 

HONC. OINO. PLOIRVME. CONSENTIONT. R, 
DVONORO. OPTVMO. FVISE. VIRO 
LVCIOM. SCIPIONE. FILIOS. BARBATI 
CONSOL. CENSOR. AIDILIS. HIC. FVET. A. 
HEC. CEPIT. CORSICA. ALERIAQUE. VRBE 
DEDIT TEMPESTATEBVS. AIDE. MERETO. 

It has been thus interpreted : — 

HUNC. VNVM. PLVRIMI. CONSENTIUNT. ROMiE. 
BONORUM. OPTIMVM. FVISSE. VIRUM 
LVCIVM. SCIPIONEM. FILIVS. BARBATI 
CONSVL. CENSOR. AEDILIS. FVIT. ATQUE. 
HIC. CEPIT. CORSICAM. ALERIAMQUE. VRBEM 
DEDIT TEMPESTATIBUS. AEDEM. MERITO. 
• Vide Marini, Iscririoni Albane, p. 9. 



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ROME. 178 

On the road to the Porta San Sebastiano, a rode 
red-letter scrawl abore the door of a ymeyard, in- 
forms the passenger that this is the ** Sepclcro degH 
SeipioniJ^ We stopped and entered it, not without 
respect mingled with awe, at the reflection, that we 
were in the cemetery of a long line of republican p*. 
triots and heroes, whose unblemished name was erer 
ennobled by hereditary virtues and hereditlvy ho- 
nours. By the light of waz-tapers, we slowly ad- 
vanced through the narrow winding way that leads 
to the interior of the vault. We bent down to read 
the names of the dead, but copies c£ the inscriptions 
have been substituted for the originals, which are 
placed in the Vatican, and every trace of the Scipios 
has been removed. Even their very bones have not 
been permitted to rest ** within their marble cere- 
ments,^ but have been collected and carried off to 
gratify the puerile vanity of some Italian virtuoso. 

The laurelled bust of Peperino stone found here^ 
and which now stands on the Sarcophagus of Sdpio 
Barbatus, in the Vatican, has been supposed to be 
that of the poet Ennius,* the friend and companion 
(£ Sdpio Africanus, whose last request on his death- 
bed was, that he might be buried by his side. But 
the tomb of the conqueror of Hannibal has not been 



* In Cicero's time^ the grave of Ennius was thought to be 
in the Tomb of the Sdpios. *^ Cams fnit Africano snperiori 
noster Ennius. Itaque etiam in Sepulchro Sdpionum puta- 
tur is esse constitutus k marmore." Cic* Or. Pro Arch. Poeta. 



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174 iBbOUK. 

immA in dM waj/niAtt of fab Anceston ; «id it is 
somewhat more than doubtful whetlKr his lemaiiM 
irtre erer ialerred here. The strasge and ioeiqpli- 
oaUe imcertainty which hung over the place of his 
death and borial, even in the time of Livy, it wodd 
be Tain to leek to dispel now ; nnce even then, tt 
aeemsy ** aome said he died at Ilome» and oliieni at 
Linteraum, and his tomb and statue were shown at 
both places.* I myself,^ he continttes» ^* lately aaw 
them at Lintenram."* 

But the tradition that reoords the cKgnified enle 
of his latter years> and his dying request that hb 
bones might lie there, *' far from his ungrateful eoiM- 
try,^ is given by the historian as antheatic, and it is 
aupported by so mmdi more of consistency and evi- 
dence^ that we can scarcely refuse it our belief. 

To this day, the little lake at Lmtemnm, upsai 
whose shore he lived, retains the juane of Li^ di 
Patria» from the wdl-known fragment of inscripcion 
fiMmd there. It consisted only of 

— — ta Patria — — neo— 

but we are surely justified in considering it a part of 
that toQcfaiBg epitajA recorded by Livy, 

iDgrata Patria^ nee ossa quidem mea babes; 

and this circumstance alone is in itself ** confir- 

• Lavy, Hb. KXxvHi. cap. 50. Dec. 4. 



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BOMS. 176 

mfttion mxaDg,"^ that iht lenaiu «f Sopb wpoii 
tliere.* 

We must therefore cQDcl]ide» thai << the tMih aad 
statue which) Livy aays» were diowA ef Sdpie at 
Rome,^ were Bierdy a emoteph to his meoaory. 

Near the ManaolmBi of Hadiiaa stood an i 
maxUe pyranid of imsdense siae, which m 
days was ^v^^y cdled the tomh^ and may have 
been this cenotaph, of Scipio Afincanos ; althovf^ 
tihat IB fmt fitND probable ; finr marUe was neveri as 
fkr as we know, used for hailcyng till the Av^gisstaa 
age. This pyimmid was remoi^ fay Pope Aleiaft- 
der VI. when he opened the Piassa of St Peter. 

Fktarch sosim to insmnate, that the days of SdU 
{do A fricaw w were not only embittered by diigiaoe 
and neglect, bat shortened by poison. ^* That he. 
died withont previous siclmesa, and that there ap- 
peared marks of Tiolence cm die body ; that neat 
people laid his deadi to the charge of Fulvius his 
avowed eneny, and diat Cains Gracchus hdmseif was 
not unstt8pectcd,'**-f' 

No memento of die Younger Scipio {Asiadcus} 
has been found in die tomb. Indeed, from the small 
Bamber of inscriptions that have come to light, I can- 
not but suspect that many of diem must have been - 



* Seneca somewhere mentions the interment of Scipio ftt 
Lintemmn^ but I cannot recover the passage. 

t Plutarch's Life of C. Gracchus. Langhome's Transla- 
tion. 



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176 EOM£. 

destroyed or taken awaj, long before Us present dis- 
coverjr. At that time, indeed, it bore intrinsic evi- 
dence of having been used for the interment of less 
ancient and honourable families, to make way for 
whom the ashes of the Sdpios had probably been ex- 
pelled. It is impossible to believe, that all the mem- 
bers of a long line of one of the most ancient and il- 
lustrious families of Rome, are comprehended in the 
iew obituary tablets posted up in the Vatican. The 
inscription on the beautiful Doric tomb of Sdpio 
fiarbatus, is said to be the most ancient extant, and 
is much admired for its simplicity and conciseness. 
The Latin is of an early and unrefined age, before 
the language had attained perfection. The ortho- 
graphy is curious ; and it has been observed, that 
the form of the letters inclines towards the Greek, a 
singularity I shall not attempt to preserve in my 
transcript. 

CORNELIVS. L.VCIVS. SCIPIO. BARBATVS. GNAI- 
VOD. PA THE. PROGNATVS. FORTIS. VIR. SAPI- 
Pv^^^J?" ^^^^V^S. FORMA. VIRTVTEI. PARISVMA. 

Avi^ xr^^^^^- CENSOR. AIDILIS. QVEI. FVIT. 

sSi?\J^^o^^ CISAVNA. SAMNIO. CEPIT. 

CIT ^M^^- LOVCANA. OBSIDESQVE. ABDOV- 

custom^ rr'"'"^^' *''''* *^ ^^^Pi^« J^ad the singular 
^m of burying, instead of burning their dead.* 

^liny. Hist. Kat. lib. 



VM. 
6 



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178 ROME. 

nie stutfies or singles of the dead were plseed^ sod 
the fibatioiifl and obseqiiies perfenned. 

These sepulchres were generally places of ftnily 
interment, like those of the Seipios and Mao^Iia ; 
hat sometimes they were soMtary tomhs, like those 
of Cecilia Metella, and Catus Ctstius ;-— or great 
Mausolea like that of Angnstns, capdbie of eontaiii- 
ing all the varioas branches of a finnily to the latest 
generations. That of Hadrian, though sinatr in 
ferm, was intended lor himself akme. The impend 
descendants of his Hne, Antoninns Piaaand Mkcbs 
Aurelius, wer^ howerer, interred in it. 

From the Sepulchre of Ae Sdpios, we pursaed 
our way along the Via Ap^na, whose Ime is marked 
by unknown and ruined tombs. In gaaing on theni) 
on either side of the way, I understood the full force 
of the 5?*/^, Viator^ the " Stop, Travdler ;" bo ap- 
propriate here, and so truly absurd, as ap^ied in ouf 
little seduded village churchyards, where no troyel- 
ler ever does pass. 

The tomb so long reputed, and confidentljr mtdn- 
tained to be the Tomb of the Sdpios, was pointed 
out to us. It is exactly opposite to the little Church 
of Domine quo Vadis f which, according to the 
Priests, stands on the yery spot where the apparili<^ 
of our Saviour bearing the cross appeared to 8t Pe- 
ter, on which the apostle very naturally put this 
question. The answer, if there was any, has not 
been recorded ; but to remove all doubt of the feet, 
good Catholics tell you, that the marks of the feet of 
our Saviour are still to be seen on a stone at the 
church. It seems wonderfiil, that an immaterial spi- 



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&OM£. 179 

lil abottU leay^ aflentieiU imprefsion w matter^ but 
I was assured tbis made the mixaele so much the 
gfsftter. 

At the church otDomine fuo Vadis^ the road se- 
parates; the Via Ardentina turns to the right, but 
we contiuued our way to the left, aloig. the Via Ap- 
piai and stoffei to see some sepulchral chambers at 
the huge red wooden gate of a vineyard, called the 
Vigna di GiMseppe Vanioliiii. Long and loudly did 
our Mteadants knock and bawl, before either Giu- 
sefpe or aay (Mf his family condescended to answer. 
Through the manifidd chinks of the gate, mdeed, an 
old woman was observed from time to time to pro- 
trode her withered &ce and snaky h)cks ; but it was 
not till after Ae perseverance of near half an hour 
in this exercise, that a man surlily came forth ; and 
after reconaiatring us through the aforesaid conve- 
nieDt eUUu, at length undrew the bolts and admit- 
ted us. Little now is to be seen of the three sepul- 
chral dambears. Though they were only discover- 
edin the course of the last century, they seem to have 
been destroyed with considerable care and activity. 
They have been converted into pig-sties, broken up 
into charcoal boles, and finally carried off for the 
sake of the bricks. Vestiges <^ each of the three, 
howev^, remain ; and some of the ColumbuB, the 
little vases of Terra Cotta, are still 611ed with the 
ashes of the dead. They obuined their name from 
their supposed resemblance to pigeon-boles, though 
to me they seem much more like garden-pots, and 
are made of much the same coarse red earthen-ware. 
I remember seeing specimens of these columbke, or 



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180 ROME. 

o2br,in the British Maseum. They were only used fer 
dependents or slaves. According to the inscriptions 
found here, (which are now in the Capitol Museam,) 
this Columbarium contuned the remains of six thou- 
sand of the freedmen of Augustus. Nearer to the 
Porta San Sehastiano, another Columbarium was 
finmd filled with the urns of the freedmen of Livia, 
but it is totally destroyed. The entrance to these 
sepulchral chambers was generally at the top, to 
which the funeral train, bearing lights, ascended by 
an external stair, and descended by an internal one ; 
a mode calcolated to give great e£bet to the proces- 
sion. 

The custom of carrying torches at fimerals (from 
which they derived their ntane'^a JitnaUbus) ia of 
very remote antfquity.* The Catholics derived it 
from the Romans, the Romans from the Greeks, and 
the Greeks from the Egyptians ; tor the burning of 
lights before the dead was considered by the andents 
as essential to the repose or safe passage of the de- 
parting spirit ; a superstition still entertained by the 
vulgar in our own, and perhaps in almost every other 
country. 

Prom the ruins of this Columbarium, we pro- 
ceeded along the Appian Way to the Tomb of 
Cecilia Metella, which is generally acknowledged to 
be the most beautiful sepulchral monument in the 
world. It consists of a round tower formed of im- 
mense Mocks of Tiburtme stone, fixed together with- 
out cement, and adorned with a Doric marble fneze, 



^n. ad. U4. Persius, Sat. iii. 108. 



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HOME. 181 

on which are sculptured rams'* heads festooned with 
garlands of flowers. That they are rams' heads, must 
be evid^it to any cme who will take the trouble to 
examine them, but they are usually d^ominated thp 
heads 6f oxen, because the tomb itself is vulgarly 
called Capo di Bove. But this name is obviously 
derived from an ox's head, (the arms of the Gaetani 
'^Uy* by whom it was converted into a fortress,) 
which was affixed many centuries ago on the side of 
the tower next the Appian Way,* and still remaii^s 
there ; and accordingly the vulgar name is Capo di 
Bove, '^ the head of the ox,^ in the singular — ^not in 
the plural. 

. This beautilul tower rests 4ipon a square Jbasement 
winch has been despoiled of its exterior coatmg, by 
Popes and other purloiners, but the greatest part of 
it is buried beneath the soil. The wall of the tower 
itself, tjlie interior of which is entirely built of brick, 
is twenty feet at Ijeast in thickness ; and its solidity 
and circular form have resisted the attacks of barba- 
rian vid^l^ice. The sepulchral vault was below the 
pesent level of the eurth, and it was not till the time 
of Paul III. that it was opened, when the beautiful 
marble sarcophagus of Cecilia Metella, now in the 
Palazzo Famese, was found in it. A golden urn, 
containing the ashes, is said to have been discovered 
at the same time ; but if so, it has long since disap- 
peared. That Cecilia Metella, for whose dust this 
magnificent monument was raised, was the daughter 

• Nardini, lib. iii. cap. 3.' • 



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188 ROME. 

of MeteUiis, and the wife of Crassus, is all we know. 
All that the deronring tomb has not swallowed up, 
is an empty name— the mockery of immortality on 
earth. It gives the shadow, bat withholds the sub- 
stance. 

Her husband, who was the richest, and the mean- 
est of the Romans, had himself no grave. He pe- 
rished miserably with a Roman army in the des^ts 
of the East, in that unsuccessful expedition against 
the Parthians, which has stamped his memory with 
incapacity and shame. 

The rude batdements on the top of tbe tower, and 
all the old walls and fortifications whicb surround it, 
are the work of the Gaetani family, who long main- 
tained theb feudal warfare here. Their ruined church 
is ezacdy similar to the country churches of Enj^nd 
at this day, and Tcry unlike any that are to be seen 
in Italy. The remains of their castle will not stand 
a comparison with those of our feudal barons. 

We pursued our way along the deserted and grass- 
grown line of the Appian Way, to the spot where 
CanoTa has recently re-erected the broken fragments 
of the marble tomb of the Servilian family. Amongst 
the immense number of mouldering sepulchres wMch 
arrested our gaze as we passed along, all, excepting 
die few whose names I have now noticed, are un- 
known. 

It is impossible to contemplate unmoved these for- 
gotten tombs of magnificence. They speak to the 
fcewt ei man that awful lesson, « From dust yc 
cwne, and to dust ye shall return.'' 



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ROME. 

'' That hetp 

Of mouldering urns (their ashes blown away, 
Ihist of the mighty !) the same story tdl ; 
And at its bate, firom whence die serpent glides 
Down the green desert street, yon hoary monk 
Laments the same, the Tision as he views — 
The solitary, silent, solemn scene. 
Where Caesars, heroes, peasants, hennits, lie 
Blended in dust together ; where the daTe 
Rests from his labours ; where the insolting proud 
Resigns his power, the miser drops his hoard ; 
—'Where human fnAy sleeps."* * 

At some little distance to the westward, on i 
waste of the Campagna, are some scattered ruins a 
walls of a singular construction, wbich are said to e 
dose the Campus UstrinuSy the place where tl 
boj^ea of the Plebeian dead were burnt. Those 
ihePatiidan order were burnt in the Campus Mai 
tins. 

We were ob%6d, by an engagement, to return t 
Some as fast as possible, without beisg able to mi 
die Cataoonbs ; so that I must defisr ff^mg you ai 
aeoount of them to a future day ; a misfortune^ 1 
^aucme^ you will endure mth laudable patience. 
Adieu. 



Dyer's Ruins of Rome. 



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184 ROME. 



LETTER XXXVII. 



TOMBS— PYRAMID OF CAlUS CESTIUS PROTES- 
TANT BURYING GROUND^MAUSOLEUM OF AIT- 

GUSTUS NERO^S GRAVE— TORRE DI QUINTO— 

SIEGE AND SITUATION OF VEII— TOMB OF OVID. 

Near the Porta San Paola stands the grey pyra- 
mid of Caius Cesdus. Who or what he was is 
nnimown. The montunent that commemorates bis 
ideadi, alone teUs us that he lived. From it we 
leam, that he was the contemporary of Caesar and 
Augustus, but his name does not appear in the 
annals or the literature of that eventful and en- 
lightened period. The last struggles of expiing 
freedom do not seem to have roused him to take 
a part to save or to destroy. Of his wealth, and of 
his pride, this magnificent tomb is a sufficient record ; 
but of his merits, or his virtues, no trace remains. 
The inscription only tells us he was one of the 
seven Epuhnes, whose office was, to furnish, and to 



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BOMB, 186 

eat, the sscred banquets ofFered to Jupiter and the 
gods.* 

This pyramid, of more than a hundred ftet in 
height, is entirely boilt of marUe, bat time has 
changed its colour, and de&ced its polish. The 
grey lichen has crept over it, and wild evergreens 
hang firom its crevices. But what h has lost in 
splendour it has gained in picturesque beauty ; and 
there are few remains of antiquity within the bounds 
of the Eternal City, that the eye rests upon with 
such unwearying admiration, as this grey pyramid. 

It stands in the ** Prati del Popolo Romano^*" 
and though no longer devoted to the enjoyment of 
the living, but to the repose of the dead ; bright and 
beautiful in the first days of the year was the ver- 
dure that covered "the meadows of the Roman peo- 
ple-'* 

They are now the burial-|^e of Protestants, and 
consequently of foragners only; for all Italians must 
be Catholics. By far the greater part of the stcsn- 
gers interred here are English. Their marble tomb- 
stones were scattered over the green turf, and the 
words of my native tongue engraven on these mate 
memorials, which recorded that youth, beauty, rank, 
and talents, had here met a premature grave, spoke 



* The feasts set before the stotues of the gods at the so- 
lemn LeciUtemium, (for some account of which^ see Letter 
XXVI.) were eaten by the Epulones alone ; but those annual- 
ly served up to tbem in the Capitol^ were publicly eaten by 
tJl the Senators. 



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186 ROM£. 

poveifiiUy home to the heart ia thk foreiga land. 
Those who now laj imconscious here, had perhaps, 
like m^ Tiated this spot m the fiihieBS ct yoath 
«Bd hope, as litde thinkiiig that thdr grsre should 
he added to those they sorrowed oyer* 

In one piaee the earth was aewly tamed up. It 
was the gmye of one, who, in the £ower of youth, 
and the pride <^ lortune, had fallen * victim to dis- 
ease, ia the very scene whitha pkasuae had kd 
him; and the new4aid stcmewhich reorarded hia early 
Tirtue^, spdie the grief of the firieads and comps- 
niiHis who had raised tins mouiaM tribute to his 
mefliwy 

The stiUnesB and sedusioa of the spot, the soft 
▼erdure ct the earth, the ethereal brightness of the 
heavens, the graves of yesterday at our feet, and the 
proud tomb of the Roman that died eighteen centu- 
ries ago, hadced by the dark battlonents of the old 
walls of the dty,— ^aU were in harmoi^ with the deep 
repose of the scene, and the heart felt its mdanchofy 
beauty. 

We entered the sepulchre of Cains Cestius, and 
dinly saw, by the light of torches, some faded spe- 
•cintens of ancient painting which had eace been 
beautifiil, and we could still trace the perfection 
of their design, in all its Grecian taste and correct- 



At the base of the pyraand stand 4wo marble 
celmanfi, which were found beneath the ground, and 
y»-erected by some of the Popes. One foot, which 
18 all that remains of the colossal statue in bronze of 



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ROMS. 187 

Caius Cestiiis, that IlirBier ly stood befim hk tomby 
is now in the Museum of die CapiKd. 

The Mausc^eum of Angnatas was erected on iIm 
banks of the Tiber, in the Campos Martins, shaded 
with a grove of poplars, and adorned widi two Egyp- 
tian Obelises. Until the e9Lt»sion of die walls by 
the Eaaperor AureKan, it was widioat the gate ^ 
the city. So great was the solidity of diis mighty 
fiibric, that it has been triumphant over the attacks 
of Time, Goths, and Popes; and its Test ciieumfl^ 
rence is still entire, though the upper part is a resto- 
ration of modem days. The ancient reticnlaled 
walk, in union with these elamsy new ones, may be 
^ seen in the court of the Palasso Valdombrini, in the 
Ripetta ;* but so closdiy is it hemmed in with mean 
modem buildings, that this small segment of ihdr 
immense circle is almost the only view that is now 
to be obtained of the exterior. 

The interior was for a long time a garden, but 
late imprtyvements have converted it into an arena 
for bull-baiting ; and the rows of seats raised round 
it, something in the style of an ancient amphithea- 
tre, are crowded in the evenings of summer with 
the modern Romans, who, in their taste for blood 
at least, seem to resemble their ancient predeces- 
sors. 



• The eotDiDon pavement of the gateway h«e, and in 
msby parts of Bsme, n of broken pieces of aerpentine and 
ancient matble; biit> till the dirt ia washed ofi; no eye ean 
diacover it. 



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188 ROME. 

It is certainly better to sacrifice bulls than men 
to the ferodous passions of the multitude ; but I fear 
human nature is much the same now as in fermer 
ages, and that those who to-day flock to feast their 
eyes with the dying 'agonies of a noble quadruped, 
would have seen, with the same savage exultation, 
men tear eadb other to peces, or fidl in c(»nbats with 
wild beasts. 

That delight so general among mankind in war 
and battles, widi all thdr sanguinary horrors, may, 
I fear, be referred to much the same feelings ; yet, 
bad and bloody as we still are, we cannot think with- 
out horror, that those Romans, whose very names 
we still valerate, instituted schools and colleges to 
train men to murder each other, and to die them- 
selves for the diversion of thdr fellow-dtizens.* 

But in the vices of these proud Masters of the 
World, I am forgetting their tombs. 

Three ranges of vaults anciently ran round the 
walls of the capacious Mausoleum of Augustus, which 
was destined for his whole race, and that of his 
kinsmen and descendants to the remotest degree; in 
short, as we should say in Scotland, for his whole 
dan. 

We entered all that now remain of these imperial 

• There was a Collie of Gladiators on the Coelian Hill, 
another on the Esquiline, another at the little town four miles 
frwn Rome^ on the Via Lahicana, (the ruins of which are now 
called the Cento CeUe,) as appears from two inscriptions oi 
the time of Commodus found there^ and preserved in ^^ 
Villa Albani. 



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ROME. 189 

dbamben of the dead. They are snbdiTided into 
small sepulchral cells communicating with eadi 
other. In <me, said to have contained the ashes of 
Aijf^tus, was a heap of charooaL It was dast» 
equally worthy dust with that of the ioold calculating 
selfish tyrant, whose whole life was one oontimied 
masquerade of virtue. In another division, where 
we were told the remains of the virtuous Agrippina 
had reposed, we found a cart Her husband 6er- 
manicus, Octavia, Marcellus, Drusus, Agrippa, 
Caius and Lucius, Livia, Tiberius, and Caligula, 
are said to have been buried here, — the best and 
greatest, the vilest and most infinnous, the murder- 
ers, and the murdered, confounded in one common 
grave. 

What became of the Saroophi^us of Augustus, 
and of all those which filled this imperial Mauso- 
leum, is unknown. 

We left the still more magnificent Mausoleum of 
Hadrian, — ^its sepulchral character havingcompletely 
merged in that of the Castle St Angelo,«-for a future 
visit 

Pursuing our tour of the Tombs, we left Rome by 
the Porta del Popolo. It was exactly at this gate, 
on the ground now occupied by the Church of Santa 
Maria del Popolo, that Nero is said to have been 
buried. A tree sprouted forth from his grave, in 
which divers demons, and other evil-disposed spirits, 
were known to reside, and used to sally forth at nights, 
working mischief. 

But Pope Paschall II. routed this convocation. 



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190 ROM£. 

Sx he cat down tlie tree, and bnik up the ckiodi, 
end had Nero^a aahea, together with all the hohgob- 
lina, thrown into the Tiber, wh^e th^ still Ik. 
The fact, I am crediUy informed, is recorded in an 
inscription on the paveBient of the diurch, but I ne- 
l^ected to examine this edifying document 

The antiquariea of our days always insist upon 
knowing eya7thing ancient better than the aataents 
themselves ; yet, it seems strange thftt they should 
persiBt in pladng Nero^s tomb at the bottom of die 
Fincian Hill, wh«i his own biqgnqpher asserts it was 
at the top. *^ His ashes,^ says Suetonius, ^' were 
dqNMdted in the monument (^ the Domitian fiucnily, 
which stands ^m the top of the hill ov^looking the 
gardens, and may be seen from the Campus Mar- 
tins C" a sufficient proof it was not in the Campus 
Martins, and at the bottom of the hill where this 
church stands.* He adds, what seems a strange 
proof of tenderness of feeling towards the memory 
of sudi a monster, — ^** There were some who for a 
long time decked his tomb with spring and summer 
flowers.'' 

The sepulchre upon the ViE Cassia, Yulgarly call- 
ed the tomb of Nero, but really that of C. Vibius 
Marians, which we saw on our way to Rome, we 
had by accident visited several times during our 
residence here, so that we did not return to it now ; 
and as there is no other tomb worth notice upon 
that road, we left it after crossing the Ponte MoUe, 
and took the road to the right, which is the ancient 



* Suetonius, Nero, 50. 



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aoME. IM 

FkMBMD my,-HBd a dqilanUy hsd one U k. 
However, we liad the satiafiictioii of rdleetHig^ as we 
clasncaUy jumbled along, that we wete now travets- 
ing for the first tuM,«-*aiid, as some of ns hoped, 
fer the last^— a rood made by the defeated Flamniiiis 
during the Pimic War, and by which the vietonoiis 
CsMsr advanced, after cvosug the Rnbioon, to sob* 
ji]^te Us country. 

On the left of the road, we paned one of those 
old towers, so many of which are scattered aver 
the Campagna, vestiges of the dark ages of dvil war« 
ftre. 

Our coachman, who is an eoDcaedingiy eomnrani- 
cative, as well as erudite personage, ix^rraed us it 
was called Torre di QidtkiOy and that << tifi' cerio 
Qiumto^ who was un^ vecchio a»sai rmwmato^ lived 
at it in tempi, antichi,^ These tempi antichi being, 
9B we weU knew, very indefinite in thar application, 
we asked how long it was since this hero flourished. 
^* Chi sa r^ says the old man, with a true Italian 
shrug; ^^Jbrse tre, quaHro, cinque eeeoU paseaHr 
poco piuj poco meno, cV importaf^ 

On refierring to some of our cumbrous books of 
antiquities, we found, to our infinite amusement, 
that this old Qfiinio (who lived either three or four 
hundred years ago) was no less a person than Quin- 
tus Cindnnatus— from whom the wild imaginations 



* Who knows ? It may be perhaps a matter of three or 
four hmidred years ago ; a little more or less. What can that 
signify? 



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198 EOME. 



of some antiqiiariesy it teems, baw dmved the mane 
of this Grothic towei^-^ouj^, acoording to others, 
it was only the fifth mile stone.* 

We crossed two little bridges, uadar the last of 
which flows the Valca— bd&eved to be the andoit 
Ciemera— 4he scene of that disastrous batde bo- 
tween the people of Veii and the FMi^ in whu^ 
that gallant band, after havii^ Toluntarily beoi 
so long the sole and suceessful defenders of thm 
coontry in the Veian war, betrayed, by their too 
axdent Talour, into the snares of the eomky — fell to 
the last man, disdaining to survive their defeat* 
These patriotic Romans remind ne, in the union 
isi so many of the same name and family under 
one chief, as well as in thw heme bravery, of 
some of our Highland dans. I know you will be 
amused at my nationality, when you find that I 
cannot praise the Falm without bringing in the 
SeotdL 

Much dispute has arisen in modem times, re- 
specting the site of the andent dty of Veii — the 
early rival of Rome— the Latin Troy, that was 



* The situation of Cindnnatus's house and farm has been 
a fruitful subject of discussion among the antiquaries. Pliny 
says it was ^' in Agro Vaticano ;** but some of these ingenious 
gentlemen extend the bounds of the Vatican Ager as far as 
Veii. Others^ who are hostile to his having lived at the 
above-named Gothic Tower, fix him in the fields between 
the Ripetta and St. Peter's, of which, by the way, the above- . 
named Palazzo Valdombrini commands an enchanting pro- 
spect. 



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ROME. 198 

taken after a ten yetn^ siqje— the moat iasportaDt 
ccHMpieBt of the iiifimt teptthi ie ' a nd whichf even 
after its conquest, had so nearly made the B4Mnans 
Veientes, and Roooe eease to be.* 

By the usual happy ^agadty of antaqnaiies— who 
never, by any chanee, stnmble upon die trath--4ts 
true situation, or somediing very near it, which had 
been conjectured, was prononneed to be fidse, and 
Veii was fixed to be at Ctriti Castdkna, abant 
thirty-nx miles from Rome, where modem insorip- 
tions were set np^ raondly ssiiining the fiict Not 
long after this, Veii was remoTed a few milts beyond 
Bncoa&o, and about twenty frm Rome,«-«in oonse- 
quenoe of a learned antiquary disooveiing die Tery 
mine by which Camillus entmd the beneged dty, 
and Ae pits through which the soldiers came ttp into 
the citadel ; all of which I had the edification of 
seeing in eDgraTings.f There was no withstanding 
this discovery of a mine, made twenty- two hundred 
years ago, backed by a long and kamed treatise; 
and, accordingly, Vdi was unanimously settled here, 
when, sixteen years ago, the accidental (Esoovery of 
ancient inscriptions, sculpture, and, in short, the 



* I need not remind the reader, that it was the influence 
of Camillus alone that prevented his countrymen from aban« 
doning the ruins of Rome, after it was burned by the Gauls, 
and establishing ihemselTea at the conquered Veii, whidi was 
a larger and better built dty. 

t Vide Zanchi's Veio lUustrato, with plates of the Cuni- 
culus made by CamiUus^ &c 
VOL. II. N 



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H EOMB. 

uried rams of Veii htdC, on tbe dewrt Campaguft^ 
boat thiee miles east of La Storta^ and thirteen 
orth-east of Rome, proved Vdi to have been exact- 
f where tbey had decided it was not 

We had race intended to have paid a visit to the 
pot, bttt deostod from our puipose, on finding that 
he few excsrations which die indcdence of the pvo- 
»netorhadsuflbredto be made, are now filled upland 
he ratiquitits that had been found in them^ convey^ 
A to Borneo* 

From these marbles it appears, that if Veii was 
lestioyed, it was also rebuilt by Ihe Romans ; for it 
vas a flourishing city in the time of Tibeiius, md 
[nwbably at a mudi later period, as a statue of that 
smpetor, and many ioseriptions, suffidwntly ptrove. 

But all this has nothing to do with the object of 
mc present excursion, which was not to visit the dte 
)f Veii, but " the Tomb of Ovid.^ We knew, in- 
deed, that the remains of the poet were inteited in 
oo classic ground-^that he died in exile, the mys- 
terious cause of whidi was never explained, at To- 
inus,t a city of Pontus, where he was boned; and 
ihat, consequenay, this could not have been his 
^mb. But there is a charm in a name, even when 
^e know it is unreal ; and, though fancy alone has 
nvested this ruined sepulchre with the title of the 
Tomb of Ovid, we entered it with feelings of in- 



• They may be seen in the Palazzo Giorgio, Via Babnina- 
Jr. "^""^ ^ ''''^' ^ *^^®^^^ ^^™' ^ Bulgaria, on the 



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BOMB. 195 



tettttf iBuiyoiiied) pctliipBy cwnt to MXMi¥f% htt 
wUA we eertainly ahonld not othenris^ haw expo- 
TicnoecL 

It is, howef«r, a tomb tbat Am poet M%|lit lunre 
choven. It ii orerhang widi twfa, from which m- 
cieiit treei pratnide their piotORiqao horiaontal 
bramAes, and shade the «itnuMe> while they seem 
to mourn over the abandoned grave. The intnier 
is still adorned with some nearly obKteiatei Tostiges 
of ancient painting. One small medallion, leprassnt- 
ing a man hokhi^ a bone^ is p rti sc i w d in the Ga- 
sino, or gallery of the deserted ViUa Altieri, within 
Ae walls of Rome; hat I cannot learn nhat have 
become of all the other paintings which, at the time 
e( the disoofery of thb sepuldire,'* cwnamented its 
walls and voo&. They were engrated by BartoH, 
and esplained by BeBoii, tmt I have ne^er been able 
even to proenre a sight of the plates. 

The Villa of Ofid must have been near this spot, 
ferit was between tbeClandian andFlaminian Way«;f 
The ViUa and Gardens of Livia, and, snbseqpiently, 
of Lucius Yerus, were also near here, but no remains 
ei them are now to be seen.f About a mile beyond 
**tlie Tomb of Ovid,^ and m. ndlnB from Borne, is 

* It was not tiU long after I yitited this sdpulchre^ ths4 1 
ksmt an iosoription had been fiwiiid hcre> whidi prores It t» 
be the Tomb of Q» Nssonhit Ambrotiua^ one of the Oridian 



t De Fonto, Hb. L Ep. viii. y. 44. 
t On the site of these gardens^ a great many busts of Lo^ 
dus Veras> and one of his eolkagae, Marcus Anrelias, were 



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196 ROME. 

he Sara Rnbra, so often mentionea by Tacitus,* — 
he same where CScert, in one of his PhilippioB, ae- 
uses Mark Antony of having spent a day in dnmt 
nness at a little obscure puWic house. Itnowbears 
he nearly equivalent name of the GroUa Roisa ; 
mi as we understood there was nothing whatever 
o be seen at it, and wcto nearly jolted to death, we 

^turned home. ^ 

On whichever side you leave Home, the feeling of 
iesertion strikes you with strange and fearfiil fiur- 
OTse. From a great metropolis— the seat of the most 
•efined arts, you plunge at once into a desert- You 
mow yourself to be close to a large and popufous 
aty, yet you see no houses, no people, no ouJtiva- 
bion, no signs of life ; you meet no passengers on the 
road, 6r, if you catch the glimpse of a human bring, 
he wears the garb and aspect of a savage. He is dad 
in shaggy sheep-skins, his legs and feet are bare, 9sx& 
his dark eyes glare wildly on you as he crosses the 
waste. The incongruity of your own figures and 
equipage, in a scene like this, sometimes startles you ; 



Fofund about fourteen years ago ; and ako a very pretty little 
MEarine Venus, which may be seen gratis, and purchased for 
Sve hundred guineas, at the studio of a sculptor. Via della 
Fontanella, leading frcnn the Corso to the Babuino. The busts 
of Lucius Verus are more numerous than those of any other 
smperor ; indeed; they bear testtnioiiy to the truth of his his- 
torical character, and inform us how well he Ibved tainul*i- 
ply his own dear image \ You may read his history in his 
face. 
* Hist. lib. iii* cap. 79, &c. &c. 



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ROME. 197 

you feel as if left alone in the world. At the Ponte 
MoUe we saw before us the Porta del Popolo, and 
left the desert. 

I lately learnt from Cardinal » that in a vine- 
yard near this bridge, called, I think, the Vigna 
Pino, he had seen, many years ago, some fine spe- 
cimens of ancient painting, on the walls of a subter- 
raneam sepulchral chamber. Into thk nneyaid, how- 
ever, we never could get access ; and I have not 
been able to ascertain whether they are still visible, 
or whether, as usual, they have been carried away 
or destroyed. . Not far from the Ponte MoUe la a 
spring of mineral water, strongly impregnated with 
carlxmic acid gas, called Aqua Jcetosa^ to which, 
b extremity of Jacobitism, our old friend, Mr . ^ 
would needs make a pilgrimage, because he had heaid 
it had been drank of by the Pretender. 



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198 ROME. 



LETTER XXXVIII. 

TOMBS— MAVSOLEUX OF SANTA COMTANTIA^ Olr 
rsmTXMBSXk TEMPI*S OF BACCHI78«*-MAUSOUUli 
OF flAKTA HELSXA^ 0& TOBBE PIAHAXTABBA"-^ 
TJBE CATACOMBS AT THE CHVBCH OF SAH SKBAft* 
TIAKO*— THE SOUJLS IN F0B6ATOBY. 

Feom the toBifai of the Augiutan age^ it k * lou^ 
tnyuittaii to tkote of Conslaiituie. Fioiatbedaysof 
ik» firsts we pMB to. those of the last Emperor whose 
reign Bome was destined to behold ; yet, of all who 
lived and died during that long interval, no stone 
now tells where the remains even of one single indi- 
vidual repose. The magnificent Mole of Hadrian, 
which might seem to form a solitary exception, re^ 
tains not a trace of its original sepulchral destination. 
Nor is there one of the thousand mouldering tombs 
which are scattered over the Campagna, that can 
boast even a name. 

About two miles from Rome, beyond the Porta 
Pia, on the Via Nomentana, is the Mausoleum of 
Santa Constantia, the daughter o£ Constantine the 
Great, which was converted into a church in honour 
of that saint, in early times. It is a circular build- 
ing, sufficiently ugly on the outside, but the inside 



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BOMB. IM 

-derives nome beauly ftom a douUe ra^ge of grsaice 
^imuM, ceiipled» not in fiont, but in file; one close 
bdbind mother. Instead of the entablatuie, however, 
small arches rest on the columns*^ barbarous com- 
bination, dedsiTe of the total decline of the art, and 
neyer seen in any building previous to the reign of 
Constantine. The bases and capitals of the columns, 
too, are all unequal, and do not correspond with each 
othw. That it is the Mausoleum of Santa Constan- 
tia, is not denied. The inscriptions and the Saro<K 
phagus foiuid here, the dedication of the church to 
her memory, and the testimony of history, prove it 
iieyond the possibili^ of doubt But it is pretoided 
that it was previously the Temple of Bacchus, and 
afterwards converted into her tomb, although it is 
particularly recorded that Constantino built her tomb 
finm the foundation stone (primum lapidem) ;* and 
it is christened the temple of Bacchus, in spile of 
all intrinsic and extrinsic evidence, upon the sole 
strength of a coarse mosaic which ornaments the roof 
of the interior arcade, representing little Loves dan« 
cing upon grapes, and all the process of the vintages 
But precisely the same devices are sculptured upon 
the porphyry Sarcophagus of Saint Constantia* If, 
thereforp, the one be a proof that the buUding was 
the Temple, the other must be a proof that the Sar* 
cophagus was the Tomb of Bacchus. Some wits 
nuqr choose to ima^pne that the rrign of this favourite 
drity being over, he was buried with divine honours; 
and really such devices would seem more appropriate 

* Ammian. Marcellt Hist. 



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aOO ROME. 

for the manomoit of a Pagan Grod tlian a Cbrisdaa 
saiiit. They are said to aUade to the vintage of 
heaven ; and though I don'^t know what that means, 
it is certain that these, and many other Bacchana- 
lian symbols, were common on Christian tombs at a 
much later period than the age of Constantine. They 
were found in the Catacombs, and I have seen them 
myself on the tomb of a Cardinal, in the Church of 
St. Clement's, and on a Bishop's at St. Lorenzo's. 
It is probable that they were preserved rather from 
habit than from reasoning. Christianity was new, 
and its sepulchral ornaments, as yet, iminv^ated ; 
those of Paganism were familiar ; they would me- 
chanically recur to the head and hand of the sculp- 
tor, nor offend the mind that was accustomed to be- 
hold, and unused to reflect upon them. We all know 
how much easier it is to change great things than 
small— forms of government rather than modes of 
dress-^and religions than ceremonies. Whatever 
was the cause, however, the miserable sculpture pf 
the low ages, which continued to multiply the an- 
cient classical ornaments of Pagan tombs, even in 
the fifth and sixth centuries^ permits us not to doubt 
of the fact ; and since the sole claim of this building* 
to the title of Temple of Bacchus, rests upon this 
wretched mosaic of the vintage-rHsince the same de- 
vices are sculptured on the indisputable Sarcophagus 
of St Constantia, which was found in it-^stnce both 
works are in the miserable style of that age— ^ce 
we have no reason to believe there ever was a Tem- 
ple of Bacchus within many utiles of this spot — and. 



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ROIIB. 201 

mce this edifice has no appeamnoe ef ever having 
been a teni|de at all ; I think we may safbly oondude, 
that it had nothing to do with Bacchus, and that it 
is nothing more than the Manaolemn of St Con- 
atonia, which unqnestionably stood here;* and 
whose bones, together with those other sister Helen, 
and odier contemporary saints, still repose beneath 
the high altar. The Sareophagos is now in the Sala 
della Croce Greca, in the Vadcan. Some old Pope 
had fixed upon it for his own remabs, but luckily 
died before he had taken measures to secure it, and 
his successors interred him in a humUer coffin. 

The neighbouring Church of Santa Agnese, the 
adjoming Hippodrome of Constantine, . and all the 
other objects of curiosity here, I shall defier mention- 
ing till a future period ; at present, I must carry you 
fieom the tomb of the daughter, to that of the mother 
of Constantine the Great,— «Idiough it is not in the 
least worth a visit, and is at least two miles from 
Rome, beyond the Porta Mi^;giore, on the Via La< 
Ucana, the present road to Palestrina. In our ex- 
currion to it, we overshot the mark, and came in view 
of some ruins, widely extended over the waste of the 
Campagna, at some distance from the road, on the 
right They are commonly called the Cenio CeUa, 
and sometimes, like those on the Via Latina, Roma 
VeceMa. They are supposed to be the remains of iSbi 

* CoDBtsntiie oorpos ddatom sd orbem, et in saburbsncl 
Via Nomentana post primum lapidem aq^ulchro^ &c. Vide 
Ammian. MarceU. 



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209 ROME. 

AMguikh a Kltle Roiwui town, fimnded in the tine 
of ConstaBtine the Gfeat* They are, perhafs, more 
ittteEestiBg in a poedc, or leAtiiiientid, than in an 
antiquanan light, (os tibey eonsist of little more than 
hvdien walls, and unintdligpfak vestigea of Ronan 
buildings; but they fi»ned no inhaimonioua featnie 
4£ the prospect hefinre ua, when, on descending a kng 
hiU» we nnexpeciedly faaheld a most strikiDg comU- 
nation of nuns, standing upon the wild plain of the 
vCampagna. An ancient tower, which had once been 
a place of defimce and war, and now senned as a 
dieep>fi>ld, reared its nigged walk in tiie fine-ground. 
At ita base, dressed in the same corering as his flock 
i^a roug^ sheep«8kinf-**a shepheid with his dtq^ and 
staff lying by his side, was dozing on the grass, his 
head resting on the ruins, beneath which he had shel- 
tered himself fiom the Ueak wind. Thnmgh a bro- 
ken arch, the light shone fiill on the woody hiUs of 
Fraacati, and the Alban Mount. Brfore ua, the ma- 
jestic ruins of an, ancient Aqueduct^f in some parts 
two ranges of arches in height, crossed tiie green val- 
ley on the left of the road^-a truly Roman vemain of 
antiquity-^marked not only with grandeur of efiect, 
but grandeur of purpose, and impossible, even in ruin. 



^ From iMcriptions found here, however, it is ascertsmed 
that there was a college of Gladiators, called the Sylvian An* 
rehan Gladiators, in the time of Commodus. But the ruins 
aew rematnii^ are geneeaBy suppoedd to be of later date* 

t Belieiv«d tobe the remalgis of an Aqueduct built by Akx- 
.ander Seyerus. 



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HOM& 90S 



to befaAeld wMwut trimJTitHm FaraboredMm, 
9Bi£ to contBiat the noblest yorkt of mmxk with the 
imappioachaUe grandeur of those of nature, towefed 
the Jong line of the niggod Apeninnes, partiaUy cover* 
ed wA iMW, wUeb, bioken into nuHaea^ retuiaed 
thexieh yeliow Iwes of the auddng sun. 

liale as it was, we stopped to examine the Tor^ di 
SchiavOf the lemttnt of an ancient building, ehrie* 
tened the Temple of Hope,* merdy because thcso 
was sttdi a temple somewhere on this road, where 
people sacrificed befine they went to the Temple of 
Fortune^ at Fteneste, to consult the SorUs. 

In returning, we found out die dd woodm gate 
th«t leads to the ruined Tomb of the Empress He- 
lena. By some antiqnaiiea, this sepulchre of our 
good countrywomanf is sufqposed to occupy the site 
of tW TcK^ of Qiii€<«9«-4iot that they know wy. 
ibim§ about the matter, er haTo any re ason fir the 
supposition ; and it is rather moie certain that it ia 
now caUed the Tone Fignattaxra, and that it hm 
been built with a great profiuion of bach, and pmu 
ci^ of tasta A part only of its immense ruined 
circle now remains, but we have little to rq^ret inita 
demolidon* It contams 4 ssudl neglected Church, 
and the haUtatiaa of the priest who perfimns the 
duties. 

The immense magnifioeni porphyry Satrcophagns 
of the Empress, which was &imd here, is now plaoed 



* Fioorem iitTBiited Ibii nsme. 
1 1 belkye it is the vcnenUe Bed^ who amorts that J 
was bom at Winchester. 



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20i nouE. 

in Ae Vaticftii^ along with that of Santa Conatantia, 
which it precisely TesemUes in thefonn and style of 
sculpture. 

We entefed the Catacombs fimn thb dmrdi, and 
walkedi^throagh these nanow sepolchial patb-w^s, 
undl thej were blocked up. They bnndi out in va- 
rious directions, uncounted miles undmr ground, and 
fonnerly extended to those beneath the Churdi of S. 
Lorenzo, on one side of Rome, and S. Sebasdano 
on the other; but the communicatKons haTe been 
stopped At S. Sebastiano^s alone, thoi^h a few 
miles only are now left open, it is said they have been 
explored to the extent of above fifteen miles. Their 
ramifications, fiur and wide, may in fiust be called end- 
less ; and their statement, even at the lowest compu- 
tatbn, would seem fidwdous. There can be litde 
doubt diat these bewildering subterranean labyrinths 
weve the woricof a long succession of ages, gradually 
ftrmed by the excavation of puzsolana, an immense 
quantity of which was used and exported for sand» 
mortar, and other purposes, by the Romans.* It is 
probable, too, that they served as quarries of tufo 
stone. 

The doctrine advanced by the priesthood, that 
Aey were made by the Christians for places of con- 
cealment unknown to the Pagans, is so monstrous, as 
scarcely to require refutation. Their amazing ex- 
tent is, of itself, a sufficient proof of its falsehood ; 



It ia thought that the andent Roman mortar owed i1» pe- 
aitoirlw^^^ whichstiU 

formB the best cement in the world. 



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BOME. fl05 

finr, even sapposing it pnetieable to luTe cirried on 
snell immense woi1ls» and ocnrreyed away the momii^ 
tains of sand and earth excavated, in secret, wouU 
not the very fear of discovery have prevented their 
imnecesaary cxteniion ? Was it not defisatiDg their 
very end to make them on every side of R<Hne» and so 
large, that they must inevitably have been found out ^ 
But not the unrenutttng labour of all the Chriatiaas 
that ever drew breath before the time of Constantiae, 
could have formed the almost immeasurable e&te&t 
of the Catacombs. StiU, though it was neither in 
the power or the policy of the Christians to have 
made sudi enormous works, it is highly prebaUc^ 
that, when made, they were used by them finr plaoes 
of concealment for the living, and of burial for the 
dead. 

They were, however, likewise used for the burial 
of Pagans, long before there were any Christiana. 
They are mentioned by Horace, by Varro,* and, I 
am told, by Festus and Pompdus, under the name of 
PuHeuUy in which infants — ^whoae bodies were never 
bumtf — were mtened ; and also such adulta of the 
lower orders as were too poor to afford the expenses 
of funeral piles. The bodies of those who were 
sCruck dead by %htning were never burnt They 
were dther buried, or left on the ground where they 
fell4 

• Hor. Kb. i. sat. 8. L 8. Varro, lib. iv. v. 
t Pliny, lib. vii. cap. 54. Juvenal, sat. 15. Cic. De Leg. 
lib. vii. eap. 16. 
t Cic. De Leg. lib. ii. cap. 54. 



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206 ROME. 

We had long meditated a descent into Ae Cala- 
oombs, and at last contrived to put it iato cxeoir 

tUMk 

Imi^iiie M, then, assembled in the Chnrdi of St 
Sebastian, on the pMDt of penetratbg into these bug 
and ahnost mtenranrfde cemeteries, smnmemng up 
all our courage to encounter their mysterious terrots, 
and prepared for every possible ocmbination of gloem 
and horror amidst the chilling damps dF these tt- 
dent receptacles of Ae dead. We descended a dark 
nanow staiicase, each bearing a lighted iaper ; and 
at the bottom entered tipon the sepulchral labyrinth, 
the low ^nd crumbling roof Above o«r heads ahnost 
threatening to crush us, and tl» ro<* on either side 
filled with cavities for cprpses. 

The way was so narrow as only to admit a single 
person, so that we proceeded one after another in a 
long line, the echo of our footsteps sonndbg heavily 
on the ear, and the KghU borne by each, the dxA 
military cloaks in which the gentlemen had wrapped 
themselves, the white waving garments of the ladies, 
and the long sable robes of the attendant aervants of 
the church, forming altogether sudi a strfldng pro* 
eession through these subtenaneous sepulchres, that 
I could not help observing we wanted nothing bat 
the figure of Death at our head, to be taken for a 
company of ghosts. 

The cavities for the dead are hollowed out horizon- 
tally in the soft puzzolana rock, three or four tiors, 
one riK)ve another* To my great surprise, every «ie 
of them was empty ; not a bone was anywhere to be 



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ROME. fOT 

I ; they Iiad dl been earned off, we were toU, as 
pveeious relics. But almost all the antiet seemed 
to be for chiUbren ; few, certaiiily, were large aioogh 
to contain a man of ordinary sise; so that, if really 
all filled with Christian martyrs, as the deigy aay^ 
they must for the most part hare been babes, and a 
very small proportioQ oould have anriTed at years of 
Secretion. The extraordinary predominance of theie 
cavities, the ordinary sise of an infimt's giave, is of 
itself a snffident corroboratian of the fiict already 
alluded to, that the catacombs were used for placte 
of burial for Pagan children ; and if you consult a 
fipw moderate-siaed fidios, out of the many that have 
been written on the catacombs, you will find, that 
tombs of heathens of all siaes have been taken out of 
tliem.* 

But be they heathen or heretic, it makes no dif- 
ference,— all go for saints that are found here, and 
net a bone of one of them is now to be seen through 
the whole extent of the catacombi. Having once 
been dedaied to be the precious relics of the mai^ 
tyrs, they have been collected, laid up for use^ and 
exported all over the Christian workL A cardinal' 
has the management of this lucrative traffic ; and it 
.is certainly a comfortable thii^ to know, that while 
the virtue of these bones fortifies the souls of the 
fiuthful abroad, the sale of them fills the pockets of 



* Roma Sacra, Martinelti> &c* Sec 



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^«Blbe«A^'* ^tffi ^dow^^ *• "8* people who 

^V«^^^^ ""y^ anawefingtaUiede- 

^Oie\i«^*«*^^^ JJ***»cage, before we reMcend- 

garnet A«y^ ^^ «^terf5d a aquare chapel, hol- 

^o^of Oie to€»> ^here tbe evty Cloistiaiis, 

ere conceated Ui ibeae labyrinths, we weie told, 

\ up th^ 0ii6<>^* The altar is decocated by 

Ay extoUed bust of St Sebastian by Bernisi, 

temed^ I thought, by a full share of his usual 

ion, exaggeration, and absrace of truth and 

Service is still performed here once a-your 

souls of the blessed martyrs. 

net with none of the horrors which the rela- 

>thers had led us to anticipate, nor even the 

I damp, which we had dreaded the most of 

ataeombs of Rome are, howeyer, fiir infeiior 

*ur to those of Naples, whose spacious gal- 

I lofty balk, tier aboye tier, buried in the 

d tenanted by the dead, powerfiilly afiTect 

nation. 

hands of a poet, or a man of genius, what 

^nes they m^ht prove of horror and sub- 

Vhat scenes of deep awakening interest, 

I pity, might be conjured up within these 

chambers ! But our greatest livipg poet 

here, and Childe Harold may possibly 

f within them, to scoff in bitterness at 

and sorrows of mortality, or people the 



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uiwdtptored lafagnindu of deaA wilh lii 
imag^ of deBpair and guilt that dbey t 
dark and povierful geniiiB.* 

The Chuich of & SebastiaB k one 
basiliea of Rome tiiatfi^pEklis fuit to 
soludon and leiniflnoii of tlM^ iins.^ B 
we, a parotl of poor heretics^ iriho had 
holy shrinta in Tain>--«-for oar tins, undk 
stack bj us. Before we left the. ChuiA 
retainers begged of us— *'< fi>r the holy m 
gataty^^upon whidi your fiieMd — ^ ins 
knowing what good money oonU do th 
The man Minotantly reidil^ that the m 
giren to say masses for them^ nnd that the 
shortened the period of their purgation. 

*^ What rascals these priests must be, if tl 
their masses will release the poor souls that i 
ing in the flames, and yet they won^t say the 
oat being paid for it ! Is that what th^ cat 
tian charity, I wonder ?^ 

The man Etching on his last word, only 
by lecommendng his accustomed whine of 'H 
Signer^ I per le Anime Santo in Purgatorio 
riti,'' be kc. 

Mr. thai showing him a piastre,t a 

with great apparent seriousness and simplicity, 
nuay soub that would take out of pui^tory. 



* Written during Lord Byron's short yisit to Rome, i 
before the Fourth Canto of ChUde Harold waa composed 
t A crown-^ece. 
VOL. ir. o 



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910 BOMB. 

miD, eridendy half eanged^ bat unwQIiiig to lose 
tbe money) declared he ooidd not safely take upon 
him to say how many souls it would ddiver from the 
flames, but he oonld aver that it would do much to- 
wards farthering die libienitiou c^f some of them. 

Mr. ' then began to bargain with hun for 

the number of masses diat were to be said for it ; 
and luKvkig cheapened them from one, wUch he at 
first proposed, to four, he gave him the j^eoe of 
money for the ^ Anime Sante,^ and went away. 

Such a eonyersatiaii, in such a plac8» a cmbaaj 
at two ago, I imagme, nd^ have got our friend 
into afaotter skaatioa in this wodd, than the << Ani- 
me Saute"* oecapy in the other. 



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KOMR. an 



LETTER XXXIX. 



UNDSSCltlBBB ABlf AIM§ OF AKTiaiTITT IM THS V^ 
CINITY OF »OME, OK THE VIA APFIA— -FOVMTAIN 
OF THE MTMFH S«SftIA-<-*AKCIBNT TBMFLB9 OE 
CHVBCH OF 8T* OmBAM^«»TBMFLS OF FIETUE AHP 
HONOirBF«-TBMPXE OF MBDtCVhUB'^UVTmB OF A 
EOMAK VII.LA. 



The principal antaquities of Rome we have now 
deaeribed at perhaps too great length ; tmt it is dif- 
ficult to turn our eyes from the fallen relics of ages 
of gkiry^ and monuments of grandeur^ such as the 
earth can witness no more. In the wilderness that 
surrounds Rome, there are still some scattered re<- 
matns that we mu^t yet visit ; and, amongst these, 
none is more interesting than the Fountain of the 
nymph Egeria. It is more than a mile out of Rome, 
along the Via Appia, and you may easily include it 
in your visit to the Circus of CaracaUa, and the 
Tomb of Cecilia Metella. A little beyond the Porta 
San Sebastiana, you cross the Almone, (Almo,) a 
small stream which gushes out from the left side of 



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ai2 HOME. 

the road, and is now goierally knovn by the name 
of the Marana* It is composed of the waters of the 
Fountain of Egeria, as well as of the reputed Crabra 
which is celebrated in Cicero's Letters. Its course, 
as Ovid remarks, is singularly short, being after a 
few miles lost in the Tiber.* In ancient times, 
the Almo was renowned for its me^cmal and puri- 
fying properties. The cattle were brought to its 
banks to be healed of their diseases ; and, apparently, 
ks wtties. applied not only td bratei, but to ddlties; 
for it waff the cnstoBv of die priests of Cybele, every 
year, on a certain day m spring, to hing the sacred 
image of that goddess, wldch was no oth^ than a 
peee of bladi: basalt, fiom her tempte on Ae Fbla- 
tine, and wash it in this water ; a*d it is a curious 
proof of the introduction of Pagan usages into Chris- 
tianity, that, till within these few years back, an 
image of oor Saviour was amraally brought fifom the 
Church of Sania Martina^ in the Porum, and wash- 
ed in this stream. 

The image of Cybde, was the fkmous Simuh- 
crum—thwX sacred stone which fdl fi^m heaven 
^oh Phrygia*^mid was sent for in solemn d^nita- 
lion by the Romans during the second Punic War, 
when the prophecy of the SibyMine books declared, 
that ^' the fordgn invaders of Italy should be dri- 
ven out of it, if Cybele, the mother of the gods, was 



Cursu^ue brevissimus Almo. 



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some; ilS 

hrongbt from PeHoms, in Phrygia, to Rome.^* So, 
88 Escidapiiia appealed in the ahape <^ a serpent, 
Cybele mnifei in that of a. atone. A Sctpio, (the 
couam of Afticanoa,) ** the most yiituoos man in 
Rome,^ was diesen to Teeeive her ; and it mas en 
tfaia ooeasion that dm Vestal Cfaradia nmrncnhnialy 
▼indicated her aapsiaed h on em r, fay towing dm Tea* 
sd firanght with Ae preoieaa harden, (immomlile to 
oAevs,) by her giadle, i^ dm Ti^, to Romef 

A shoet diiTe, along a r&j nmnow lane, and bad 
road, oendocted oa to a little gfesn 'vnlley^ eoveecd 
with a carpet of sirfk turf, and shaded by a few seat- 
tered old trees. The gratto of Egeiia is hollowed 
out in the steep side of the bank, in a long and deep 
recess, or gallery, with a vavdted roo^ and niches at 
the sides finr statues. At the top xedinea a mudla- 
ted marble statue, not of die nymph, but of a w:ater 
god> finm which flows dm meat dalidoos wat^ I ever 
taatod. The sides of dm grotto aie oTcrhung with 
die beandfiil Capllsire plant, diat loves to grow 
on rocks that dimk dm water drop. This spot, 
dmogh mnch nK»e beautilitl in painting than in 
reslity, is, howerer^ hif^y inteseating, and it is now 
abandoned to a soiitnde as profound as when Nnnm 
first sought itgs ionehanted (^ade. 



• Vide Livy, lib. xxviii. cap. 46. 

t An ancient bas relief in the?' Vatican Library, and ano- 
ther in the Capitol, represent this famous Pagan miracle. 



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214 ROME. 

That it 18 redly the haunt of the fiibied, or mor- 
tal nymph, whom he hyred to Tuk, and whose coun-* 
sek, in those sacnd shades, poured wisdcm on hig 
80i]l-~who is there that would not wish to beUere ? 
Bnt this gratificatbn is demed us, merely, it seems, 
because some careless ciprcusions in Ju^end and 
Ovid have induced some antiquaries to oondu^, that 
the Fountain of Egeria must have been en the other 
side of the Via Appia— tlioagh I am sure no valley 
nor fimntain can there be fcund, Aat the most anti- 
quarian imagination can assign for the idiode of the 
nymph. But these learned men are certainly not of 
the description of those that 



-" give to empty nothing 



A load habitation and a name." 

Their labour is to destroy them ; and they have ef- 
fectually taken from this spot every charm cS re- 
membrance, by pronouncing it to be Uie Nympha^um 
of some Roman villa. A Nymplueum was a luxury 
known only in such climates as these. It was a ^ace 
of retirement, and coolness, and delight, in the heats 
of summer. It was a vaulted grotto, generally sunk 
in a hill-sidc, open cmly at the mouth, like a cave, 
and filled with fountains, and fresh flowing waters, 
and embellislied with statues of Nymphs and Naiades. 
It must be owned that this answers to the descrip- 
tion, and accords exactly, though on a smaller scale, 
with the remains of the Nymphcewm of Damitian, at 
the Lake Albano. 



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On the hill aboye is a tanple, meCamor^osed'tito 
a church, and dedicated to Saint Urbsn the Eighth. 
It ,i8 built of brick, with a portico of &ar noble 
Corinthian colunma of white marUe, more than half 
cttveloped in the modem and ruinous wall buiU 
across the intercolumniations which form the finonl 
of the church. 

Fr<Hn the groye which surrounds it, and from its 
situatbn aboye the fimntsin, it was once supposed 
to be the Tanple of the Mnses; but a yotiye altar, 
which was unluckily dug up in the area befiire the 
temple, with a mystic serpent twined round it» and 
the name of a priest of Bacchus inscribed upon it, 
has given rise to the belief that it was the Temple 
of Bacchus. Be this as it may, the shrine of. the 
deified Pope seems as deserted now as that of die 
Pagan^ god— whoeyer he might be. The fane is 
shut up, and abandoned to ruin. A countryman 
opened the door for us, and we examined this said 
altar, which is standing in what was the ancient 
portico of the temple. All the learned of the psrty 
were unanimously convinced that the altar was an 
altar, and the temple a Temple of Bacchus. Some 
stupid old antiquarian once pretended this was the 
Temple of Virtue and Honour, which was built by 
Maroellus, near the andent Porta Capena ; there- 
fore its site must be within the present extended 
cdrde of the walls, and not a mile and a half beyond 
it Besides, this is a single temple — that was a 
double one; so contrived — extremely unlike the 
way to honours in real life— that there was no way 



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S16 H&M^ 

to^e Temple of Honour but thtough that of 
Virtue.* 

The windows of this temple are pronounced to be 
modem. The building is supposed, by Piraned, to 
be of republican origin, but restored in the age of the 
Antoninee. The fact is, thej know nothing about 
it. 

We vainly tried to'dedpher an obliterated inscrip- 
taon-«&ttci«d we could trace the pattern of the stuc* 
CO ornaments that had once adorned the roof— made 
an unsuccessful attempt to penetrate to the Crypt 
beneath, and bought an antique marble vase for ten^ 
pence.t 

We descended the hill again tp the Fountain of 
the Nymph, and returned down a little green valley, 
where we stopped to examine a little brick building, 
gaily decorated with Corinthian pilasters, of red 9sd 
yellow brick, known by th6 name of the Tenple.of 
the God Rediculus* 

That a temple was raised to the God Bediculus». 
on account of that dieity^s merit in having procured 
Hannibal^s retveat^without besieging Rome, on the 
very spot where he persuaded him to turn bads ;t 
and that this temple wfs beyond the Foyrta Capena, 



* Plutarch's life of Marcellus. 

t Two Pauls. 

J Festus V. Rediculi fanura extra portam Capenam foi^ 
quia accidens ad urbem Hannibal ex eo loco redivit quibus- 
dam perterritus visis. 



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ROME. 217 

tW0 miles on the Appian Way,^ we have high au- 
thority to prove. But, unluckily, the same authority 
pny?e8 that l^e said temple was on the right side of 
the raad, and this little building is on the left^er^^ 
^8 is not the Temple of Rediculus. 

If it had, it certainly would have been a poor re- 
tom for so gfeat a favour. The Romans never had 
a better friend than Rediculus, when he persuaded 
Hannibal, on aocouht of a 'shower of hail,f to retreat 
from Rome. It is wdl known, however, that the 
Carthagiiriaa was struck with despair by the intelli- 
gence that an army bad 'marched out of one gate for 
Spun, while he was lying' before another. I rather . 
wonder, that he, who was such an adept at strata- 
gem himself, never suspected that this might be done 
purposely to deceive inth ; and, above all, that he 
swallowed so e^y the story told lum by a prisoner, 
of the ground on which he was encamped beiiig sold 
on that very day in Rome, at its fiill value. He cer- 
tttnly lock rather a childish and impotent method 
of revenge, by proclaiming iu his camp an auction of 
the bankers^ shops in the Roman Forum, and then 
marching back into Campania, from whence, it would 
seem, lie had come purely to do this feat. 

Hannibal's encampment, as,^! believe, I mention- 
ed before, was on the Anio. The temple that com- 



* Pliny, lib. x. cap. 43. 

t Livy, UIk xxvi. capt 10, 11. 



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218 ROME. 

memorated his retreat was on the Via Appia,* a am- 
siderable distance from it. He must therefore have 
marched with his army there^ when die storm orer- 
took him which drove him to his entrenchmei^, de- 
claring << that he was sometimes deprived of the wiU, 
and sometimes of the power to take Borne.* 

As for this little building, which is on the wvag 
side of the road, and notwithstanding, bears the 
name of the Temple of Rediculus — ^the antiquaries 
will not allow it to be a Temple at all, because it 
had windows, and had not a portico ; but they say it 
might have been an ^dicda^ because the rules with 
respect to building temples did not apply to these 
small places of worship ; and that, in short, it must 
have been an ^Edicola, because it conid have been 
nothing else — but what iEdicola, they cannot sa^. 
The windows disqualify it for a tomb, or else it would 
have been accounted one. 

Be it what it may, it is really a curiosity of its 
kind. It is so tiny, so gay, so fragile-looking, and 
so like a toy, that we can scarcely believe that it 
has stood seventeen or eighteen centuries ; yet the 
beauty of the brick- work proves its high antiquity. 
It can scarcely be of later date than the reigns of 
the first Caesars— certfdnly not than the age of the 
Antonines. 

Instead of returning immediately to Borne, we 
turned off opposite the little Church o£Domme quo 



• Festus V. Rcdicali. pliny, lib. x. cap. 43. 



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KOME. 219 

VaMs^ and crossed the Campagna to the westwan]^ 
m search of a spot where some mosaic pavements 
were discoTered about a finrtnight ago. 

A shepherd accidentally paring off a turf, beheld 
beneath it a piece of mosaic. This gave rise to far- 
ther examination, and seven mosaic pavements were 
brought to light, which had lain unsuspected, within 
a few inches of the surface, for a long succession of 
ages. 

What treasures may yet be buried beneath the 
wide unbroken turf of the Campagna, and may be 
destined to lie unseen for ages to come ! 

These rooms have evidently belonged to a Roman 
villa — some magnificent villa of the Interamna.* 
They are very small — ^about the size of those at Pom- 
peii. Ulysses bound to the mast, and the Sirens, 
half-birds half-women, singing to allure him to their 
toils, are represented in one of them. Another is con- 
siderably deeper than the rest ; and on the walls of 
the room to which it belongs, which are still stand- 
ing, some female figures are painted, with the hate- 
ful names of Pasiphae, Leucothea, Scylla,'and Ca- 
nace, inscribed beneath them ; but the colouring is 
faded, and the outline only indistinctly visible. 

Broken fragments of statues and vases, ancient 
marbles, tubes of t^rra cotta, belon^ng to the hot 
baths, and a thousand non-descript vestiges of a once 
magnificent habitation, newly dug up, were scatter- 



• Cic. Orat. pro T. Ann. Milo. 



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2S0 HOME. 

ed about It was strange to see these inettaed mosttc 
pavemeiits framed in the green sod, and these shat* 
tered remains of beanty and hixoiy lying in tihis de- 
solate waste. 



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ROH£. S21 



LETTER XL. 

ftXHAXNS OF ANTIQUITY ON Tuk VIA LATIN A--> 
TEMPLE OF EOBTUNA ilUUKBRli->^BUINS OF KOMA 
VECGHIA. 

We left Rome by tiie PorUi Saoi Gioyaani, to ▼!*- 
sit the Temple of Fortuna Muliebris^ which was 
ereeted on the Via Latina, (the modem road to Fras- 
eati>) in oommemoratioa of the cventftd cby when 
tkt ptaycflts and tears of a wife and molher averted 
the vowed vengeance of Coriolanud/and saved Rome. 
For thk» the^ ^'^ Fortune of Womaa"" was ever after- 
wards worshipped among the Rotnans ; and a medaU 
bearing on its reverse the iGdicola of Forttma Mu^ 
liebrUy proves that it was rebuilt by Faustina the 
Younger^ ihe wife of Marcus Aurelius. The present 
road is a litde to the right of the Via Latina^ the an- 
dent line of which may be traced on the left by a 
row of ruined tombs» crossing the green Campagna. 
One of these is in high preservation, and beautifully 
built of deep red-coloured bricks, ornamented with 
brick pilasters, and capitals supporting a rich cornice. 
It stands upon a basement paved widi mosaic. The 
entrancci though fronting the present road» was be- 
hind the ancient road, which was invariably theiuwe 



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£22 KOME. 

with sepulchres. Higher up the same hill, and near- 
ly at the top, stands a similar edifice, built of brick, 
and adorned with brick pilasters, supposed to be the 
iGdicohi of Fortuna Muliebris. It has several small 
windows in the upper apartment, and the entnmce 
fronts exactly towards Rome. It has been ascertain- 
ed, by measurement, to be four miles from the ancient 
Porta Latina, on the Ccehan Hill ; and thoogbLivy* 
says, that Coridbams^s camp was five miles from 
Some, he probably computed it firom the JUTtHarum 
Jt^r^fTi, the gilt column erected by Augustus in the 
Forum, on which all the distances of the great roads 
were mariced, whidi must be a mile from the ancient 

For once, therefore, we may be permitted to in- 
dulge the hope, that we stand on the very spot where 
Veturia and Vohimnia, at die head of the Roman 
matrons, implored the ^ty of the incensed conquer- 
or,~«'Where love for his family triumphed over hatred 
feo his country, and the sacred yoice of nature sub- 
dued the dictates of revenge. 

This little temple is precisely of the same construc- 
tion, style, and taste, eyen to the very colour of the 
bricks, as the tomb I have mendoned farther down 
the hill, nearer Rome, firom which it differs only in 
bavii^ windows ; and it resembles, in every respect, 
the little building we visited yesterday, called the 



* Livy, lib. ii. cap. SO, 40. 

t The miks were, however, always reckcmed from the gates 
of the city. Bio, lih. viiL 



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BOMK. SS3 

Terni^e of Redicahis. Apparently, they are all 
works of the same age, vhic^, if ve allow this to be 
the iEdicola of Fortuna Muliebris, muat be that of 
Marcus AureUos, although, judging from their ap- 
pearanoe only, I should have re&md them to an 
earlier period of the Empire. 

This little temple commands a moat striking view 
of the broken arches of the Claudian and Martian 
' Aqueducts, stretching over the deserted plain. 

The Fossa ChgOiOy so noted in B4«ian amuds,* is 
supposed to be near this building, and the plain a 
li^e to the right is pointed out sm the very spot 
where, according to tradition, the battle between the 
Horatii and Curiatii was fought. 

In the same direction are the rains of Boma 
Veockia ; for such is the name giren to the remaina 
ai a saaaU Roman town evidently not of very high 
antiqui^, the andent name of which is unknown.t 
It is generally believed that a villa of the Emperor 
Gallieniis stood here, and that a part atleaat of these 
nuns belonged to it. 

We crossed die Frascati road, and a little rivulet 
which runs by the side of it, and walked about a quar- 
ter of a mile over the Campagna, to visit these ves- 
t^es of andent habitations left in the desert They, 
consist of a considerable extent of ruined and roofless. 



* Liyy, lib. i. cap. 23. lib. ii. cap. 39. 
t But not unconjecturai. It has been called Fogus Lemo* 
nius, bat we can have no certainty. 



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2S4 BOME, 

bat sliU lofty, brick boildiiigs, ime of wUch ^ 
laige wmdows in front, and, in the innde, three 
nidies finr stataes. It may haTo been the basilica of 
this little town. In another place, we obaeryed two 
ranges of coTeied arches, supporting a Yaulted and 
stuccoed roo^ which may hare been a Piscina, or re- 
servoir of water. Another ruin has eyidently been 
convarted intoafiirtifieation during the times of feu- 
dal watfioe; and the mean clumsy building of bar- 
barous days is erected upon the mason-work of tbe 
Roman walls. 

The most common plan of Soman towns, was two 
principal streets, forming an equal cross with the 
Forum at the intersecti]^ point. But no such phin 
can be traced here, no remains of temples or theatres 
ean be seen ; nothing can be distinctly understood 
amidst these ocmfused remains ; and the mind tunu 
away fiNim their contemplation at last, perplexed and 
dissatisfied, unable to clear up the obscurity which 
time has thrown over them. 

But though the name of this ruined Roman town, 
and the period of its destruction, are undetermmed, 
one im}»ession forces itself on the mind in survey- 
ing its remains~-«hat its ruin has not been the re- 
sult of slow decay, or gradual destruction, but sud- 
den and total, — the work of a day of blood and 
^olence. These walls seem to bear record of the 
tmie when a I^on of remorseless barbarians filled 
these grass-grown streets, sacked the empty halls 
md silent dwellings, and put their defenceless inha- 
bitants to the sword. This may be fancy, but in 

13 



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HOME. 235 

these ruined habitations, and in the mystery which 
involves their history and their fate, there is some- 
thing which does not address itself in vain either to 
the heart or the imagination. 



VOL. n. 



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226 HOME. 



LETTER XLI. 

ST. JOHN LATXEAV. 

Desp 18 the ftll fiom Imperial to l^apil Rflme. 
We descend through long ages of still mcreanng 
barbarism, till we reach the lowest abyss of degnr 
dation and misery. From the noonday of Roman 
glory, of arts and literature, we fSdl into the dark- 
ness of ignorance— the midni^t of taste. From the 
antiquities -of Roman days, we must now reludandy 
turn to the vestiges of diose times which have been 
justty and em^iatiaally styled Ae dark ages ; for 
the light of learning, and science, and cmliaEati<»i, 
was then totally obscured. Reason and refinement 
were fled«*lirutal force, lawless tyranny, and slavish 
superstition, reigned over the world ; and what me- 
morials can ages such as these have left, that we 
should love to look upon ? 

Alike uninteresting in themselves, and in all the 
recollections they awaken, I am sure I shall antici- 
pate your wishes by hastoung over these monu- 
ments of meanness and degradation as rapidly as 
possible. 

'' Noil ngjouttn di kr, ma goarda e psflsa." 
They chiefly omsist of Basilicas, but, their num- 
ber is appallmg. The ancient churdbes received this 



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BOMl^. 287 

name fitnn bong gaietd]^ fimned rat of Roi^ 
iSBcsdy or Halls of Jiiilice» and tmm bring always 
built nearly on the same plan. The Tribune, at the 
upper part of ihe building,-— the seat of the jndge, 
— received the altar ; and throughout Italy to this 
day, it retains the name of Tribune,— «nd indeed 
the ferm* 

Many of the old diurdies of Rome are sdH called 
Basilica ; but that ttde pfoperiy belongs to the Ba- 
ifliea par excellence,—^ Seren Badlica,— whidi 
possess Ae inraluaUe privilege of acoording six thou- 
sand years* indulgence to the penitent who shall visit 
in one day their desi gn ated shrines and altars. 

These are St Peter's, St. .f ohn Lateran's, Santa 
lifaria Maggiore's, S. FmHoJimri It mmrd, Santa 
Croce in GJemsalemme, S. Sebastiano, and S. Lo- 
temo^^n k murd. 

CMstsntuie was the grand builder of these holy 
erections. At ihe prayer of the female saints of his 
ftmily^ he founded Badlica upon Basilica; and, care- 
less of die ftte of the city he had resolved to desert, 
and the qpkndour of wldch he longed to edipse, he 
permitted the pious seal of the Christians to poll 
down the superb temfdes, and tear away the noble 
columna and portioas* that had sheltcnd the false 
GodsofPagamsm. There is not an ancient church 
df the Papal dty irhich is not adorned with the 8p(nls 
of Imperial Rome. 

It is now fifteen hundred years since Constantine 
founded the Basilica of St Jolm Lateran, whiefa, 
during many suceeeding ages, maintained its rank 



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228 "ROME. 

as ihe mother of churches, asd the head of the Chris- 
tian vorld, until it w^ disphM^ed by its ambitious 
riral, St. Peter's. 

It seems to have derived the name of Lateral 
from a Pagan source, even from Pl^utius Latersr 
HUB, the leader of the first and unsuccessful coniqiiT 
racy against Nero,* whose magnificent house f was 
con^fiscated with the rest of his property. " This 
house,"" says Nardini, « Constantine gave Pope St 
Sylvester for his palace."' That may be; but I must 
here observe, by the way, that it is common to call 
many of these worthies Popes, now they are defiinct, 
who never were saluted with the title, or even heard 
of it, while aUve ; and certainly Popes were uidoiown 
until many centuries §fter good St- Sylvester had 
flourished I 

Constantine, however, as they say, gave to him 
and to his successors, the Bishops of Rome, %he 
house of the Roman Patriot for their Episcopal pa, 
lace ; but it does not appear, as has sometimes been 
asserted, that it had ever been his own reridence, 



• I'acituB, Ann. U. 

t T«T^ "^^ "' "Egregias Latenmomm." Sat. 10. 1. 17. 
knj« ^.Ti^ acceptation of the word they were nn. 

ftther , and I need scarcely observe, that the title fe to this 
SL'Zr^r ^. f ^-^ of the Greek Ch^^."' InS 
Sation L ^"?T "' ^"'"^ ^«^ «- distinguishing ap- 



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ROME. 229 

Marciu Aurdius, indeed, was certainly brought up 
in a house (the Damu& Viri) nen thk, and he al- 
ways preserved a strong afibcti<m for the home of hk 
boyish days. 

His equestiian statue in faronae, now at the Capi<^ 
tol, was found at this spot, and by some is supposed 
to have orif^naUy adorned it, though, according to 
others, it was oidy remoyed there in modem times 
by Ae Tribute Riensi, at whose coronation unfiuU 
ing streams of wine flowed from the brasen nostrils 
of t}ie noMe horse. Such was the admiration of the 
Romans even in barbarous]^times for diis unrivalled 
e^ei^trian statue, that when it was removed to the. 
Capitol, a puUie oAteer was appointed tat its preser- 
vation, called Custode dd CavaOOy with a salary; 
and the employment was held so honouraUe that it 
was fflkd by the first noUe Roman families.* 

Contiguous to the Palace, Constantine built the 
Basilica; but all his erections have long since disap. 
peaied. It has been burnt down, and built up, and 
enlarged, and improved, and new-fronted, so many 
cBffiRcnt ways, and at so many difierent times, and 
embelfidied by so many different Popes, that, take 
it as a whole, it is one of the largest and u|^iest 
dnurches you can see anywhere. Its southern eleva- 



* Winkehnan also flsyB, that the Senator was bound to pre- 
sent a garland of flowara evsry year to the Chapter of St* 
John's^ &e. in aeknowledgment of iheir r^t to this statue^ 
but I cannot learn that this, was ever the case. 



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fUSO BOUEi. 

tkw u, however, imposrag, neinit lp gt undii^ i^^Md 
of onuunents, mi 'Ub ghaing ^Ati^ As a pso^ 
of the tMte whicb has IMlMified itB.ifMcnrs I b^ 
only mention, that Bonromini, the last ai^lect iA» 
improved it, built up tfce ancieDt c^J^opup of own- 
ail granite that supported die gMi( Qa^^ ID hli h^g0 
white-washed buttresses. I oonU not but inopf^ aa 
I contemplated them, over the loss i^ tt^iupmgn^ 
ed granite cohimns vrithm, and die waste 0I ni«Me 
in the vneoulb colossal status of the qpoM^ Wih- 
out,— one <^ whifph, like a watchmmi in lii bQSK> is 
pk^ in every buttress. 

The high, tdtar caixies above it 9^bige topfer, in- 
taided, I was assured, for omMne^thHthan, wbftch. 
qptbing can be more &%htfiiL In a nom-fi^ffikr 
sort of giJkQF wludi runs behind the upper eiidi<^ 
the church, thete is, at one end, » al^ decotated. 
wiA four ancient colnmns of giU.bnonse, said, to be 
the identical columns made by Augustus firom the 
rMra of the ships taken in the battle of AotiiW> 
and dedicated by Domilian on the Caj^l. So, at 
least, Mariiano. asserts, widiout aswgning any pcooC 
HoweTer, the fiict seems assumed by yarions ccm- 
temporary writers, as if of acknowledged tenth; and, 
pxobaUy, they knew them at least to have becaa. 
brought from the Capitol. At all events, they are 
unquestionably ancient columns, and, I believe, the 
only ancient columns of bronae in, £lxp wq^l^.- At ijtke 
other extremity of this gallery, on each side of tbc 
organ, are two magmficent ancient oriumns oBgidlh 
antko, one of which was taken from the Arch of 



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CflMlilidMtyCb»ailXn^wli<»»iftofl»dilwiA 
one of while nuurble. 

Tke Caniu duyd in due dnacby in die nri- 
Tilled bfliwty end ralendeur ef the y p iiflnt meri mf j^ 
whidi line its wall% the colnnuis whidi aoetein ite 
rich fiieie of iCQlptiixfd bnmte^ the gUiag which 
enUeione its dome, the poliehed nuurUee of its varie- 
gated pavement die pvecioiia atones which gsm ita 
akaiSy and die prodigality of mapdfioenoe Aat en^ 
shrines die tombs of its Popes— fiursuipasses all dial 
a transalpine finejr could conosiye^ It is bnilt in 
the f<«m of the Gxedc cross ; hot the eye is witb- 
diawn fiwm ite perhiq^ too nnobtnuive arohitectoro 
by the splendoiis of its decoratioib which is, howerer, 
vamaikabif chaste* 

The beantifiil porpbyiy Sax«ophagp% in one of 
tfee tombs which now contains die ijemains of Clement 
XI L, is called the urn of Marcus AgriKM^ becanse 
fimnd in die portioe of the Pantheon, although diia 
vary ciiQDSnstanoeafforda a strong presumption that 
it was not his ; beesuse, in thefiist phM»» Pagim tem- 
ples woe not used £» plaoes of inteiment ;* and, in 
die seomd, thero can be no doubt that Agrippa was 



* All the sUtutes and costoms of the Romans prove that 
the rightg of s^ultuie were considered a prafimation of the 
Templegof theGods; yet '* the remains of Domitian wero 
finaUy seoredy^interred in the Temple of the Flavian family, 
and hia ashes mingled with ihose of Julia,, the dau|^r 
of Titus."— (Suet* Domit 17.) So that it would seem that 
Gods, at least^fpr all the Emperors were Gods-Mfnigbt be in- 



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MH BOME. 

boned in tlMiiii^giiifieflnlttaiwrieo^ 
law-* 

' The cffftat of tltts superb um is of modem work* 
manship, and it lite been ^Kaputed among liie kam^ 
ed wh^er the um itself was anciently a Sareo]^s- 
gus, or a vase, used in the baths of Agrippa^ 

Just as we were leafing the Churdh rfSt John 
Lateran^ I obserred some baimen hanging up, Bome- 
thing like those suspended in Westminster Abbey 
at the installation of the Knights of the Baths; but 
on inquiry, I found these belonged to a bateh of 
saints that the present Vitpe had canonised here a 
&w years ago» all at once. Common Princes make 
Dukes or Lords— mere earddy noUh^; but the 
Pope makes the nobility of heaven. Instead of 
Knights, he dubs a few Saints. 

In the portico of this church stands a wietdied 
statue of Constantine^ found in his baths, which may 
be taken as a fiur specimen of the art during 1^ 
reign, as we may suppose the greatest skill would be 
exerted on the statue of the Emperor, and it ezhfliits 
an unquestionable pmf of its total dsgeneracy. 



terred in their own Temples. It is, however, possible Uiat 
the text of Suetonius may have been corrupted, or that by 
** the Temple" he meant the monument or tomb, or mauso-- 
fcmn of the Domitian femfly. The term Tanplum was ap- 
plied with great latitude, and embraced every variety of con- 
secrated buildii^. 

* Vide Dion. Cassius^ Hist. tom. i. p, 74». 

t Wmk. Ub. iv, cap. 7. § 23. 



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BOlil£. 233 

A still more hideous statue of Henry IV. of 
France graces one of the many fronts of this church, 
and conveys no favourable impression of the ad- 
vanoisnient of the arts at that period. 

This is one of the Basilicas whidi has a holy door 
— ^but it has also a Pagan gate, which is a much 
more interesting object to the eyes of heretics. It is 
nupposed to have formerly been the entrance to a 
Aoman, as now to a Christian Basilica, for it was 
brought from the old Church of S. Adriano in the 
Forum, which aijoys the reputation of being the 
remains of the Basilica of Pauhts ^milius. There 
is no doubt that the gate is ancient— *and very little 
Ihat it is not of that early date. It is of bronze. The 
stars were struck upon it by Alexander YII. The 
rest is antique. Some of its ornamental parts have 
been wantority broken off since I have been at Rome. 

I am credibly informed, that a little chapel, down 
the green avenue within the widb near this church, 
is built upon the very spot where St. John the Evan- 
gefist was bdled in a huge cauldron of oil ; a pro- 
cess, whi^, as is well known, had in his case a much 
more beneicial effect than when tried upon old Ja- 
son ; for he (St. John) lived afterwards to such an 
sgey that it dmost seined, in good earnest, to have 
renewed his youth. 

This church, as well as almost every other of any 
consideration in Rome, abounds in valuaUe rdics. 
For, partly from being the scene of most of the prin- 
cipal martyrdoms, and partly from St. Helena'^s pious 
care in forwarding ship-loads of relics from the Holy 



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384 BDME. 

LaiK^ na plioo !• «o well stofikeA nith Uma^ fl|«ril»al 
tBMSOKs as Rome. It sometumB liiq;p6Bed9.iiidfied, 
that all the cargoes se&t bjr the Empiess did not af<^ 
me at tbdr just place of destination; for innfsnfo 
one day a hone anfioyed in drawing a wa^Bimrload 
of them, turned rsstive, and kicked so nian(iilly> that 
its kickiay was manifestly a miracle, and no doubt 
onnained, diat net the korse, bat the relics, chose to 
proceed no farther. Thore they wece aocoidingjy 
deposited^ and a church was built over than, which 
iscalledSt James at the Kicking of the Horses* to 
this day. 

Notinthqtanding tins waggon-load wbieh went to 
St. James, howerer, St John has some very Bare 
and curions relies ; and I will particularise a few of 
those exhibited here on Holy Thursday* First, the 
heads of St. Peter and St Paul, enbased in sUtose 
busts, set with jewels. Sd, A lock of the Viigin 
Maiy^s hair, and a pieee of her petticoat Sd, Arobe 
of Jesus Christ's, sprinkhd with his Ueod. 4th» 
Some drops of his blood in a phial bottle. 5tfa^ Scsne 
of the water which flowed out of the wound 4m bis 
side. 6tb» Some of the ^ongn. 7th^ The table on 
which our Saviour ate the last suppery—and which 
must, by a miracle, have held all the.twelve apostles, 
although it seems impossible for more than, two peo- 
]^ to sit at it 8th, A piece of the stone, of the 
sepulchre on which the angel sat ; and, lastly, the 
identical' porphyry pillar op whicb. the cook was 

* San Giswmo.Soofw Ca?aIU. 



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ROHE. as5 

peid^ed whea he crowed after Peter denied Christ^ 
Thoe aie apne towels, too» with which the aiigek 
w%cd St LoKenxo^s face^ when he was faroiling on 
thegiidirai. 

I thought all these sufficiendy marveUoua; but 
what was my surprise to find the rods of Moses 
and Aaron 1 thought how they got here» nobody 
kii<>w8,r-4M:id two ^eces of the wood of the real ark 
oftbeeoTenaat! 

Bat by far the most valuable relic brought ifirem 
PalestiBe by that indefiitigable collector^ Santa 
Helena, is the Holy Staircase, the very same on 
wJttdi CSinst descended firom the judgment-seat of 
Fihite. It is certainly somewhat singoUr, thai it 
shoidd h^ve escaped the total destruction of Jerusa?^ 
len^^-bitf here it is. It is likewise strange, that its 
mentxi should have been overlooked for so many, 
c^ltxiaiest dnring which it was permitted to rest in 
the ohwiidity of the old Lateran palace, and people 
walfced up ipd down it with the most ineverent in* 
munUlilgr^ 

Bui when^^tua V. rebdlt the palace, he brought 
its fofgotten virtues to li^t, and raised fi>r it an. 
lection of its own, opposite die chu^h, in which it 
is mm ^ed ; and these holy stpps ace now never. 
iM^ded but on the knees, and are never descended 
at all ; four parallel staircases are provided in the 
same hniUitic^ which are not holy, and by which, the 
peni^ts descend. 

*' These holy steps that pious knees have womt"" 
lall they are almost worn away, have now been cased 



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2S6 rome: 

in wood ; and so great is the passage upon il, that^ 
go when you will, except on agrandfe8ta«-a./%9toi^, 
—-you cannot fail to see yarious sfamers creepng up 
it on their knees, repeating on every stiep a Pater- 
noster and an Aye Maria. On the I'ridays during 
Lent crowds go up. I have myself more than onee 
seen princes of royal blood slowly working their way 
up on their knees, their rosary in their hands. In- 
deed, it is only another modification of the game of 
^< Patience,'* and serves to fill up the morning as well 
as playing it on the caid»— the favourite occupation 
of certain princes in this city. 

I am told, the ascenders of this Holy Staircase 
gun three thousand years^ indulgence every time ol 
mounting ; hut what temptation is that, in a church 
where indulgences for thirty-nine thousand years 
may be bought on the festa cf the patron saint ! 

At the top of the Staircase is the Sancta ScmciO' 
rumy a little dark-looking square hole, with an iron- 
grated window, in the centre of the house — but so 
holy, that no woman is ever admitted into it,— ^ 
Mi^ometan exclusion I could not much repine at, 
for really this " Holy of Hdies"^ is a most unin- 
viting place. It contains an altar, which, Spom its 
extreme holiness, I should suppose must be nearly 
useless ; for even the Pope himself may not perform 
mass at it. 

It has an altar-piece, a head of Christ, painted 
by the joint hand of St Luke and some Angels i 
.and yet, people that have seen it, maintain it to be 
a most hideous piece of work. I can easily believe 



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ROMJE. 287 

indeed, that even thdr angelic touches would fidl 
to make poor St. Luke^fl performance deeent, for 
his munerous works prove that he was no great hand 
at it. I think it was Carlo Maratti who used to la- 
ment that the Evangelist had not. heen a contem- 
porary of his, that he might have given^him a few 
lessons. 

The msimer in which this j<mit production of St. 
Lake and the Angek arrived here, is, however, even 
more extracwdinary than die artists by whom it was 
executed. 

In the days ijt that image-destroying Emperor, 
Leo the Isauiian, it is related, that a worthy patri«; 
ardi of the church, in order to save this Angelic*-r 
and £vai%dic-<-painting firom his clutches, threw 
it into the sea at Constantinople, from whence it per- 
formed the voyage to Rome by itself, and landed it« 
sdf iniBafety at the port. 

On the outside of the Sancta Sanctorum is sus- 
pended a collection of votive pictures, chiefly com-r 
memorative of the hair-bread^ escapes from divers 
perils^ effected by the agracy of the miraculous image 
within. Hearts, hands, heads, legs, and arms, with-, 
out number, are to be seen in almost every church, 
in testimony of the miraculous cures worked by the 
imi^e or shrine to which they are appended ; but 
these are more than usually miraculous. 

One picture represented a party overturned in a 
cart, and miraculously saved by tumbling on a dung- 
hill,— another, a man in a pond, pulled out by a 
rope, — ^a third, a child, in duiger of being bit by a 



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^. 




^%, 



dog, 
lich 

els, wWc^^^ 
hand in t0^^ 

ietftoin 
ntedlieie, 
5ir name ? 






•^ 



'^f, 



% 



."U, 



"^, 









a 

■St.IieoIII. 

motes nothm^ 









osted up into ^ 
osefinr tbem. 



The Lateran ^*^<^ *^«b **^ Jk 
>loyed 88 «D \o0p'^ *S J^^, 






The Baptistery, jTbAi, t?»^ :^^ ^''P*'^" 

B dedicated to S^'^j^aw, ^^^ ^>*i««ew^ ^^ 

unial qaantum of ^*^ ^^g^^^tist^*^ ~ 












'y. 



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has serf ed as the model of lliem all, fbt it was tlie 
mostandent. It seems, as Forgyth observed, to have 
detiyed its own descent frimi the ancient bath, which 
the building stroi^ly resembles in form ; and, in fiict, 
the font is a bath, being sufficiently ample for the 
complete submersion of adults. 

The Baptistery is an isdated building of an oc- 
tagonal form, perfectly plain on the outside. In 
the inside, eight noble columns of porphyry siq[yport 
a cornice, which does the double duty of serving 
for a base to dght little columns of wlute marble, 
that have the most paltry effect imaginable, stuck 
upon this half-completed order. Indeed, beautiful 
materials were never surely put together in such de- 
plorable bad taste.* 

This Baptistery was built by Constaptine — ^but 
certainly not, as is pretended, for his own baptism ; 
for that he deferred, as we are informed by Eusebius, 
his Uographer and panegyrist, with the intention of 
bang baptised in the waters of the Jordan, and, in 
oonsequence, the ceremony was never performed till 
the day of his death, which happened at Nicomedia. 
This condudve statement completely oversets the 



* The largest and most beautiful columns of po]:ph7ry I 
ever beheld^ are on each side of what was flie original entrance 
to the building opposite to ihe present one. But they are so 
cruelly hidden in the wall, that, unless sought for, they will 
not even be seen, and the eBkci is wholly lost. 



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240 BOMB. 

monkish legend, becau&e th^re ^^uld havB ^n no 
imaginable motive for the assertion of 8 fdbsehood^ and 
because it must have been followed by instant con^ 
futatipn. 



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ROME, 241 



LETTER XLII. 

CASTLE SAN ANGELO— ST. PET£R>. 

St. Pbtek^s is the pride of the modem Romans 
• Tftther of the people of Rome— for Romans there 
are none. The ruined temples, the fallen columns, 
the sacred soil of the Roman Forum, the moulder- 
kig walls of the ancient Capitol, and the deserted 
expanse of the Seven Hills of Ancient Rome— -on 
which the eye of the stranger rests with such undying 
inter^t — are to them as nothing; but St. Peter^s 
they never weary of seeing, admiring, describing, 
vaunting, and praising. 

Feeling that wc had, as yet, very imperfectly view- 
ed a building, in all respects so important and so 
worthy of attention, we resolved to pay it a spedal 
visit. We crossed again the Ponte San Angeloj 
through a goodly company of angels, drawn up op* 
posite to each other, exactly as if they were perform- 
ing a country dance, and standing ^* on the light fan* 
tastic toe,^ in the most distorted and affected atti- 
tudes imaginable. These frightiul creatures are the 

VOL. II. Q 



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/ 



S42 BOME. 

productions of Benimi and bis scholars. Another, 
laiger, and, if possible, still more hideous — ^a great 
angel in bronze, crowns the summit of the Castle 
San Angelo, flapping his wbigs, and stanng you fiill 
in the face. 

On inquiring what was the reason of his occupy- 
ing so extraordinary a post, we were informed, that 
one day, during a plague at Rome, when Gr^ry 
the Great was crossing this bridge, the Archangel 
Michael appeared to him on the top of the Casde, 
flapping his wings, just as he does now ; in conse- ^ 

quence of which the plague immediately ceased, and j 
the worthy pontiff set up bis statue on the spot,, in J 

commepioration of the apparition which nobody but i 
himself had seen. 

Why his holiness thought pioper to make the 
ajcchangpl a saini;, I am at a hefi to conceive ; ii 
spems a9 honour rather derogatcwy to his digmty»^ 
said about as superfluous as to dub a duke mr an 
ardiduke a city knight,— -if I may be allowed so pn>- 
fiuie an illustration. 

This sainted angel, howevirar, partook of the aoci- 
d^ts of mortality ; for, in one of the mimy battles 
and si^es which this castb has sustained, fiom the 
days of Justinian to those of Charles V., he was shot, 
and another was substituted in his place by Benedict 
XIV. 

The colossal Pine, or fir cone of bronze, now m 
the Belvidere Grardens, is thoi:^bt, by some, to have 
occupjied the position at present held by the angel on 
the Hunmit of Hadrian^s magnificent tomb~but it is 



T 



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ROME, 243 

much mom probaUe that both the pine and the pea* 
oock were firom the tomb of Honorius,* which wis 
in this neighbourhood. Belisarius has been accused 
of hurling down the beautiful statues which are said 
to have adorned it, upon the heads of its Grothic as* 
sailants ; but that great general knew too well how 
soon this species of ammunition would be exhausted^ 
to have recourse to it for defence.f The Castle San 
Angdo has stood many sieges, but can never stand 
any more. In modem tactics it is considered a fori* 
ress wholly untenable ; but to it, as to a place of se* 
curity, that monster, Pope Alexander VI., made i| 
covered way firom the Vatican, by which he might 
escape from the just fury of his sulgects. In fiM^ it 
has been taken and retaken, fortified and dismantled, 
altered and repaired so often, that little of the oii« 
ginal structure now remains, except the mi^ty dicle 
of its walls ; and thus, by dint of the erections, and 
destructions, of Hadrian and Belisarius, the GoAs 
and the Popes,^»and by the instrumentality of the 
saint angel who has christened it afresh after him- 
self, — the Mola Hadriana has been transformed into 



* Vide Nar^i. The great poet compares a giant's head 
tn this pme :«— 

*''• La Uoddk sua mi parea k»ga e graasa 
Cgme la piaa di 8. Pietro in Roma.*' 
t The Barberini Faun was, I beUcve, the only statue found 
in the ditch of the Castle San Angelo, and it is in too perfect 
a state of preserration to be suspected of having waged sucha 
war. 



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844 ROM£. 

that chance-medley monster, the Castle San Angelo ; 
and so complete is the metamorphose, that I do 
suppose, if Hadrian were to come to life again, be 
woidd have some difficulty in recognising his own 
sepulchre. 

This proud fabric is an instance how completely 
Tanity defeats its own ends. It was destined by 
Hadrian to hold his remains for ever. Had he chosen 
a more humble monument, his imperial dust might 
probably still have remained undisturbed. As it is, 
his ashes are long since scattered — his very name has 
passed away ; and the place which was destined to 
be sacred to the memory of the greatest of the dead, 
now serves for the punishment of the vilest of the 
living; for about four hundred wretches, sentenced 
to the galleys, compelled to hard labour, and chained 
together like dogs in couples, are shut up here.* 

This profanation, I confess, moves me to little iR^ 
dignation. I sannot look with much veneration on 
the tomb of a tyrant, or respect the sdfish vanily. 



* The upper part of it also serves as a state prison for cri- 
minals of rank, and those who fall under the suspicion or dis- 
pleasure of the Pope ; for, although the representative of St. 
Peter can no longer hurl roonarchs from their thrones at his 
nod, he can stOl shut up a refractory Conte, or Marchese, at 
bis pleasure. A Pope, or at least an embryo Pope, once made 
his escape from itin a basket, and reserved his head, destined 
for the scaffold next day, for the future tiara; and poor Ben- 
venuto Cellini, in trying to follow his example, vwy narrowly 
escaped breaking his neck, and did break one leg.— -Vide 
ilfemotftf ^Bekvenuto Cellini. 



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EOME. £45 

which laraAied wealth, hbour, and power, ttuH migfat 
have erected institatioiis to Ueas and benefit future 
generations, in forming for itself a disproportioned 
grave. Madame de Stad, if I recollect right, ad. 
mires it excessively, and calls it *^ ncMe inutility.^ 
That character, indeed, may be applied to most of 
Hadrian'^s plans, which had all self tor their end« 
He did nothing for his subjects — ^nothing to benefit 
or improve mankind. He ransacked the world, and 
exhaustied its treasures, to raise for himself, while 
Uiving, a palace, and, when dead, a tomb, such as the 
world has seen no more. He resolved to eclipse the 
proud Mausoleum of Augustus— and he succeeded 
But with his splendid talents, unbounded wealth, 
aiftd u&contrdlled power, what a benefactor he might 
have been to society, and to his species t 

From the tombs of the Emperors let us now turn 
to tfaooe of the Apostles— or, in plain English, let 
us proceed from the Castle San Angelo to St. Peter'^s 
Churdi, where, as our oMiductor to-da^ averred, not 
only St. Peter, but St* Paul, was buried. 

We represented to him that it was very unreason- 
able to lay claim to both, and that as the body of St. 
Paul lies at his own basilica, which was built over it 
on purpose, it could not well be here also. The man 
would not give up the point ; he positively maintain- 
ed that the viscere only of St. Paul were interred 
there, and that all the rest of his members were here, 
excepting his head, which is at some other church — 
I forget what. So that it seems, while common mor- 
tals are content with one grave, saints have two or 
three. 



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246 ROME. 

As to Ihefiict, St. PaoTs body may hsve been oat 
into as many pieces as they pietend ; Ibr Aey cer- 
tainly do diyide deceased saints into very ninnfe 
portions* You may find diffi^oit bones of ihem in 
erery different kingdom of the Christian world ; 
sometimes, indeed, in mnltiplicity that is rather stsrt- 
lingi I have heard of three indisputable legs ci St. 
Luke ; and it has been my oim fortunate lot^ in the 
course of my trayds, to meet with two heads of St. 
John the Baptist, and with more thumbs of his name> 
sake the Evangelist, than ever mi to the lot of any 
ordinary man ; so that we must be eonstrauied to 
bdieve that saints possess mcHre manbers ihan sin- 



The two apostles, 6t Peter and St Paul, aeosvd- 
ing to tradition,* fell victims to Neto^s per86cuti0n 
of the Christians. St. Peter, who was eond^nned to 
the ignominious death of the cross, was, by his <lwn 
desbe, crucified widi his head downwards, as un» 
worthy to share the same fete with his Master. 

His body--4icoording to a tradition somewhat less 
crediUe-»was interred, with the remains of other 
martyrs, in a grotto or cave, now the Tomb, or Con- 
fesdon of St. Peter, over which the church is built. 
But if so, this grotto must have been in the Circus 
of Nero, which indisputably occupied this very dte ! 

* I do not mean to imply any doubt of the fact^ which is 
in every respect highly probable ; but merely to state^ that it 
does not rest upon historical evidence, which records the cruel 
persecution, but is silent as to the names of the Christiati 

martyrs. 



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moifx. 847 

Anongit * t h o ntiiid other piooft wUcli nlgfat be 
braiiglii of the fiict, I shall oaly mendon the condhs- 
mre one, that the Obelise which stood in the centiis 
cf that Cireiu« was still standmg, dose to St. Peter^s 
Chuidi» on the spot where the Sacristy is now built,^ 
mtil the time of Sixtos V., when it was removed to 
its present position. 

It is therefore undeniable, that since the Obelise 
which was in the centre of the Circus was dose to 
the wmOb of the diarchy the pretended grotto, eir 
Mnb^ which is in the centre of the church, must hare 
hma within the boondsoC the Circus. • 

We must, therefore, believe, that Nero permitted 
the corpse of the poor Judean fisherman, who had 
just aoflHied, fay his command, the ignominious death 
«f « maiafiu^tor, to be intcKred in his own Circus, the 
dttliiigHseaie-^bifr {Measures t attmcepofiuting-a 
spot ascved-to die gods, and to the games celebrated 
hi th^irhonoiBEV with die forlndden rites of tnm^ 
and outriding the religion and the ordinances of his 
country ; or, if we refuse to admit this, it is certain 
that neither the body of St. Peter, nor any other 
body in tbat^day, could baye been interred hecorf 



• The exact spot from whence the Obelise was temoved, is 
still marked by a stdne; It is in th^^ssage leading £rom ^ 
SsGoristy'to the chiir<sli>-*Hsoii8^queiitly still closer to it thsh 
the Sacdfity itself. . ^ 

i St. Peter's Tomb staggers even old Nardini^ who was by 
no taeum the most incpednlotis o£ men. '' If^" says he^ '** the 
bodies of St. Peter ami the martyrs were really btrricd whdre 



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848 EQlffE. 

Eyeti i^ by atqr ttneteli oTBncy^we caulSLpfumie 
eOTselves that the Circus was bo .mymxibfy smaH 
that this grotto, or tomb, was beyond it, we know 
Aat it was surrounded by the Gardens of Nem; and 
are we, therefore, to suppose, that. he iOrecled the 
tomb of the Christians he had martyred in his own 
pleasure-grounds ? 

But a Indl from a Pope settles all these j&fficul* 
ties, which are so perplexing to the unassistedimnd, 
•and saves all the useless trouble of reasoning; and 
Ms in^aUUnKfy having issued his e£ct to fix die 
tomb of St* Peter here, there is no more to be said 
'about it 

' Here, therefore, a Basilicst or duusch^ dedicaivd 
to die gteat apostle, was erected, origiBaBy, it. is 
^aiid, by Constantino. In subaeqaent times, it mm 



35t Peter's Church now stands^ it seensstmige that th^ jOIiu 
cos (of Nero) ebould hare remained here alap. Perhaps 
Nero, inhuman as he was, in the daughter of the Chiistians, 
was pious enough to destroy his Circus to give them a place 
of buriaL Tet this Circus was stiU standing in the time of 
Tfiny ; or, perhaps, he was satisfied it diould serve both ends 
i-4i drcus fat the Pagans, a cataoomb for the Christians." I 
subjoin the originaL 

'*^ Se il corpo di S. Pietro e de' Martiri ebberio sepdao 
dove ha & Pietro la basilica, pare strano che potesse ancora 
esser e durare ivi il Circo. Forae Nerone, immanissimo in far 
stmgedi Cristianiusopoi pieta in distrugg'ereil sue Circo per 
concederyi loro la sepoltura ? Eppur quel Ciroo in tenrpo di 
Plinio durave in piedi. Forse si oontento che all' uno ed all' 
altro fine servisse— cio e per Circo agli Gentili e per Cate- 
combe k Fcdeli," &c— Vide Nardini Roma Antica. 



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ROUE. 840 

fttfMidy i«paiidHperlui|» rebdlt-^tia Pofe Ni- 
(Mas V*^ in the middle of the fifteenth eentwjr, 
raelved Co etect a new churdi» and eren h^gan a 
pait of it, whidi was continued, at interrals, by a 
&w of his sueeesBon ; but it was not till the ponti- 
ficate of Julins II., in 1506, that the old church was 
pulled down, and the first stone laid of the edifice 
which was destined to be the pride of the Christian 
world. 

It was bqi^un upon the plan of Bramante, aLalin 
csoSB ; but the Pope and architect both died. An* 
other Pope, (Leo X.) and other architects, succeed* 
ed, among whom was Raphael He proposed some 
important improvements, but, before they were put 
in execution, he, too, followed his predecessors to 
an untimely grave. The plan of Balthaaar Perussi, 
-^diat of a Gtetk cross,) — ^was next adopted, and 
abandoned. New ones followed, and shared the same 
fitte ; till at length, after endless changes of Popes, 
plans, and architects, the great dome) the only part 
of Bu<marotti'*8 noUe plan that has eventually been 
{Hcserved, was erected, about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. It was one of the last labours of the 
life of that great man, to make, with his own hands, 
a model of the intfinded church, the leading features 
of which were the simple form of the Greek cross, 
equal in all its parts, surmounted by the lofty cupola, 
and faced with four corresponding fronts, which imi- 
tated the majestic portico of the Pantheon. 

Had this grand design been carried into execution, 
St. Peter^s might have rivalled the proudest menu- 



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SffO ROMK. 



I of ntiqmty m taste, bb mueh » H sni p anw a B 
Jlbmn m tise. Bat it vas diJMsrdsfl ; Ptul V; aid 
Cmh Mademo laid their heads tc^fether, and suhsti. 
toted what we see, the Latin cross, and a ftont,**^ 
wUdi I will forbear ginng any nama 

If I had contemned this front, evwi when I first 
WW it, it was not possible that, with die nugestip 
aimplidty of the Pantheon fresh in mj remmbnaaot^ 
I could admire it now; and I gazed on the vnst 
sweep ci the noble cokmnades, the beaaty of the 
fimntains, and the sublhnity of the everlasting Obe- 
lise^ with feelings of mortified regret, that every- 
thing connected with St. Peter's should be so grand, 
ecseqit St. Peter's itself. It is now~like its antbor 
Man-i-a medley of all that is noble, with much that 
mbase. 

Paul v., in an insttiption on die front, has taken 
to Inmsetf the whofe merit of the buildbig 'he- had 
die good foxtone to complete, withont noticing tile 
labours- of the four-and*twenty Popes that had gone 
before Mm.* I never see it without wishing, (H<te- 
ven loKgive me f ).that he had not had quite so maeh 
time idlowed him in this 'world for pulling 4mm 
beatttifd ruins, and building up- ugly ohuitlics. -' 

Inside, hewev^, we found that beauty we had 
▼aady loohed fitf in its extevior. Ii^every new* visit, 
I find more to admire. 



* Counting from Nicholas V., who was certainly the ori- 
ginal beginner. The Popes who did not buUd accumulated 
money for those who did, and thus all contributed to it. 



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We had obudfied tke wiilteD pemdaikm of a C«r- 
diMd to viffit the Stabtemiieni Chapel, (once^ the 
Muared gretto^ without which^ no women ie alkwed 
to cttter it, except on Whitsundays, irhen it is opett 
to all the fair sex, but men are excluded^ I ku^d^ 
ed at this piece of absurdity, as I thought it; but 
people dundd not Uuigh at what they don^t under- 
stand ; and I afterwards found there weere sufllcient 
reasons finr the r^ulation, and that-«4iieredible as it 
may seon^-when it had been open to beth seses im 
discrimfaiately, the sanctity of the place had not sa^ 
▼ed it from being converted into the scene of thoee 
licentious intrigues which its obscurity seemed cal- 
cdated to fiivour. 

We descended, by a double marUe staircase, to 
the brasen doors of the Confession, or Tomb of Sti 
Peter, illuminated by more than a hundred never* 
^ring lamps, twinkling, unnecessarily, in the eye of 
day ; but wi Afai the sepukfaxe all is dark, and the 
tapers of our guides revealed its splendour very im-' 
perfectly to view. We entered one large, and ftur 
smaller Subterranean Chapels. Pavements of bean- 
tMd inlaid marble^-^curious old mosaics, of the ear- 
liest ages of Christianity — ^laborious gilt paintings, 
by Greek artists of the same era— and a profusion of 
other ornaments, richly adorn the interior; while 
marble sculpture, and bronze bassi-riEevi, on the 
splendid shrine of the apostles, represent the great 
miracles of their lives ; and their images shine on a 
ground of gold, above the great altar which is erect- 
ed over the spot of their interment. 



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fUSt mOMIL 

Byft Jllm^h k mcm duit St Pad Md « gicift 
■Of ttmls and mahjn were buried liae» thdr 
■MOti are fule loct in dHMe cf St. Petar, M the %bt 
af the mooB and stars is extiiigiiidied in the SMn- 
duBiblaaecrdi^. 

This ]iofy sepnldiie is suioanded bgra dicobr 

wilt, wliif^ is lined with the lombs of Popei» SttDts» 

and EsqieratSy beridcs a long list of deposed or sb- 

Acatnd Prinees. The last lepieaentatiTes of oiv 

own uafiwtBnate Stuarts, the Empeior Otho, and a 

Q n een rfJcminkm> are buried here ; not to mention 

■■any other ill-fiited members of fidkn royalty, — 

whidi» indeed, it will be qoite as omveni^Dt to me 

not to do, because I hare f<»gotten than. The fi^ 

BMms Coonteas Matilda, and Queen Christina of 

Sweden, hare a place in the church abo¥& Both 

these prinoeans oeitainly merited well of the Holy 

See. The Countess matetialty augmented the patri- 

BMmy with her pious bequests, whidi aec^tshle pcoof 

of her frith was auppo^ to arise either ficom her 

Wve of religion, or of Gr^ory VII., a Pontiff who, 

while he interdicted all the deigy thronq^iottt Europe 

ftom markji ng e g « on inocnudstait with the sane- 

tity of a minister of the goqpd— it was wdl known, 

tevdkd himself in the lawless love of dut princess. 

As to Queot Christina, she is, to this day, the 

trkunph of the priesthood, not only because she re- 

iMwncedl^theranism, but because, as they say, she 

»dicated a Protestant crown, that she might onbrace 

Um^ Catholic fidth. 



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I marvel Uow she escaped being a saint ; she was 
a great sinner, but that couM^be no 8<irt of objec- 
tion. The -whispers of scandal have not yet died 
away respecting her fame. It is said, no exdiisiTe 
partiality confined her smiles to one lover. The 
barbarous murder of one of these reputed fkrou- 
rites — the unfortunate Monaldeschi, in a sudden fit 
of relentless rage or jealousy, and the horrible pas- 
sions that could enable her to exult in his dying 
cries, seem to deserve a somewhat more severe com- 
mentary than Pasquin'^s well-known sarcasm-^that 
(E^ewas 

R^;iiia.fleiuBa Regno^ 
Christiana senza fede, 
E Donna senza Vergogna. 

But I forget that I have left you standing all this 
time in the Tomb of St. Peter and St Paul, whUst 
I am talking scandal about defunct queens. 

Emerging from those gloomy magnificent sepul- 
chral Regions of darkness and death, to upper day, we 
stopped to survey the great altar which stands above 
the Confession of St. Peter, and beneath the dome, 
but it is not exactly in the centre, which radier hurts 
the eye. It is a pity St. Peter had not been buried 
a little more to one side. 

Above it rises the baJdacchmOj a gilded and fara- 
zen canopy, with four supporting twisted columns, 
made from the bronze, or precious Corinthian metal 
plundered from the Pantheon, by Urban VIII., who 
showed as little taste in applying^ as judgment in ap- 
propriating it. 



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254 ROME. 

So small does this ugly canopy look in the vast 
sue ofthe chureh, that it is scaroefy possible to be- 
fieve the fact, that it is quite as high as a modem 
caade.* 

At the upper extremity of the great nave, the & 
gures ofthe four doctors of the church, made of an- 
cient bronze, and handsomefy gilded, support the fa- 
mous chair of St Peter ; which yenerable relic is aho 
so well encased in the same predous material, that 
it is difficult to see any part oi the old worm-eaten 
wood of which it was composed. This apoatdic seat 
was unhappily broken, an accident tjrpical, surely, 
of the fall of those whom it is metaphorically said 
to support — ^metaphorically ,«->for it is held ap at 
such a height by the brawny arms of its supporters, 
that a Pope must really be a mountebank — ^whidi 
one of our Scotch farmer's wives ufied to caH-him— 
and have served a successAil apprenticeship to the 
science of vaulting and tumbling before he could 
seat himself in it. From the gigantic siae of these 
four doctors, we must allow than the praise of bdng 
strong fdlars of the church. 

On the left of them is the Tomb of Paul III., 
enMmeeady rq^ted to be the work of Michael An- 
gelo, although executed firom his designs by Giaeomo 
della Porta, and certainly a close imitation of his 
manner. Two Virtues, in female form, recline upon 



* lU measurement is 122 feet from the pavement to the 
highest point of the cross.— Vide P. Bonnoni^ Monaldini> 
Lalande^ 8cc, * 



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J 



ROME. ftSS 

il. Tbe %are of $ y<mtig woaum, vhicb^ fiom 
bffr ^xoeediiig beauty, was dbthed in a drapery of 
bioBse^ by order of oHe of tbe Popes ; and of aa 
^ope, whctse exoeediiig .uglkeem renders her per* 
8^4 attraotions for ftoni danget ous, certainly bear 
BO Tory pbvioas^fimilitade to the Justifie and Prii- 
d^aoe which they are said to be intended to per« 
sonify. 

Opposite, is the Tomb of Urban VIII^ by Ba> 
nini, which we shall leave his admirers to contem- 
fibte, siod turn to that of Clement XIII., the work of 
Qavpva— the <mly m^numait in the ehurdi, iamy 
hiapible <]fiinLo)^ worth attention. We look at it 
with redoubled interest, from the knowledge that 
OF^ry part of it was done by his own hand; Cor, 
Htttil it was completed, this accomplished man had 
not 1^ means to employ assistants, and was com*- 
p^ed to undergo the whole of the ntedbanical dnid- ^ 
g^y himself. The Lions I can never sufficiently 
admire; they are faultless^ matchless, living lions 
rT-(espec}aI}y the half-slumbering one^) — ^&r surpass- 
ing aU that the andents have left, or the Modems 
aohiefired, in this branch of art. 

rTh^ kneeUng %ttre of the Pope, at the top, is 
p^]^apE|.«i good as a Pqpe ever was, or ever can be; 
for tbeur eoml^ous robes, tonsure, or tiara, are so ill 
adapjbed u> scsulj^ure, that I almost doubt whether 
Phidias himself could have made a fine papal statue. 
The figure of Religion, which stands by the side of 
the tomb, holding her ponderous cros8,*-^her gloomy 
brows endrcled with a range of spikes, called a glo- 
ry—is much admired, but I confess it disappointed 



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356 ROME. 

me. Herflgmeis flo In^ and beavy, that it seenm 
as if flihe mitBt stand therefor ever, finr to moTe miist 
prove impoBsibk. Her air is cdd, severe, and re- 
pulsive. It speaks no afflicdon finr the dead, over 
whose remains she should seem to mourn ; far less 
do joyfhl hope, triumphant faith, or snMime ezpec« 
tatkm, illuminate her stem and in expre ss i ve coun* 
tenance. I must say, I never saw a more unprepos- 
sesdnghdy; she oert^y resembles nothing earthly, 
and s^ less anyihing heavenly. 

The Genius reclining at the foot of the tomb, who 
extinguishes the torch of life,.is far more beautifid; 
yet is there not something of attitude and affecta- 
tion, fiir removed firom the divine simplicity of na- 
ture? And is the anatomy not defective? In a oe« 
lesdal being, the articulations, bones, muscles, tee. 
certainly should not be pronounced, or represented, 
with anatomical predsion-Hstill, there must be no- 
thing foreign, or contrary to nature ; and, without 
possessing a particle of anatomical knowledge, there 
is something in the general appearance and effect of 
the human form, whether in painting or sculpture, 
that makes us feel at once it is true or fidse to na- 
ture. But the statues of Religion, and of the Ge- 
nius, on this tomb, are usually enthusiastkally prai- 
sed; and I ditidse with diffidence the works c^the 
reviver of ancient taste, the greatest sculptor of m&- 
dom times, and one of the most amiable and en- 
lightened men that the world ever produced. 

This monument, however, even if the faults I 
have presmned to find have any foundation, is al- 



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BOHE. 867 



mast t^ oid^ fpeennw of fine msfUftoae in St. Pe- 
tec*fl* Tlie .gigftntic figiures of saints and apostles 
w]iicIi.adovn its aides may be good in tbegpoeial e& 
£9Cty but aie bad in detail, and will not bear exami- 
nation. Indeed, colossal statues aie rarely the best 
Artists, ix all agesb M^m more frequently to bavo 
attained ex c ell e nce by diminishing, than fmlaiying 
the human form. By the former* they often produce , 
graee and beauty ; by the latter, they seldinn obtain 
sublimity. But, after all, I believe the standard of 
nature, will generally be found to be that of beauty 
and of taste. 

The only work of Michael Angelo^s that adorns 
St. Peter's, is in the first chapel on tl^e right of the 
door as you <»iler. It is " Xa Pkta^^ cft the Vip- 
fgai with the dead Christ in har arma. It is said to 
be the ewrUest, as that at the Cathedral of Florence 
is the lalest producticm of the great sculptor ; but, 
like every other I have yet seen, it by no means 
equak the too highly wroi^^t eiqpectatipna I had. 
formed of his works. 

We delivered ourselves iqp^into the hands of a re- 
gular exhibitor of St. Peter's, to be carried all over its 
wonders and curiosities, and I cannot accuse him of 
nej^ecting his duty. Not a single altar, picture, sta- 
' tue, saint, shrine, or chapd, through the whole of 
this immense church did he spare us,— but I will 
have that mercy upon you I did not meet from him, 
•^f<» I was so tboiroughly wearied with the actual 
investigalaon, that I am well aware the description 
must be wholly insupportaUe. Every altar is adorn- 

VOL. IJ. B 



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258 AOliS; 

ed widi a taM&o^ eo|^ so cMMlIf frooi tbe filMBt 
liittorioii poilitiiig, tliat di« impfMifed eye caimot 
St fine bdiete (hat H b noit die wovk ef ike pettciL 

It wae an art well kttiy#n to the atickflits^ and never 
loBt even durii^ tlie dairkeet agiM. Meifiy beatttiAd 
flpedineiie of die perfteilen t» irUdi the 
xfed it fltiU edeto Italy. 

• The hbonr and expense df <eaeh of theae moBatca 
eve ahttdfti kiet^edaile^ lMt5 wtein fld^ 
dektftictiMk>i*^t least by Time9'^'«4ia the perfect pte* 
servftdoa bf the andettl Mosaacs wUdi hate boM 
buried under ground for ages sufficiendjr provea 
Thus, ki tH huttab probability, by means of this 
^mid6tftii ttrt» the 'finest prodaodons of geuitts wiR 
go down, in no fiiint oepy of dieir p^ecdeti^ to tfa^ 
iMest ^enetntioAS. 

It b wondltffal to see lUphidl's Tri»i^i»doB, 
Bottietucfaino's Communion of St* Jerome^ Goido'e 
Atehangd Michael, and all the masteipieoes of painu 
ing, copied with such fidelity, in glass or stone, and 
by mere mechapic hands. 

The finest mosaic in St. Peter"^ (and consequent- 
ly, in the world,) is g^ierally, and, I tliiidc, jcadyf 
isaid to be Gnetdtto'b famous marsyidom of Santa 
PetreniUa ; though why called a martyrdom I ca»* 
not ima^e, shice it only fept^esents, bdow, dK Ufo- 
less body of the saint taieed from the gtwe at die re^ 
quest of her mourning lover, and fi>nnd to be min^ 
culously pireserTed in all the charms of youth and 
beauty,~ttid above, the Redeemer heodkig firem 
heaven to receive her spirit. 



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moMX. 9tB 

Thert is aA old fiiglitfiit fmeo pinirtiiig of the 
\irffny in the ehapd of the NkBdmau^ about halfway 
n^ tke dmreh, Mi die rigfa^ (whidi was safedoutof 
the M chtticfa of St. Fofto^s trafete it was pulkd 
down,) whose meiils deserre partieiibur aotioei 

It is a miraculoiis image which still works tnttst 
notable miracles, and is a gxeat fiwrourite with the 
present Pope, who neres enters the church without 
going to pray to it ; nor hare I OTcr yet been at St. 
Petards, without seeing a crowd of kneeling suppliants 
adoring it fixmi afar, in dl^aee and humiliatira* Chpye 
youi^, stout, simpk-looking countryman was on his 
knees before it to-day whai we entered, and we left 
him in the rery same phice and postture three heuis 
after, when we quitted it. 

The grand object of adoration is, howev^,:St- 
Peter hime^. It is pretended, without a shadow of 
proof, (hat he is no other than old Jupiiber Gapitbbr 
nus mdted down ; but he was, undoubtedly and ecm- 
fessedly, an anment bronse statue^-— eith^ a god or_ 
a consul, — ^and here he ^ts in state with the modem 
addfticms of a glory on his head, and a couple id keys 
in his hand, holding out his toe to be kissed hf the 
pious multiUide who contmually crowd around it for 
that purpose. 

Long since would that toe have been kissed away, 
had it not been guarded by a sort of brass slipper ; 
for no good Christian, from the Pope to the b^|ar, 
ever enters the church without fervently pressing his 
lips to it, and then applying his forehead and chin to 
its consecrated tip. 



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260 ROMS. 

If tins mUy be old Ji]^ter,liow lie must tecredy 
exolt at his oim cmmhig, by which) in mevety as- 
•mning another name and fimii— hi stratagem, we 
know, of old he delighted in-— he has still contrived 
to retain iiw adorationt andcontiiuie thetntdaiy Grod 
of the Romans! 

If I were to name a point from whidb the Church 
is seen to the best adnmtage, it should be nearfy 
from this very statoe of St Peter* 

The magnificent arches, and crossing aisles, fall 
into beautiful perspective, — ^the tombs, the statues, 
the altars, retiring into shadowy distance^more power- 
fully touch the imagination,— -the lofky dome swell- 
ing into suMimity above our heads, se^ns to expand 
the very soul,— while the golden light diat poura 
ihzough the painted ghiss at the npper extresaity of 
the church, where the Holy Spirit hovers in a flood 
of glory — ^like the chastened splendour of the even- 
ing clouds, sheds its celestial radiance on every object. 

It shone fidl on the beautiful columns and polished 
pannds of andent marUe-^ruins of Pagan Temples, 
now adorning the proudest fiibric of Christianity ; — 
and the splendid canopy of bronse, the warlikespoils 
of the first imperial Master of the World* — ^now 
overshadowing the tomb of the humble Apostle of 
Peace. 

We beheld the names of the Popes, inscribed on 
every part of this magnificent edifice, celebrating 



i • Augustus. The bronze (taken from the Pantheon) was a 
ifpart of die spoils of the battle of Actium. 



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ROME. 261 

their own *^ magn^eence,^ with fimd longings after 
inmortality on ettrih ; their tombs recordii^ their 
▼irtaesy and raninding as of their short duration 
here, and of thdrawfiil immortality hereafter. Sure- 
ly diese must speak more forcibly to their hearts, 
and to ours, than even the herald, who, as the Ua- 
ling flax vanishes away, prodduns to the Pontiff, 
at the moment of his greatest exaltation, <* Sancte 
Fater ! Sic transit gloria Mundi.^ 

<< So vanishes the glory and the pride, but not 
the sins of men,^^ thought I, as I gased on the great 
Can&ssioiiBl, where^ on Holy Thursday, the Peni- 
iensda Maggiare^ sits, armed with the delegated 
powers of ihe Pope, to pardon crimes that no other 
priest can absolve* How often, through that grate, 
have beat uttered tales of unimagined woe and crime, 
foul deeds without a name, and the low and secret 
whispers of a murderer^s guilt ! 

Oonfessionab in every living language stand in St. 
Peter^s. Spaniards, Portuguese, French, English, 
Germans, Hungarians, Dutch, Swedes^ Greeks, and 
Armenians, here find a ghostly counsellor ready to 
hear and absolve in their native tongue. 

At stated times, the confessors attend in the con- 
fesrionds. This rooming, being Friday, they were 
sitting in readiness. Some of those who were un- 
empkyed, were reading. All had long wands,-like 
fidiii^-rods, sticking out of the box. The people 
passing kneel down opposite the confessor, who 

* He is always a Cardinal, and sits to receive confessions 
on the Thursday and Friday of Passion-week, at St. Peter's 
and Santa Maria Maggiore alternately. 



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£62 ROME; 

toodiefl tlieir head with hlfi Wttfid, vhich posBemes 
the virtue of oomnstaiiestiiig some sort of spiritnal 
benefit to tbw soak. The other day I was much 
amiieed to see in a chtivcii into which we entered by 
acoident, a Ut old finar sitting in his eonfesion box, 
ftsi asieem while a woman was pouring through the 
grate, into his tinooBseious ear, the catalogue of her 
tins. As tiM confessor and the confimnBrt do not 
see each other, I should suppose this aoddent might 
sonetiines occur, espedaUy if the cdnfesiioii be some- 
what piolix. 

For one man that I see at confinsionin tiie dimb^ 
es, there are at least fifty women. WheAer it be 
that men have fewer sins, or women more penitenee ; 
or that it is more refognant to the pride of man to 
AVOW them to man, or that women have more tiine 
to tiank sbout them, (though fer that matter, as fer 
as I see, both sexes are equally idle here,^ I osamet 
determine. But so it is. However, the men do con- 
fess. They must. If every true-bom Italian, man, 
woman, and child, within the Pope^s dmninions, dees 
not eoofess and receive the communion at least once 
a-year, before Easter, his name is posted tip in the 
piHriflh church ; if he still refrain, he is ezlM^ted, en- 
tr»ted, and otherwise tormented ; and if he permst 
in his contumacy, he is excommunicated-«*which is 
« very good joke to us, but none at all to an Itidian, 
since it involves the loss of civil rights, and p^haps 
of liberty and property. Even the Pope confesses, 
which I donHxmderstand ; for they say he is infal- 
lible. Then, if infallible, how can he have any fac- 
ings to confess ? 



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ROME. S63 

Mm is Mver felrfonvied at th^ Great Altar of 
St* Feller 9, itnl^si when (bf Pope assists io person; 
an event wfakb only hampens at three or four higl^ 
£aitiyak in tte yewr : Chxistoias Day, EtM^ter Sun- 
daj9 BiL Peter's Oajr, and the 18tb of January, xb^ 
annireBsary of the oompletion of the church* On fd) 
other opoasiQiia, servioe is performed in the adjmr 
ing chapel of tb* chW) about as h^ge as a mpd^ate- 
fiixed churolu Here th^e is a fine organ» and the 
ainipng at Tespcra, eapeciaUy on the Sundays dur 
ring Lent and Adrent, is sontetimes beautiful ; bu^ 
there is no ofg/voi in the Great Cl^irch of St. Peter^% 
nor is there ever any instrumental music during ^9^X7 
vice* when the Pope is present 

On the paveaient of the great nave of St Peter^s 
jtfe marked the lengths of the principal churches in 
the world, from which it appears that ailer St. Pe< 
t^^s comes 6t Paul's at I^mdon, then Notre Dame 
at Paris, dien the Cathedral at Milan, and lastly^ 
Santa Sophia atXonstawtinople* * 

* The fqUowii^ .are the l^qgtHi :««»- 

St. Peter's itself is 609 English feet in length. 

St. Paul's in London^ 500 ditto ' ditto. 

Notre Bame at Paris^ 434 ditto ditto. 

TheCathedialofliilan, 330 ditto ditto. 

Santa Sephia at Consttrntinopl^ 9^ ditto ditto. 

The measurement is uniformly the interior length. It is 
stated on the pavement in Roman palms^ which I thought 
would be unintelligible, and I have therefore reduced it, 1 
believe with tolerable correctness, into English feet' 



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364 ROME. 

St Petards sQipaases aB these, aod all other 
churches, not more in magnitude than in magnifiU 
cence. Description can convey no idea to you €if 
the prodigality, yet chaste beanty, of its rid and 
varied decorations. The treasures and the taste of 
the world seem to have been exhausted in its embel- 
lishment. I saw but one Uot. . The great pilasters 
of the principal nave are not of marble, but mere 
painted imitations ; and this, in a coontey where 
every little common-place church has ita very walk 
lined with marbles, exdtes as much astonishmeirt 
as regret This alone is mean, where all else is 
noble. 

But however great, unusual, or amasing may be 
the inanimate objects which surround us, we seldom 
fail, in every place, to notice the human beings who 
may happen to be near us ; aod not all the magnifi- 
cence, nor all the novelty of St Peter^s long pre- 
vented me from remarking the various parties that 
were scattered over this immense fabric. 

A group of peasants, in grotesque and highly pic* 
turesque costumes, were flocking round the Inronse 
statue of St Peter, to give it the pious salutation 
they had wandered £rom their distant mountain 
homes to bestow. Amongst them, a young motiier 
witii a baby in her arms, was compelUng an unwill- 
ing and blubbering urchin, of five years old, to press 
his lips to the cold and uninviting toe ; while the 
anxious maternal solicitude, painted on her brown 
ruddy countenance, spoke her deep sense of its im« 



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ROME. S65 

portanoe to his eternd wdAre, and her liomNP and 
affiight at his iH-bodmg stafabarnneas. 

Rmmd the distant oonfiBssioiialst female penitents^ 
clothed in Uadc, and deeply Tefled, were kneeling, 
whispering thToogh the grate into the ear of their 
ghostly father, that tale of bnman gdlt and misery 
no other mortal ear might hear. Their fiioes were 
concealed, but their figure and attitude seemed to ex- 
press deep himuliation, grief, and oomponcdon. The 
countenances of the confessors were various. Some, 
fiit, lethargic, and indiffierent— expressed, and seem- 
ed capaUe of ezpressing-*nothing. Others seemed 
to wear the air of attention, surprise, admonition, 
weariness, or impatience ; bat in one only could I 
trace the tenderness of compassion, and of gentle, 
yet impressive, rebuke. It was an old Dominican 
monk, whose cowl thrown badk, displayed a pallid 
cheek, deejdy marked with the lines of piety and re- 
signation, and in whose mild eye, shaded by a few 
thin gray hairs, shone the habitual kindness of Chris- 
tian charity. He seemed, in the beautiful language 
of Scripture, *' a man of sorrows, and acquainted 
with grief,"* humble and patient, yet tolerant of hu- 
man fiailty, as they generally are in the highest de- 
gree, who the least need toleration from others. 

In striking contrast to tins venerable old mcmk, 
was a cardinal, whose robe of state was carried by 
his tnun-bearer, and whose steps were followed by an 
immense retinae of servants. He was going round 
to all the altars in succession, and kneeling before 
them, to offer up his pompous prayers. The ser« 



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266 KOME. 

VnUi, dressed in fuinptiioas li?«Eiesy wen mk their 
knees behind ; but sone of them, grovii^ tired of 
the loigdi ef Ui defvotiiHis, were in thii posture ma- 
king grinaoes at e«dh other^iuid cutting jokes, #(tfto 
voce; and one or tiro of them In the rear had got up 
again,^-*4rhe& the eaEdmaTs eye gkwced round, and 
down Aey pbunped, mote deep in amiaient prayer 
Mian error* 

Near this prinoely prieflt, as near as they could 
get, were some wretched diseased cripples, covered 
widi rags and filth, and crawling on their hands md 
knees owes the marble pavement of this superb edi^r 
fioe, vainly demanding charity in the most abject 
terms of misery and suppHcation* One of these ui^ 
fortunate wretches, finding his petitions disregarded 
•'-"-at last, at a distance and in silence, bcgw to wo^. 
ship the same shrine, as if to implore from heaveie 
that mercy which man had denied. Yet, wide as was 
the difierenoe between the earthly oondition of tba^ 
poor diseased wretch, and that proud car^al-^ili 
the sight of the God before whom they both knelt, 
tiiey were equal ; their souls were of equal price ; 
they were the equal heirs of immortality ,^— of eteneal 
happiness, or eternal misery. 

How different weee the motives that asaevibled so 
many human bdngs in the same place ! Seme were 
herefrom curiosity, like our8elves-->otfaersfrom pie^, 
like the peasants^^-from penitence, like the confess- 
aa»ls-*-'from hypocrisy, like the carctinal—rfisim want, 
like the beggars-«*^om necessity, like the seirants^'^ 
frutt dttty, like the furiiasts^^-^er from idkmss^Mifi 



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HOME. S67 

the nmnbers of vacfoii^looldi^ lhMtar«r% who weie 
strolling about* 

Some pilgrims, too, were ftDf oiig tfae suppUesnts of 
the mimifold shrioes^ uxl it woidd be a curious task 
to analyse the motives that led them hither. They 
were chiefly young strong men, apparently frcnn the 
lower classes of sodety, whose appearance certahily 
did not denote that they had sujfl^ed much from 
the hardships and ^?ati<ms of the way. Like Peter 
Pindar^s pilgrim, they seemed to have ^ taken the 
liberty to boil theur peas.^ At didr time of life, too, 
the sight of new countries, and the adventures of a 
long journey, might be supposed to afibrd some mat* 
ter of attraction, and the guise of a pilgrim facilities 
fer executing it, and a certain character and respec- 
tability, by no means inconvenient. Added to which, 
the secret flattery of the human heart would no doubt 
parsuade them that they were performing a pious ac« 
tion, at once deservLoig of praise, gratifying th^ iiir- 
cfinations, and baiefiting iheir souls. 

Some of them were very fine-looking men. Their 
large black eyes, and expressive countenances, over- 
shadowed by their bjoad-brimmed hats ; their oil- 
skin tippets, cockle-shells, scrip, rosaries, and stafi^, 
had to us a novelty that was poetical as well as pic- 
turesque. Some of them had come from the moun- 
' tains of Spain, and seemed resolved to lay in a stock 
of indulgences to serve them the rest of their lives. 

^^ Plenary indulgence and remission of sins,'^ are 
liberaUy o&rod here on very easy terms. I was at 
first ralher startled with the pnidigal HMMi^lHwUch 



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268 BOHC. 

tbit fall psrdoii of aU transgressions, which the Gos- 
pel promises only as the reward of sincere repentance 
and amendment, was bestowed at Borne, in consider- 
ation of repeating certain prayers before the shiine of 
certain saints, or paying a certain sum of money to 
certain priests. 

I was surprised to find scarcely a church in Rome, 
t&at did not hold up at the door the tempting in- 
scripdbn of ^< Indu^genxia PlenariaT* Two hun- 
dred days'* indulgence I thought a great reward for 
every kiss bestowed upon the great black cross in the 
Colosseum ; but that is nothing to the indulgences 
for ten, twenty, and even thirty thousand years, that 
may be bought, at no exorbitant rate, in many of 
the churches ; * so that it is amazing what a vast 



* You may buy as many mafises as will free your soul from 
purgatory for 89,000 years, at die church of St John Lateran, 
on the festa of that saint; at Santa Bitaiana» on AH Souls' 
Day, fixr 7000 yean ; at achorch near the Basilica of St. Paul, 
and at another on the Quirinal Hill, the names of both of 
which I hare unluckily forgotten, for 10,000, and for 3000 
years, and at a tery reasonable rate. But it is in vain to par« 
ticulariase— for the greater part of the principal churches in 
Rome and the neig^boarbood, areapiritnal shops for the ssle 
of the asme commodity. 

The indulgence th^ hold oat was, perhaps, at first con- 
fined to exemption from fiists^ and other ordinances of the 
church, or exemption from the ecclesiastical penances impo- 
sed in atonement for sins. But they soon extended to libera- 
tion from the pains of purgMxnry for a stated period ; so that 
Ithoie who, duriBg their lires, buy or eim isdalgenees for 



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quantity of treasure may be amaaeed iit the other 
world with very little industry in this, by those who 



100^000 yesrs^ will hare credit for it in the next world, and 
be released from its purifying fires so much the sooner. The 
priests say it is the pains of purgatory only, not the pains^of 
hell, that can be thus commuted by fines. And yet, if the 
pains of |iell be not merited for such ofibnces as the records <^ 
the Eoman Chancery prove to be oonunutable for money, I 
know not how men could incur them» Murder, fratricide, 
parricide, incest, and every crime that can disgrace our natures^ 
have here their stated price, upon the payment of which their 
commission is not only pardoned, but pronounced compatible 
with holding holy orders. In proof of this monstrous fact, I 
shall pollute my pages with a few extracts from these firal laws^ 
or records of licensed profligacy. For instance, *^ He who has 
been guilty of incest with his mother, sister, or other relation, 
either in consanguinity or affinity, is rated at five gros." " The 
absolution of him who has murdered his father, mother, sister, 
or wife, from five to seven gros." *' The absolution and par* 
dm ofaU aets o/fomicaUon, committed by any of the dergy, 
in what manner soever, whether it be with a nun, within or 
without the limits of a nunnery, ac with his relations in con- 
sanguinity or affinity, or with his god-daughter, or any woman 
whatsoever ; and whether also the said absolution be given in 
the name of the clergyman himself alone, or of him jointly 
with his adulteress ; together wUh a dispemation to enable him 
to take and hold holy orders and ecclesiastical benefices, with 
a clause also of inhibition— costs 36 toumds, nine ducats." 
'^ The absolution of him who keeps a concubine, with a dis- 
pensation to take and hold his orders and benefices—costs 21 
toumob, five ducats, and six Berlins." 

** A nun having committed fornication jseveral times, within 
and without the bounds of the numiery, shall be absolved, and 
enabled to hdd all the dignities of her csder, ev^ thatof ab« 



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St70 ROME. 

an ATwncioiui of Ms tj^iiitual weaMi, into whkh^ in* 
deed, the -drose or liehes of this world may be con- 
verted, with the happiest tmaHtjf imaginahle. 

We are told, that *^ it is easier for a cunel to en- 
ter into the eye of a needle, than a rich man into the 
kingdom of heaven (^ but, at Rome at least, it would 
seem to be d^cult, nay, impossible, to keep a rich 

ttMHSOIlt 

The keys of duKt kingdon^ we im tidd, weie gtv^ 
to St. Peter, and are held by the Pope ; and he opens 
the door freely to those who pay the porter. 

The poor, indeed, have but a bad chance of admit- 
tance, for their souls depend upon the collections of 
the good friars aiul penitents, that go about industri- 
ously begging, ^Per leAnimeSoHte mPurgaiorior 
and even this slender redeeming fund is shared with 
them by the rich. However, it is not always the 
wealthy alone that are saved. For besides the pil- 
grimages and visitation of altars, &c. && that are 
open to the industry of all, those that ba^ interest 



bess^ bj psyii^ 36 tQurnois^ nine docats." Many more in- 
stances might be adduced^ and may be found in Bayle's Dic« 
tionary^ art Bandc Laurence; or in lAUrence Banck'a Ttusa 
S. (kneeMaruB Ramanm, from which the above is copied yeiv 
batim. The book was publii^ed by authority at Rome, Ve- 
i^ce, Cologne, and Paris, and the editions of aill these places 
are still extant, though they are now becoming rare, for it was 
prohibited, and its future pubHcation stopped, immediately 
after the Protestants assigned it as a reason for rejecting the 
Council of Trent. Its autibentidty is indisputable. The latest 
edition is of Paris, iSS5. 



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ROM£« 271 

with the P0f»e au^ ohudn m dbvdutioii in fUU from 
his Holiness for all the sins they eter have oomndt* 
ted) or tnsjL choose to ceminit^^ 

St Fetor's,--^]]! ooimioti with the other three great 
Basilica of.Romo, St John Lateran, St. Maria 
Maggtore^ and St Paolo^/tiorf le After^'^-^iMMflefises 
the privilege of the Porta Santa, or holy door» by 
whidi, diuring the holy year, all may come in, but 
none may come out It is literally ^< that bourn 
through which no trarelter retama.'^ 

Theee holy years and holy doors were originally 
invMted by Boniftce the-Eighth, at the termination 
of the thirteenth centnryi who prodaimed a jubilee 
throughout the Chrisiian worid, with '* plenartf in-^ 
dulgmoe and reminiiM ofsinsi^ to all who, in the 
course <^ that year, should tisit the shrines of the 
apostles and martyrs of Christianity at Rome ; and 
commanded this festival to be held for evermore at 
the expiration of every century^in avowed imitation 
of the secular games of the Romans.t But it was 
found so lucrative to the Holy See, from the heaps 
of gold the piety of wealthy pilgrims poured on the 
altars, and so edifying to Christendom, that, instead 



* I hare seen one of these edifying document^ lAsoed by 
t^e pteseat Pope to a friend of mine. It was moat nnequivo* 
cally worded^—- but I was not permitted to take a copy. 

t Vide Lettres sur les Jubil^s. — ^These secular games, which 
I have already mentioned, (vide Letter XXV.,) were sacred to 
Apollo and Diana, for the safety of the empire, and were cele^ 
bnted with the most astonishing pomp and splendour/ 
laUy at the end of a hundred or a hundred and ten years. 



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272 ROME. 

of one, the number was giadiiaUy multiped to torn 
jubilees, or holy years, in every age. 

Thus, after the holy doors hare been walled up, 
and the brazen cross upon them devoutly pressed by 
the lips, and rubbed by the foreheads and chins of 
the pbus, for five-and-twenty years, they are thrown 
open, and thePope,followed by every good Christian, 
walks into the four churches through them, but al- 
ways walks out by some door—- not holy. 

The scramble among the devout for the bits of 
brick and mortar, when the walls of these holy doors 
are thrown down, I am assured, is truly edifying. 

We visited the Sacristy,— K)r rather, the three 
Sacristies of St. Peter^s — ^but I don\ know why you 
should be made to undeq^ the description of diem ; 
therefore, I will only say that their spacious halls, 
and noble corridors and galleries of communication^ 
correspond in magnitude and splendour of decora- 
tion, with the church itself. This great building 
was erected by the late Pope (Pius YI.) with a mag- 
nificence worthy of his spirit ; but its architecture 
can merit no praise. 

We had spent the whole morning in the Church, 
and, indeed, on a winter's day, St. Peter^s is a de- 
lightful promenade. Its temperature seems, like 
the happy islands, to experience no change. In the 
coldest weather, it is like summer to your feelings, 
and in the most oppressive heats, it strikes you with 
the delightful sensation of cold — a luxury not to be 
estimated but in a climate such as this. The ri- 
gours of cold may be easily ameliorated by artificial 
warmth, but neither nature nor invention has f|ir« 



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HOME. S78 

lushed VLB with any means of producing ardfidal cold, 
to mitigate the miseries of consuming heat. 

We had intended ascending to the top of St. Peter^s 
to-day, but it was now too late to see the view to ad<- 
vantage, and we were too much wearied to enjoy it. 

Yours ever. 



VOL. II. s . 

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BOM E. i7S 

file Mt ch»pels. of the churcH, wbidi arcf not dirtiii- 

. Tbwi^oidjtoiDiwatiyclysmalUhowdiiiiiiHitiTO 
do tbtiy M9em^ coriipared to thai stupendous donie^ 
the triumph of modem architecture, in which is fial-* 
filled the ptoud boai^ of Michael Angeb, that he 
would lift the vault of the Pantheon, «nd hang it iv 
ml It ii ^cactlj of the same magnitude. Its beau* 
tifi^ psdp^iartions and finidied grandeur, towering inter 
heav4Bii, can here be fully seen4 Fxom below they are 
lQst,.owitig to bdmg throtufaadi: by the length of thd 
Ijaliii tross^ aiid' consequenAly sunk behind the mami 
elevation of thafirimt^ so that this. Qoble dome is per*^ 
haps nowhere seen to so little advantage as finna that 
point, in wJbieh it shonid appear to the mosfr*^the 
Planar of Sti Eater's. 

We xanibled about^ and rested ourselves on thd 
marble seatti which i^e oommodiensly. placed upon 
tike leads; and we mighty I make no doubt, haiee 
made many grand and sublime tneditations ; but m 
adiculous Idea, which iudu^kily entered some of 4Hir 
head% tha4i the gr^at cupola, with all the little cues 
about It,. looked like a> heft- with a brood of chiokeBsy 
cottf let% put «U such ideas to flight <^ Whateim*^ 
pletons laust the;^ have been that douM find noehing 
better to iMA of on tte top of St Peter's !^-^me- 
thinks I hear you say. 

We ibm tcnntnenced the ascent f»f the gitoat dotne- 
Iqr aMocesmh of suitcases, ingeniously eontiived, 
and fiNxmiwhith^pasciagee leiKl out both upon its in-* 
temal and external galleries. 



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£76 ROME; 

One of the fenher, like the whisperiiig grikay oP 
St. PauVs — ^as if to verify the prorerb that wdb hsm 
eM»,->-carrie8 round a soimd hmwdiWe to ^ nearest 
bystander, clear and distinct to a listener on the op- 
posite' side of its vast circumference. 

We began to haVe some idea of the immense he^ht 
we had already gained. The mosaic figures of the 
saints and apostles, emblaioned on the vaulted rool^ 
were now so near as to stare upon ns in all th^ gi- 
gantic piopbriions, and from the highest galleiy we' 
looked down into die fearful depth of the duirch be- 
I0W9 upon the minute forms of the human beings,' 
who, like emmets, were creeping about in it 

How contemptible did they look £ram hence! And 
is that diminutive qpeck«— that indgnitk^ant nothing 
— ^lost even in the mightiness of that fabric hknself 
has raised — ia that he who has called £»rtb these 
wonderful creationa of art, and made nature subser- 
vient to his will, to adorn it with beauty and widi 
nijesty ? Is that the being whose ambition would 
embrace the universe — whose littleness and greatness 
at once call forth contempt and admiration ? Strange 
compound of a divinity and a brute !— allkd equally 
to the worm and to die god ! — ^made *^ but a fittle 
lower than the Angels ;^ and yet, but a little raised 
above the beasts that perish 1-— a creature of day, 
endowed with a heavenly soul !— -a mortal, destined 
to immortality ? — Man is, indeed, *^ the glory, jest, 
and riddle of the world T' — but if I heffA to mora- 
lise about man, we shall never get to the top of St 
Peter's. 



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BOMEk 877 

- ' In dw eoQtie of our prapen, we. waikad round 
the eztenttl oondoe of the dome, which is so hroad^ 
tlmtj Aoogh Aere is no fence leead its edge, tbree 
er i>iir persons m^^t walk abreast with peifect safi»« 
ty. We were interned that it is half a mile in oir. 
Gumference, bat I would not gnarantoe the troth of 
this statement 

At last, by flights of very nsmw stairs, and long 
beading passages, sloping inwards to suit the in* 
cfination of the rapidly narrowing cnrve^ we reached 
the soflamit of that astonishing dome; to which we 
hud so often looked with admiration from bebw ; aiid» 
perdied at a lM%ht abore the flight of the &wls of 
hsaten, we enjoyed the fiur esEfcended and interesting 
prospect^ over mountain, flood, and plain. 
' The faeantifiil amphitheatre of hills, whidi en* 
doses the.Campagna, stRtchiog round the blue hori* 
nm on three sides ; the pointed summits of thc'loflser 
Apennines behind, wl^h alene were wreathed mih 
snow«-— as if Winter had enthroned himself diere^ 
looking sullenly down on the plains and Yeidant hills 
not subject to his sway ;— 4he Tiber, in its. long si- 
nuous windings through the waste-^like a snake eml* 
ed up in the desert^ betrayed by its gHstaiing sur* 
tee ; far beyond it, the desolate spot where Ostia onoe 
atood, and where the blue waters of the Mediterranean 
were new gleaming in the sunbeams ; Rome at our 
fret— "her churches, her palaces^ her dark and distant 
kuina ; the rich Yecdure and golden fruit of tfademnge 
g«rd«is of her cqnyents, far breath us, contraisting 
with the deep shade of their utoumfiil cyprenws \ 



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ST8 BOHK 



iooii a 'floebe as tWa"'ft"PaJ wMi^ Ae {nne ftejsb- 
bbwing gale, ^ niU-and soft asr*Aa hrcMi of sum^ 
BUS, that deMf^tfeedarery sense, ahdosaopicdliy tkat 
dear Uvesky of edtemd brightBess and beaatj, ihM 
works csn nsTer paiirt-^'<^dald surdyavafcea sonve 
admiiatimi, eren in the oddest heart i 

We oijoyed it in perfect security, Ae tap of the 

dome bring ' smiou udcd by a raffing, whicfa is im- 

discermUe fiom bdow. We were at the base of tiie 

baB whieh smnoaBts Ae doine^ and ferlns its itppsv 

omaftieat, and eertainly had iia «ish «a tfawdsae Ite 

adventorons Frcndi lady, leeorded by Bnstaee^ #ho 

dimbed to the top of it ; bvl, luifli t Uu iatdy fig our 

peaces we had in onr party a naTdoffiJDef, who dam^ 

bered up the aerid«h)ddng laddbr dnt is -fixed romid 

it, with as much ease as he would have run op the 

I AroiidB of a man#of-war, and, not satisfied w&h this 

I exploit^ eontrited, by some extraordinary process, to 

I hoist Idmself up the sssooth polished ndes of the me^ 

Itallie cross, and aotusUy seated himsdf upen-its ho- 

Jrisontd bar ! . 

For hk safety we entertauted no fesss. He had 
been rodced on the giddy mast, and cradled in the 
storan ; but we trembled to see his example fallpwed 
by almost all the gentlemen who were with us ; not 
diat there was anything whi^rer to be gdned or 
seen, by it, but that they would not on any accoaiM 
be outdone ; and then there was the future dear do- 
light of boasting that they had stood on the top of 
the ball of St Peter's— cheaply purdiased at the 
risk of bcealdag tfaeb neck. We wfve there£»e 



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Aaiaaud io tte^tlMit ollf nifln, of^iitb&i naothtr, go 
ujprtki* teniUt pho0 ; abont half of the mf wmd 
ih^Uwei iomvmty ot Amhtily in a postnro nemdy- 
iMnr^scbial) widi thiib btadi dDWiMr«k,*-«imicli |w ik 
£^ cre^ along « coilbig; we obatrved tlie eeoel: 
fcMP and iRgUalioB painted «ii their eomiteiMmots, and 
hneW th$jl a aiuimefitV giddMeao, a tbgU fidaa stap^ 
nanat p^eciptUte ihem ^wd a height that it mu 
agmtj to thittk of^-«but n^e duist not kp^fk. Mote* 
ladrf than wise^ however, thqr aU detoended in sidb^ 
b^y.aadJireyrefiohrnig' todo gMftcthhsgin oot turn,: 
went up into the inside ipfthe^huH ■■nenteipriae.lqr; 
no means difficult or dangerous, but somewhat tedi- 
ous, one person only being able to ascend at once ; 
and, as our party was rather numerous, by the time 
the last had got up, the first was nearly baked to 
death ; for this great brazen globe was heated by the 
powerful rays of an Italian sun, to the temperature 
of an oven. In this delightful situation, we began 
** God save the King,^ in full chorus, but, long be- 
fore it was concluded, the loyalty of most of us had 
melted away, and we were almost tumbling over each 
other's heads down the narrow ladder — ^far more 
eager to get out than we had ever been to get in. 

Although this ball looks from below no larger than 
an apple, it can contain in the inside about eighteen 
people, and we calculated that even more might be 
packed in it — ^if they did not suffocate. 

It is impossible to form any idea of the immensity 
of St. Peter's, without going to the top. 



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990 BOMS. 

The long winding p«red xoad thsi moeadBto^iiit 
lead% as if ta the suvunift ot,% mountain ; ihe anui« 
zing extent of roof; the vast scale on which every- 
thing is constmcted; the endless height to which jott 
afterwards climh» by staircases and ascending pas- 
sages, to the top oi die done, firooa which, as if from 
heayen, you lock down on the earth,, scarcely able to 
discern Ae human beings upon its surfiu^ ; all this, 
indeed, may give you some idea of its stupendoua 
nae, which, from below, you can never conceive,— 
and whid^, I api.sure, my description will neiKC ^nako: 
yxm uhder8tandL*—So» adieu! 



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BOMS. 8M 



LETTER XLIV. 

SAKTA MAKXA M k6GIOKB«-Hk FAOLa 

The BasiHca which holds the tUid rank 111 Bome^ 
b that of Santa Maria Maggiore. It standi on thd 
highest of the two summits of die Esqoiline Hill,^ 
ioid is belieTed to occupy Ae site of the andent 
Temple and GroTe of Juno Ludna, aa opinion 
whidi seems to have deriyedits or^^ fiom a Uack^ 
and-white mosaic paTement, whidi was fimnd at an 
Inconsiderahle depth below the pavement of ibi 
cfaurehy daring some altemtions made in it in the 
time of Benedict the Fourteenth^ and was attributed 
to that temple. 

In the fiairdi century, an old Pope was instructed 
in the proper sitoatbn for this church, by a miraca^ 
bus shower of snow that fell in the middle of sum* 
mer, ezacdy ooTering the spot. I suppose his Hdi* 
ness must have correctly imitated, in the buildingi 
ereiy dent and curvature of the now, for nethbg 
else can aocoimt for the eccentricity of its external 



• It]B€alkdi;'Qryi#:theoiher,oceiipiedbythe€»iBaA 
«f S& MartinQ e S jlTettiQi U qdled /{ Cl^pjo* 



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t8S BOME. 

•hape.' It would piunle an able geometriciaii to de- 
fine to what figure it belonged. It can only be de- 
scribed by n^atives. It is not long, nor square, nor 
round, nor oval, nor octagonal — nor yet triangular, 
-— though it approaches the nearest to that of any* 
thing. Nobody could suspect it of being a church, 
but for the defp>niity*<]!f an old brick belfry, which 
sticks up in a singularly awkward positicm from the 
roof. It has move fiuses than- Janosy' and they re- 
semUe each other in nothing but their ugliness. In 
the advancb of one of iheie, stanicb the - sbKtary nlar- 
ble eolttnin brought firdm the Templa'of Peace; iand 
Erected by a pious Pope en a dispropDidenedpeQfs^ 
taL Th6 olhet hmt boasts one of tfieBgyptfan Obe; 
Ibes that-stood before the Mausolenia df .AugaaUui: 
- 'SliieiBnd^ of the eburrh aoitesali its beauty to its 
aadeni Ionic ooluinnsy ^faidi sore'SBj^aaed'id hkre 
hOoniged te the Temple of Jhnb {iucbU. ^heieof 
einhe naTei ie^vdry^ iflst, knd hiw. v HSbb graeeAi 
Ibieiif tfaece0l<«Kadd is^bhofatil Iqr^ arches^ flii^ epni 
into lateral chapels of riral magnificender ^^be least 
asndidg as that Uf : Sixtns V;.; but then b rdbn* 
4aiBS'a:tonib, in whSchflie&the body efrtbat paatifil 
minKalously mnc&ai^ed . by ' Jdeatfa^ • and ' wtekin^ 
^ivai and nnjp^asiiig ttiifadrfs. So, at Jtest^ Xisas 
mfiiribeo* '* > ' ^ •' ' «:■ 

; . The: spkndour of Ihe opposite Boi^gfaeie Chapel^ 
^ tttt fiu^assef* aayrfisdMe^ powers ef jdescnptioA, 
that I shall leave it all to your imagination — ^to 
which you may give abuiidance oT latitude, fer it 
^emjciiBc^ aiispassithe Jttality? It.cfltttaina ene 
of St. LukeVpiH^dbus '^eiAnaanoei^^ 



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AaHM. 



« 



probdUhf preftr tbe painti] 
^ 0DM worth iebing in die irb 
*^«*i iibief will hot psr^culaidy i 

*^tit mndy ift teoBseqtimite of Pi 

^w kifn to obUtcnrste h» {wintiii 

%lti8 ^eburch, iiUdi he atdehtl^ c 

^^^at he might eflfdeav^dr to exeei 

of his genius^ 

^ <^^c <pj *^^ ^^ ' ^^ ^^® obligatfotos yoti a 

^^ ^1^ te^'^^J^^^^^®^*^*^^"' in respect to this diupt 

^ 5- ^ \^.^^ *"*** * description df it ha8 Uleea piji 

^^ir^ ^^left!^^^^ ^^"^^ volume ? I had neatly left 

^^J0^ ^^^^r^A ^^^ *^**' ** contains the real eradle 

^^i^0 '^ A^ ^ " ®^» *s the' Cusiode reluctantly od 

"^^^^rj ^«^ the real cradle only. 

%^^^^ feurth great BasiUca of Home, San Pac 

^^^l^ Mur^/ iii rfx>ut ^ mife beyond th'6 gate 



^l^^"^^^ ^worthy. 






j^ v- ''^^yr ^ves itd name— aneiefitly the Pdt 
'',^fl^' Before we eaone to it ve paused, on I 



- ^{ theroftd, an (4d bastion boUt by one of t 

^«^*_ggj 5^ch a gentleman, who hapipened to be wi 
^*^^ll great cohnbttsenrj) nist^Bg' firf a Boin 
'^'^^T' ferburfed lis with a learned dissertation up( 
*«^' i^gn praSstd this jjiecfrof ahtiqaity at Ae t 
• ofthe buildings of modiei* days! 
V**^ passed, on our right, the verdant, but uni 
- height of Monte Testaccio, which, 



t^ji as it n«y «*»' " "^ ^^^^ ^'*"°*^ 



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JW4 BOMB* 

hnkm ftagineiilt of earthaHraW) At vfym rf m^ 
4Mit Dfiifthboiumg p4»ttcrie8 ; to that Ais feitaie of 
jDMitUie is much more modtfn duui nany of the nans 
«Mimidtt Fiom its looae and porous oonpositioB, it 
acts, as if fenaed by Wadgprood for a great wine- 
cooler, and serres as the eellar of all Borne. The 
Jaui^-ttierdiants hare ezcamted Taolts in it to keep 
ihdt stores cool, and every Btoming a ^aaati^siifli- 
sisnt for the daily demand is bio^gfatuito the city. 
' Leaviiig the grey Pyraaaid of Caius Cestiiis, wtA 
the Protestant burying-^pMrniid on our right, we drove 
trough the Porta San Paolo, from whence it is said 
a covered portieo formerly extended to the Basilica;* 
but no traee oi it now remains, and nothing meetg 
the eye but ruined tombs-— monuments of man^s vain 
hmgiogs after immortality; or paltry chapels and 
crucifixes that record miracles by the wsyside^-Ane- 
morials of his abject superstition* 
' We crossed the classic Almo, flowing dsjmn tofi- 
Hish iu <' brief course'' in the Tiber, and soon after 
stopped at the old Basilica of St Paul, which mi 
oiiginaUy built by Cmistantine above the tomb of 
Ahat nuurtyred apostle, was neaxly, if not entirely le* 
jbuilt by Hom»ius, was restored by St Leo after the 
shock of an earthquake, and was subsequently re- 
paired, enlarged, and beautified by a long succession 
of pious Pontiflb^ whose success^ I am sony to sayj 
has been by no means propartianed to th^ indus* 



* Pirooopitts de JBelL Got 



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BranSi MS 

tary ; ibr, mmmgBt aH tke i^ diodm of Rosmi 
ddsbiiniiarkablefertenirpanii^vfllme^ InmiB 
hare tbeyadonitd hi exteiior with faogenof^ 
er stock qpott it* frimt the ezorasoeDC9 <»f a portieoy QV 
given to its cntmioe ooitly gitcs of branse, Isoughi 
firom CoBttiiitiiiople,— Km vliidi the figure of theit. 
donor, a Bomen Comal of the elefcnth century, ap 
pears kneehng before an image of the Bkned Virgin ; 
in vain hare they exhausted all thdr art, and all theit 
vealth,~the hopdess meanness of the SecM Bassi 
a^cUngsinsepwdblytoit; and it is one of the manf 
instances, that the most splendid materials and otn** 
ments are insufficient to produce ardiiteolnnd bean^ 
ty, onless combined by the hand of taste* 

Perhaps no edifice in the wodd can Tie irith dds 
in the number and beauty oi the majestic colnmns 
whidi adorn its interior. A hundred ud tineaty pil* 
lars, of the rarest marble and gianite, the spoils of the 
ancient world, at once burst upon your Tiew,— HUid 
yet it is like an old bam. Yon raise your eyes fimrf 
Ae Gredan beauty of the long colonnades that diTide 
its fine receding aisles, and behold a range of Uack 
woraMoten rafters, thvoi^h which, fiv abote, appean 
the inside of the bare tiled roof; finr be it known to 
you, that this hideous dd church, to adorn whidi 
smne of the noUest edifices of antiquity have been 
levelled with the dust, nerer had a cdling ! Nor has 
it^piitehalf aparement, and thathalf is composed, of 
marble inscriptions broken to pieces! But the columns 
— ^the beautiful columns — ^we turn our eyes to with 
sorrow! Instead oftheir fine Corinthian entablature, 
a huge weight of dead bare wall, scooped out into 



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iBMifillb trcOm^lNuHbiXDiMljr iMMfmilieBiloliiii* 
«ddiaft& Th^pottrakBqffofgoMiiPo^Qt^iwwldei^^ 
iBg Qnllw iiiiU0irediraU»^-«d»<^^ fi|foieB <»£ty 
dd grim samts, ia btdbcnmA mowioy alwre thi) id« 
teir»'«*«ftn else id Baoh itrailge. cmtOM* vidi the ma^ 
jM^ of tiufe lnatdil«g8 isolumns^ tha* one eao&ol but 
wUito knotk down the hMniUe <}]d fibtife. ia .iiliiob 
dMj «re diYMded^ and nBtore tfhein to ligftt aod 
faieatitjr^ 

: TArcttejr^foor of tlieaebwitifiil Anted ^<^^ 
«DlQana of jPao0ii#i:;B9Mt> iMtble, niavly fi>rtjr Ael ia 
Ught, and formed ont of a mm^ bbok, wkb iaMi 
aodoa^itiii of Paiim ttMoUe^ it is alttd^ innttkm 
from the S^maolMm of Hadrimiy and aw iadispuit* 
Uy.ambngst tha finose in the wotUL /> 3>vio oohuftns 
o£ Saline nunttey (wliite^ semi«tlrjanparaat4 and ciys* 
ti^iacd^) fi% fek in be^t, and variona ofdnottft of 
apMno^ ofPariAii marbb^ and of Oriental gramtS) 
ittraet die eye on all sidds with th^ laritjr and 
fceftittjr**^ V .... I 

TJie- eatnmoe to this ^mth: is at. the vippst end^ 
a 4»»itn¥anoeliai^]^ adifted td da^tprd^ dia effoM of 
tha^ bag oolonniide. Frdm Aii' lowet end- lee/ivtfc 
taken kto thecklstef of the ooniKsiit) iriiich ia'tn ih^ 
thie taste of the faariMbous ages* The lay brother 
who intxodotied us, with nmcb affectcfd ngrstety, took 
infinite pdns to n»ke ds hold onv tongiues; i^iAmg 
ktbJbe against themles foe females to entcar, aadprs^ 

♦ Since the eatKef editiohs of thfs inrbrk w«l« ptiljU^hed, 
t&e magnificent marble oolnmns^ entombed in Mfrold di«^) 
ha^rabesn lAafaitotaUy.deatiefedby £i& :. , 



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tending to tremUe lest the monks should orerhear us. 
He said there were thirty-one Benedictines in the 
conyent, but that in summer the malaria obliged them 
to desert it. 

Above a mile further from Rome, on the same road, 
is the Church of S. Paolo alle tre Fantane, built on 
the spot of the apostle^s martyxdom, and above the 
three fountains which nuraculously spouted forth at 
the three rebounds which his head made after being 
struek*^ tM whi^htairae^udy obntmue to Hbw to 
this day, for the salisfiiction of the sceptical. Not 
bong Jime :of Ae numbet, I hate pasised Sak 6poi se^ 
tiM tinite without sloppng to.loik mi thitfi*. ' I tMl 
ilMJcfore only dbasrve^ tbat it weifld^pethd^ ^m 
been « more bdneficial n^podie, if ^theaiiasile'il iMOA 
hiMi dried up Jlhe gvoiindi vomMA of making it mm 
mixkrjiisL a qsot whidi, &aak ito (MOieme mhrMMai 
add 'iffliaedbte vusinity to 4h^ flat odzy bed e^ Ifti^ 
Tibery is fo unhealthy M to be.ndw a des^^ ' 

. We wtete also shdwn a sp^^ wfeetB W wcte as^ 
aimd ten^faouanid Cfarktian mmyrb wete beheaded 
iti'Otie^dAy ; and fUMsed a^^hurch^ mhtsre indiilg^ce^ 
for tan ^oissand yeacs may .be piirekaded in oM 
nfDiaaiti . / 



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sm nom. 



LETTER XLV. 

BASILICA 9ANTA C»»G< AVSi 8, IMXXiZO*^ 

Thk Ckuveh ^f S«nte Ciooe in Gienwdenime 
•taads M Ike lancljr o^Miue of tiie Ssquflme Hi]l» 
doM bjr tlie wmllt of Borne, andnesr die ndbed 
Ittdhes of tlMi Chudiaa Aqueduct. It is one of the 
asven Bttrilita of Beme^' and wis haOt hf SiMu 
Bdk3u^ the inotim of Cknstsiititie llie Gi^ Uii» 
spiQiiwUe are the obligftlioiis the Gathofie wodd lies 
umder to this eiemphuy Saint and En^iass ; not 
only finr biii^bigviiito die isoild the fimt Ohiiitian 
XUopetof , but for going JsB die way to Jerasabmi 
on purpose to make the discoyery of the true 
Cross, (whieh nobody on the qpot had bean aUe 
to find for diree hundred years,) and bringing it to 
diis churchy''^ where eyery true believer may see it. 



* Hume, in a note to his histary of Richard the Fint^s 
reigD, reUtef, that the '^ True Ciom/' which had been given 
up to the ChristiaDs at the capituktion of Jenualem^ ^' was 
lost at the battle of TV&efMKfe^ to which it had been carried by 
the Crusaders for their protection." How it happened to be 
9 



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ROME. ' iS9 

But die only depoeited one-thiid of tlus pieeioiiB le- 
lie here, and what she did with the. other two^thizds 
I hare entirdy foqp>t. Every year» (m the Holy 

• Thursday and Friday of Passion Week, this por- 
tion of the True Cross is unveiled to the eyes of the 
Faithfiil. I missed the opportunity, and shall now 
never see it But I saw, instead, the cradle of the 
Sambino at Santa Maria Maggiore, which I have 
already mentbned ; and, in fact, that sight was quite 
an unexpected pleasure to me ; for as the BiUe says 
the child was laid in a manger, I was surprised when 
the priest assured me it was laid in this very cradle 
«8 soou as it was bom— >so having seen more than 

. the wise men of the east did» who went on purpose, 
I thou^t I had every reason to be satisfied. The 
Empress Hdena not only forwarded the Holy Cross 
and the cradle from the Holy Land, but the crown 
of thorns, and all the nails used in the crudfiaoa, 
and some of the sponge^ and a phial of the Viigin 

. Mary^i tears, and a piece of her gieen pettieoat, and 



lA«f«, when it was idso A0r6>--»to be in s battle at Jcrnssleii and 
ill a church at R(uae, at one and the same time, is amystery I 
shall not presume to nnrayel ; and wbich^ I should suppose, 
could only he satisfactorily accounted for, hy the miiacnlous 
power possessed by all holy relics, to increase and multiply 
themselTes,— a faculty I bare frequently had ocesnsn to ad- 
mire. But the kas of the True Croisspiodnded rather an ex* 
. Inordinary eflbct ; for, '< in consequence of this disaster/' ob- 
serves the MonkiBh historian who records it, " all the chil- 
dren throughout Christendom had this year ten teeth fewer 
than in fonner years." 

VOL. II. - T 



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990 BOftlE. 



I dr«p0 of the Mood ef Clms^ aad the mimeiiliNis 
of his ftee upon St Veronico's Imdker- 
chief; together with imuiy other reUcs of iwwtifno- 
hlo sanctitjr ; and theee l^ht articles were holknfiH^ 
by a wh^ cargo of die holy eodi £pomthe e^ul- 
chve. 

The only motive I could ever discorer f<Nr the 
memorable jouney of ihe image of the Viigiii and 
tbe Hdy House from Palestiiie.to Lovetto, was. die 
doabe to rgoin these, its paited treasoies; and red- 
ly it ^ not WMdetfbl, that when the Viigm found 
dioy wene $31 gmoy— even to her pettiooatf and that 
she was left alone in herhoose&r so mai^ ages, she 
should. grow disccmtented, and aet off in pursuit of 
them. I am <mly sinrprised she did not undertahe 
the journey sooner. But it would seem, unfiMrtonate- 
ly, that the San4a Com is only calculated for cross- 
ing the sea, and that it cannot oonvenieady travel 
liy land, else it certainly would not have stopped on 
the coast, without coming on to join those loi|g*lo6t 
relics at Rome. It might perhaps, indeed, experi- 
ence some difficulty in getting over the Apennines. 

It is dear, however, diat fianta Helena. had ino 
intention of giving ofience 4o the -Virgin Mary by 
the repeated ship-loads of rdics she dispatiiliedfrom 
the Holy Xand to Borne ; and it seems to me surpri- 
sing, md I mu9t pay somewhat ungrateful, thatafter 
all henaodvity .and industry in. ooUeetiag diem, and 
after sfi the churches she built, «o obuidi dioaU 
ever have been raided to herself. 

But whatever gratitude devout Catholics ought 
to fed towards Santa Helena, for her laudable exer- 



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RdME. 291 

tions in buiMng up CMstltti temples, soine ciihtu- 
^ macioils ftot6stants Vfll persist in t^ishing that she 
Iiad sfacmii leSs zeal in puIBng down tlie monuments 
of Pagamstti, of whicli she certainly was not fepa- 
Ting; as this, and every 'other old church in RolJUc 
testify ; 'for theyiite aairied wiA the spoils oif an- 
tiquity, and fflled Vith the mghificent columns' of 
•ruined temples iAd pbrticos. 

The ^reseAt front 6f 'the Santa' Cibce in Gieni- 
s^Ienime, is ihe Erection of the last century, and 
teflectis no great honour upon ite architectural taste. 

iTu Vhat may be called the inti-tbom, 'or yAfetf- 
bule to the church, iare tWo columns of fntdtTrA)')Ai 
^iga^ (a barbie of a beautiful iron-grey colour.) 
tn the chtirbh itself are 6tght Alaghificent 'andiiit 
eohimns bf Oriental granite, ^o of thb^eoliiinns 
that' support dh'e canopy of the altar, aire'bf a v^ry 
rare marble, called occhio di pavone, — peacb(ft:V 
'6ye marble; ancl beneath ihe altar, ihe beaiitifid 
lagfiorubla, as the Italians call it, the iMtacrum, 
LadrUfn^bthaih of some ancient Roman, fimti^ 
out bf one t)lock of basalt, noV serves as a coffin fbr 
Christian inattyi^s. 

The Convent of the Santa Croce, Resetted by 
its monks, is 'noW converted into a Reclusorio for 
females. Moved by the spirit bf curiosity, VhiA 
leads bur sex to pry into iall things, we went into 
this placb, and found ourselves among a multitude 
' of women, all idle, and all talking or rather scream- 
ing togedr(gr, in drat tme of iffdascribatde isfarill- 
M», in Which Roman females usually carry on their 
colloquies. I assure you, that otiie 'siiigle Voic^ is 



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S92 ROME. 

Muroely endarable by unaecastoined ears. Concern 
then what must be the efiiect of fire hundred at 
once ! For there were actually five hundred women 
shut up together ; and only one man to ke^ them 
in order i Like those exposed to the sound of 
the Fails of Niagaxa^ this poor creatoress ears were 
so stunned with the merciless din of Uieir. voices, 
that he is actually as deaf as a- post ^ever shall 
I fiMget the clamours of their five hundred tongues. 
The gentlemen of our party only got as far as the 
door ; the moment it was opened, at the first burst of 
Bounds that issued forth^ they instinctiyely cUqiped 
their hands to their .ears and fled. 
, The Basilica of St Sebastian, ^tiort U Murd, 
firom which we descmded. into the Cataccmibs, I 
have already mentioned ; and, except that it is 
.one of the aeren Basilica of Rome, it is not worth 
notice. 

I The last of the seven Basilica, 8t Loreofo, jiWi 
1e Mtsrd, stands about a mile from the Porta San 
Lorenso, the ancient name' of which has excited dis- 
cord, long and loud, amongst the antiquaries; and 
whether it was Porta inter AggereSy or Porta E^ 
guUina, or Porta Tiburtma^ I pretend not to say ; 
.except that, as ..the Basilica was certainly built on 
tho Via Tiburtina^* which was th^, as it is now, 
, the road to Tibur, or Tivoli, it affords a presump- 
. tion, that the gate leadbg to it was the Porta Ti- 
burtiruu Constantine the Great erected this Basilica 

* Anaataaitts, in the Life of Sfta SyWettro. See NardiBi> 
who quotes the passage. 



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9^ HQUB. 

her« finom tha Teniple of J9V#9 in^tli^ P^rtiw of iOo- 

There aie two Chxistiiii tombs ui this dnmb^ 
admned with BtirhiiMliim uniigni; om is bsUiid 
the altsr, and anothery rcpiesenliiig the. vi9MgP> is 
near the door. In^medj^ly oi|<llw> rightof the.door, 
on entering, there is, however, a fiir more beaw^jtfiil 
sifroop})jigi8^ which, c^tiHAs t^ bm^ of W< pU. psr- 
dipi^^ adppfid with, a,;Roiyw^. Mwri^g^ scplptmed, 
m bfj^^^reUfsC Ypji ,86^ the.{>nwimtft?t6iusiiJBce,r^ 
the ^Ji4(Esroon|i» a^ thp brid^ attended^bf her ttm 
o{ jPara^jl^pb(ti, o^, b^de^ntaifUb uni^ ;by tk^ 6e* 
niiif.of I^oye; aqd abo^y^all, the assepaUieddistm 
that^lesfG) o); prosp^ tl^e ntaaii^ge s^ts^ 

By Wi^y of ,a ipedqc^w of the fii^e arts fji^^h^ 
and.Wer period, in^ibf:; mofij9icpavemf«it,in.tti^)ii|d« 
die of the church, you will s^ two Jlpzminseldier^. 
of the barl^pus agesi on hogback— -most extraordi^^ 
nary figui]^.! — Chv better s^U, admire in the exter- 
nal porticp of the church, some fresco pauiting^nearly 
washed out, representing^ ampngstodier thiDgs, the 
P<^, and Cardinal^s^ apparently waiting than^^yss . 
by the. flames of purgatory^ and the souls bunung in , 
thejm, some of whidx are jOlfted up by the hair.of thefur. 
head?^ by black angela in red petticoats, looking thg^^ 
^^gbly singed. This e^uicdte composition is in qo^^ 
memoratipn.of.the privilege eigoyed by one partica* 
lar subterranean chapel in this chiprch, o£ liberating 
the souls in purgatory— for money. It is a sort of 
office for the transaction of the business. Not that 
it enjoys a monopoly of it by any means, for aln^ost 
every church is engaged in it ; but it has the repu- 



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tation of csnying it on to the best advantage, and 
has by fiur the most costom. I am aeqoainted with 
a Roman lady, who g^ve up annually one half (^ her 
income for many yeari to the monks of this conyent, 
for numea to fiee the soul of hereon. 



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^6 ROME. 



LETTER XLVI- 

ST« CLSMEKT^S AVO 8T. AOVES^S. 



You, like the pioua pilgrim, have now made your 
duteous round of the Seven BadUca of Borne ; but, 
not like him, have you thereby gained any indiil- 
^ gence for your soul,— for, in all probability, you have 
found it a passage through purgatory, instead of a 
deliverance from it Nor are your labours, like his, 
at an end ; for there are^ alas! churches behind in 
long array, remarkable for thdr andquity, their sin- 
gularity, or th^ works of art, whidi must be indu- 
ded in the pilgrimage of Taste,--»though they may 
be omitted iu that of Piety. 

Resigned to your hard fate, therefore^ enter with 
becoming reverence the Church of St. Clement, 
which has the reputation of bdng the most ancient 
existing church in the world, and is certamly one of 
the most curious. 

The oourt before it, enclosed with a wall, and 
surrounded with a portico, much resemUes the 



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ROME. 297 

Caiomdkm^ in front of mcient dweUing-limiies^ bat 
answers more properly to the portico «nd area of 
temfdes, and was generally attadied to all the pri- 
mitiTe Christian churches. 

In the interior, this cbiorch has not the form of 
the Cross. Built before the worriiip of the Divinity 
had been supeneded by that of human beings^ithas 
evidently been intended to have only one akar, which 
is isolated, elevated on a lofty jdatform, and divided 
from the rest of the church, by two small gates, 
opening on the flights of steps that ascend to it. 
This part is called the Sanctuary. In the body of 
the church, a space, called the Nartexj or Pre^by- 
terium, is endosed with walls of wliite marble, on 
eadi side of which are raised the two AmboneSf or 
marlile points, used finr roadb^ the lessons ; the 
whole is inlaid and tassela te d with porphyry, and 
other coloured stones. 

I forgot to say that this churdi stands on the slope 
of the Esquiline, near the Baths of Titus ; that it was 
built by Constantino, and has never been rebuilt, 
though various Popes have exercised themselves in 
ornamenting it, widb all tiie laborious Kttieness of the 
low ages. Anmigst other instances of this, I obser- 
ved a mosaic pillar. 

We were shown the tomb of a carfinal, dated 
14^78, with the Thffrmsmd Crvtah of Bacchus, the 
Pan^s pipes, and such Bachajooudian devices, sculp- 
tured upon it— a proof how long these Pagan orna- 
ments were tolerated on the monuments of Christians. 
Indeed, many old sepulchres of the saints found in 



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296 ROME. 

tkeCalMMlH ttie iiiMnliei iHA JKitf > ifM i hi% * 
Of QMS te^nmyfy wiA* Ae mMal le6ln» D. M* 
I ifvailied OM of ihite inrilB.oU duneb^ j^ 
a capndun why theie lettiBt mc» «it «! Ofariilttiir' 
t«ib ? Htteiadailljr did Hal ^iniliiiiUBd: tWr/iM- 
p«vl; fis^dber ppoliiig Unadf ftvitome.lin^he* 
8«ilD 0te9dcfarfi>iMi».(die ttiik galiM^om Ab«t^) ' 
aodiM. nwfc.bt «he inlM iMtai cT lib((<ilmndf) 
Akito's) Mnne^i When Idd D. Mu.tModfli»l£>lm 

ifkbM l«m> ItiKai ihii«,i ht:htidt nmarhMBd of 
himJ 

oC tl»e dnpels: iMAi inproMrs* kawt gvTai^^tkk 
Glwxdi»is:«opfmKl to liii»e:beeiiL lekmAi^ bm iiift> 
£«fDg»Uateoniiieroo€i<«rtMtil|FJbftTai»^ iStoMif 
ate ^hft only ittidoolMdk'V«dkaiI hayoiew ;8eoft>ofir 
that great Florentiiie^s, and are.higUy dntorttitiiigtt) 
the hifltofy of f^iartioHiibiBttfroma^ii^ 
im thorduml^ipC S.tHolmtaltGanmio^ afe£]l)HiiBe^> 
whim UUkml ApgdoiWtdaapboriiwrtHiitaBjf wMiii 
tQrflti^]|i4h«flci, aod^ndy^ffiftdO'iiir o&thtariiiitbotti 
bortwDiltt^ Itophatfii graad figiap»4t>f tPawt pwMJii 
ii^jil^AtibtiH u fiDBOftijMiaaacio a andytficomJMiido* 
signs, Michael Angelo took the gf««leel>^«* o£ ilia 
SNwsntlfiomitho^. (hm^in the chiMrdh of ^tho^i^Cri- 
vit^ do^litoilH^wlttihtmachiciy coMuMi by Dattidl 
da y^teiiOi 4 Maaaeob's A«ims» ia^h^ichMMfe of r6^ 
Clemmi) «ro certaialymaiikedimthjalliha. stiff: foi^ 
nMlilFii tho igiioiMie o£ deaigii^ pnsfioelivty gaMfN 

■ iuMmm i* ii mnp mm ■■■ ■n ^i^ m ^^— ■«■■■■■ ■»>«i i n i m i t 

* Roma Sacra, Martinelli. 



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KOlfS. 

times ; but they were, for l^oietimw»,.iiV|id«iEM|^0iN 
diiipti/pna. Tbat dbtingiu^ked lotii sofmlifiir dbtre 
%.T^bai])awni9of hbage. HwAjhtit.MQmtWfi 
befwe, Ai^drem di MaBtq^ iiiifllIiooiuu4^d» Yim 

ti|i7 luniiiary ; v^ wu the fiist^ after th« levg n^l > 
tha^Moifed tb^ enniC CoufaM aiiA QAotttn kifienof 
ite^ ylrne e g with araj of game ; bofc i|i ] 
sew ohioiv^d.^ MaeaeGU) diiedyoioiigf noi 
stii9i»gr«ii«pi€ia«i 4^ having been poNmecl' 

A g^eat piopofftkiii of the modce of -thiaMBaeiil 
aiia.£iigliah»^or zaih«r» I beliew^ Iriflh.; bo* iBBgr. 
lttb». Inab^a^d ev» Seolc^ aie to befiMuid^Jii.inttijr. 
of the doittecs of Roma. Qft», Jn.my'.waadeKuigB,. 
h^i^ J be^n (rtarllad la him «iy«atiwae«ilte inithis 
foteigtt laii4f'beea(tbed fiiHia the.montk'ol^a^beardadf 
oaMfihuL 

If jSfe. Client's be»«be.oldeai€biiKh in JEUw^ at 
i^thewadd, SttnAgneaVieaiuiot be nmch^itijuilor.; 
foi^^ ia aUetHi^^iipdMi^blei^iaetm of CoMtuitBie'e^ 
aadftaadf^iar^ Vin NaBMAtaQa, doaatotthataarii^ 
nafttba diiuttb^ of tbafcJE^peroffVdanf^bter, Saata 
Cppftipwsidwhl hara (thaQlc.Haavaa!)alnadf^ 
daic&becL- 

T}ie>Chvvphi^/S$;>Agiieawae biak.cMi'the kml 
of the Catacombaia iiUob tba ,bedt]fi of iheatfnt was 
(mai^ .coneeq[«eiiti]r auCOneidafaUa. depth below 
4ia Wifyo^ of Ae eartb ( and^70ll^ideflOMld ialaat* 
Iqi^^jaaKblef stwcaee, fimn the «dei of iwUcb weie 
tiiho^e baft raUafiMf PenMua^^ 



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300 ROME. 

and 'Eadjmmk (deepnig, now in Ae Palazso Spsdo ; 
dsplicalefl of these in the Cai^toL 

Tlie interior of the Clrarck of St Agnes, more 
than any other, presenres the fiMrm of the smdent 
ciffl Bttiliea. The three naveg, sepaerated by rax- 
teen ancient marUe odhmns, wad the Ibnn of the 
tribune at the top, beneath whidi the great altar 
now stands, and the judge formerly sat, may be dis- 
tinetly seen in most of the old Roman cbnrches ; 
fant ihe pecoliari^ of this is the gallery, which was 
xoocopied by the audience in the Pagsai BasiMca, and 
by the woBMn in the religious assonUies of the eariy 
Christians,-^« custom, by the way, still in use among 
the Jews ; at leasts in the only one of their syni^ogues 
J erer entered, that at Rome. 

The Chuzches of St Clement and St; Agnes are 
badi rmj curious cdd stmetures, and well worth a 
▼isit ; but though built in the same age, and destined 
finr die same purpose, their plan is totdly different 
St Clesaent has not thegaUery of St Agnes; war 
has St Agnes the enclosed Presbgieriimi the Am^ 
bmm^ mr the elevated andfoiced-off altat of St Cle- 
uMBtfs. The theory, thei«fore, that would ^ednee 
dl andent drasehes to one inyariaUe design, is en- ' 
dently false ; and yet there are antiquaries, even in 
Rome, with these^examples of diretsity staring them 
in the fiiee, that maintain this doctrine. 

The columns tihat sustam the nsfves ofboA 
diuidbes, are, asrusual, antique* Among those of 
St Agnes, are some rare- columns of PoHm SatUa^ 
rxmx\A6^asiAsxm^i£hsKaJ6^ In one 

of the chapels there is a most beautiftil ancient can- 



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ROM£. Ml 

deUbra of maiMa, wliidi, however, yoa rtialy try 
to look at with atte&tbn, for, dose bdiindit^ rtaads 
a head of Christ, by Michael Angelo^Biioiiarotti. 
All the flCttlptured reprcgmtatbns of our. Sanour 
ave.tbought to bear a stroag xeaemHanee. to those ef 
Marcus .AurdiMs ; and, in this instsnce^ I fancied I 
IMVoeiTed it, tho^gjh I should never have been stnick 
with it, unless it had been pointed out to me. 

Aa to its merits, I dare not censure, and I eaonot 
praise. It is fine ; but it is not what I had expected 
from Bttonarotti. Perhaps there is no other head 
of Christ so good ; but still it falls so far short of the 
image embodied in onr imnginatiep, Aat we strong^ 
feel the ineffidency of art, when this is all that the 
greatest of modem artists could adiieTe 
. In the personification of our Saviour, sculpture^ 
ki my opinion, has never soared so high as pauit* 
big. 

The Statoe^ Saint Agnes on the great altar, is 
an eke&4Hit ancient ^crso of Oriental ahdiaster; 
but this beauttftd material, fimn its dooded semi, 
transparency, is wholly unfit finr ibe purpoaea oc 
aeol^ture, and was never employed among the an- 
oicBts till Magnificence usurped the place of true 
Taste. 

Behind this diurdi and the Mausoleum of Santa 
Constansa, is an dd buUcBng of an oval, or rather 
an oblong fimn, with the comers rounded off, whidi 
is generally called the Hippodrome of Constantine; 
but it seems to me the work of even later and more 
barbarous ages. Whenever built, it is most probaUe 
ihat it never was a Hippodrome; nor yet a Prseto- 



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riiir'Mitip9-iMir a 8ta^Bi]i]ii9 bollr oftviiicli it has htea 
tjho etlltd ; nor even tm ancient Christian burial- 
plaee. It is generally supposed to hisre been^ a sa- 
cred ffidosure cbnnecting the two churches of 8^. 
Agnetie Md W^. Constant Its area fs now a vine- 
yard, and its hif^ and ^broken walls, hixtoiantly 
wergf&mi iritfi ivy, have 'a 'hi^ly pictiiresqtie *p- 
pearande. 



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JtOME. 



LETTER XLVIL 



ST. SprEFANO KOTONDO. 

The Cbmtth 0f St Stcfittio BoMido : 
tbe most westeni smuodt of tiie deeertod Ccdiin 
HiO, BuiToimded wkh the nugestxe ardwB mt &e 
ndned Claudian Aquedact,* wfaieh it wems lapidfy 
fellowiBg to decay. 

This old drarch is extienely diffienlt of accen ; 
the malaria has dnren away every inhabitant of the 
adjacent boildingS) and as seiYice is nev^er peiftfsi* 
ed here except on festas, and thim but rady, yoa 
may often knock both long and loudly at its gates in 
rain. 

It is a tery singular bdildfaig, of a etrcolar fixnn, 
surrounded in the whole of its interior circumference 
with two ranges of columns, which form its sole 
beauty and attraction. But, notwithstanding these 
—notwithstanding its manifold pretensions to anti« 

* Or rather of its continuation fitnn the Porta Maggiore to 
the brink of this hill by Nero. 



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fl04 SOME. 

quity— -notwitlistaiidiDg that it Usfs claim to the 
title of the Temple of ClaudiuB, of Faunus, of Bac- 
chiia, of Jupiter PeUegrinuSj and of every other 
temple wlucji ever stood upon this mount,— and 
fiuling theae* to the lower dignities of a poblic bath, 
or a butcher market,*— 4t must be content to be 
ranked among the erections of the low ages. It was 
built — there is no denying it— by Simplidos, Pope 
and Saint, in the year of our Lord 467. It has, in- 
deed, been c<mjectured, and, I think, with much pro- 
bability, that this church has been raised upon the 
snbftmctions of some ancient edifice of the same 
plad, and <^ the same beaotif 111 s^erical form, which 
it is not likdy that either the aforesaid Pope, or any 
of the Poland Ardhateets of thoae days, would hare 
bad taate enough' to have devised of^ themselves. 
But how this building, with all its meanness and in- 
oaiigniit)r, could ever harve beeb mistaken for a work 
of Roman times — ^how any one could ever look at 
tis 8tnictiire*--at its eomgregation of columns of all 
sorts, siaes, ofders, and styles, and not at once re- 



• Amaedlem for the sale of meat, &c. of wbich there were 
two in Rome. The Macellum Magnum, which stood on this 
mount, was built by Augustus. There seems to have been 
another in the Velabrum, from a passage in Horace, lib. ii. sat. 
3.1.226. 

'^ Edicit, piscator uti, pomarius, auceps, 
Unguentarius, ac Tusci Turba impia viei. 
Cum scorris fartor^ cum velabro omne macelluro, 
Mane domum veniant" 
6 



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SOME* 9V9 

oi^lEike it for a ir0rkpo0Uriortotlieageof Conttan- 
tine,*— I am at a losa to ooneeiye ! Yet, in spite of 
the intiiiMic evidenee of the bnildiDg itadf, mi Ae 
recorded date of its etectioii, there ate still to be 
found those who adhere to the halisf that it is the 
Temple ai Claadiils eoOTerted iiite a Christiaa 
Chosdi. Such persms I weidd eovasel to look well 
at it, and then at the Colosseum ; because, if dietr 
suppoflitioa be true, they must be works ef the same 
age^— for the Temple cf Clandhm was rebuilt by 
Vespasian,* and if, «qpon comparison, the sisularttj 
of style should not seem to be Tcry striking^ dMj will, 
perhaps, be disposed to leaTO St. Simpfaius all the 
mccit of its ereetioii, whidi is so justly his due. 

But we by no means see it in ihe state in whidi he 
left it, fi« all tl^ alterations and beautificatiana of 
this bniUii^ (and they have been many) by subse- 
quent Saints, Bishqis, and Popes, are d«dy reoosded 
in Pi^al history. 

Nicholas V«, I bdwve, ccmfined his emendations 
to waUing up the outer dbccle of ccdunms,««-a tasteM 
improTemrat certainly !— -but cme said to hare been 
necessary to insure its stability. Luckily, no other 
Pope thought of doing the same by the inner dzde, 
which still ranains. 

The columns are evidently the spoils of many an 

ancient edifice, but the capitals of many of them are 

in the same villainous style, and doubtless of the same 

, age, as the rest of the building. Upon two of them 

the cross is sculptured. 

* Suetonius^ Vespas. ix. 

VOL. II. u 



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906 ^ ROME. 

The whole circle of walled-up columiis, as well as 
the two that stand by themselves in the centre, are 
made to support arches,— a barbarism in architecture 
wbidi was unheard of till the age of Constantine. 
Certainly Christianity and bad taste were established 
together,-^if I may be forgiyen so profiine a remark. 
San Stefiino, on die outride, is undeniably hideous, 
being nothing but a round brick building, with a roof 
of indesciibable ugliness. The inside, however, it 
has been justly observed, has an air of deganoe and 
even of grandeur, which it owes entirely to the un- 
effik;eable<beauty of a simple circular colonnade, that 
all the intrii»ic meanness and deformity of the rest 
of ihe edifice, and indeed of its own details of &aoos^ 
tion, are insufficient to destroy. 

Nothing can be conceived more damp, dreary, and 
desolate, than this deserted church. It is surrounded 
with horrible fircsoos oi horrible martyrdoms, which 
it is almost martyrdom to look at. Yet, firom the 
estreme dampness and chjllness of this dismal old 
cfaurdb, the red*-hot fires that aboimd m them have 
fdmost lost their power of appalling rinners ; and I 
caught myself involuntarily looking at the flames, 
and thinking how very comfortable they would be,— 
nay, even St. John, who was boiling in a pot of oil 
over a large fire, did not excite nearly so much pity 
as his situation would otherwise have done. 



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ROME. 807 



LETTER XLVIII. 



THE HOUSE OF PILATE. 



Among the remaining monuments of the middle 
ages of Borne we must include one which desen^es to 
be classed with them in style, if not in date; a cu- 
rious old brick dwelling, near the Ponte Rbtto, bedi- 
zened with incongruous ornaments of all kinda and 
ages, and known by the appellation of ^' The House 
of Pilate.'' 

You may perhaps conceiTe, that, as the house of 
the Virgin Mary travelled from Jerusalem to Loretto, 
the House of Pilate has arrived by the same route at 
Rome. But you are mistaken. The Santa Casa is, 
as far as I know, the only mansion endowed with this 
faculty of locomotion, and '« The House of Pilate"" 
stands where it did. 

No one, I believe, ever really imagined it to be the 
House of Pilate* who, if he ever had a house in Rome 
at all, had probably a much better one. 

On the contrary, it- is known to be the house of 
Cola, or Nicola Riena^ the patriot, deliverer, tribune, 
and tyrant of Rome, in the 14th century; and by 



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SOS ROME. 

what inezplieaUe abBuidity it has obtamed the name 
of the House of Pikte, it is imposable to concdve, 
unless, from the eniel and iriiqnitons judgmaits that 
disgraced the condosion of Rienzi's reign, he may 
himself have acquired that nick-name among the 
people of Rome, who delight in these characteristic 
appdlations, and very seldom call a man by any name 
of his own choosing. But this idea is only the birth 
OT the moment, and I do not insist upon your adopt- 
ing it. 

The inscription upon the house is pretty much in 
the same style as the building. 

L.C.L.T.N.B.S.O.CN.S.T. N.T.S.C.L.P.T.F.G.R.& 

T.R.S.H. 

P.N.T.T.tNonfuit ignarus cuju8domushecNic(dauBN.I.C.D. 

II.S.H.P. Qnod oil moment! sibi mundi gloria sentit D.T. 

R.T.6. Vemm quod fecit banc non tam yana coegit. D.D. 

V.B. Gloria quam Romereterem renoyare decorem. F.S. 

f In domibus pulcris memor estote sepulcria. 

CoHfisque tiv non ibi stue div. 

Mors yehitab pemiis. Nulli sua vita perennis. 

Mansio nostra breyis cuisos et ipse leyis. 

Si fugias yentum si Claudas Ostia centum. 

Lisgor mille lubes non sine morte cubes. 

Si maneas castris ferme yicinys et astris. 

Odos inde aolet tollere quoaque yolet. 

t Suigit in astra domua syUimis. calmina eujos.^ 

Primus de primia magnus Nicholaus ab imis. 

Erexit patrum decus ob renovare suorum. 

Stat Patris crescens matrisque Theodora nomen. 

t Hoc culmen darum caro de pignere gessit. 

Bayidi Tribuit qui Pater exbibyit. 
On the aichitraye of one of the windows is inseribed, ^ 
AD&V. ROMANIS. GRANDIS. HONOR. POPULIS. 



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ROME. 9%8 

Tbe initM letters at the top loe now become i 
kind of conundrum. They are supposed to haye de* 
signated bis multifioious titles, or rather epithets, 
then well known because they pr^aced all his act«^ 
bat of which a few only have floated, down, disjoint- 
ed, to posterity. ^< Nicholas, severe and mercifiil. 
Deliverer of Bome, Defimder of Italy, Friend of Li- 
berty and Mankind^*-of Peace and Justice, Tx^Muie 
August"' Tl^se sc^m to us ahnost sufficient, but 
they were not nearly the whole. Qne row of iim 
above letters has been thus expounded : 

N. T. S. C- ^ P- 

Nicholas. Tribunus. Severus. Clemens. liberator. Patriie. 

T. F. G. R. S. 

TeathoBid. Filius. Gabrinius. Roms. Serratsr. 

The rest have not even been guessed at. How 
little did the imperious Tribune think how soon these 
self-bestowed titles of his fame and power would be- 
come unknown hieroglyphics ! Gabrini (mentioned 
in the inscjription) was his pr<^r name. But sir- 
names to this day are little in use at Rome. Fami« 
liar abbreviations of Christian names are alone cur^ 
rent among the people, and the Tribune. was known 
only by his patronymic of Cola di Riensd ; Ccia for 
Nicola, his own name, and Sienzi^ for Lorenzo or 
Crescenzo, that of his father. It is not very certain 
vhidh of the latter belonged to the honest publican, 
who gave ^^ the patriot"" birth. He is called by the 
one in the inscription,— by the other in the life of 
Bienzi. But as the same abbreviation (Cola) answers 
to both, the mistake is nptr very wonderfoU-rrHpr is 



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810 BOMA. 

it to be mipposed thaftmudi pains would betaken to 
awsertsm its. conect lOOt, by the biogn^er of bis 
aon, who did not write till even Ai^name bad almost 
aiaik into obKvion.* 

Ftom Ada triffing diactepaney, bowever, it has 
been doubted and denied, that this is die houae of 
the fiunoua--or infiunoos Tribune. But it is fofly 
to bnagine Uiere ever oould have been two of the 
iame name, to whom sudi aninseription could ap^y; 
and if tho Nicholas, proprietor of this houae, was 
one unknown to fiune— vhy aiay inscription at all P 

There never was anything more disfigured with 
decoration than this house. It is exactly such, as 
would please the known taste of the R^oman Tribune. 
It is conpesed of heterogeneous scraps of ancient 
marble sculpture, patched up with barbarous brick 
pilasters o^ his own age ; liffording an apt exempli- 
fication of his own duuracter, in which piecemeal frag- 
Hients of Roman vbrtue, and attachment to feudal 
fettate*«**8bstract love of Mberty, and practiceof tyran- 
ny— ^formed as incongruous a compound. 

The brightness of the eariy dawn of <^ the good 
esiatey"^ established by the talents of Rienzi, and 
hailed with enthusiasm by the genius of his fiiend 
Petrardi, presented a striking contrast to its dark 
and premature close, hurried on by his own corrup- 
tions. One cannot estimate very highly that virtue 
whidi was not proof against an administration of 
seven months, for within that period his wondrous 



* Vit. di Col. Riehzi> ap. il Muratori, torn. iii. Art. Ital. 



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ROME. IMI 

course was ran. I^lie mAor of a bloodtess Ve volu-; 
tion, he subyerted by his aiergy and eloquence th^ 
tyiaanj of ages, in a single day. On the SOth of 
•May, 1347, he was hailed Tribune of the Roman 
people by the enthusiastic citizens; expelled at a 
word the haughty Feudal Barons ; reduced them to 
obedience^ and even humility ; estaWshed ^^ the good 
estate,^ and restored to the Mistress of the World 
her anci^it freedom and jusitice — equal rights aind 
equal laws. 

On the itd of August in the same year, having 
lain on a bed of state during^ the preceding n%h^ 
within the Baptistery of St John, and bathed in its 
hallowed font, he appeared in the morning inTested 
with the sword an^ gilt spurs of knighthood, and 
dUid' in robes of imperial pto'ple-'-Hi sceptre in his 
hand. If hen, in the face of the assembled multitude; 
he imperiously summoned to ihe throne on which 
he was seated. Pope Clement XII., from his palace 
at Avignon, and die r<^al i^ndidates for the empire 
o# Germany, from their kingdoms ; and waving his 
sword to all the three quarters of the then known 
world, proclaimed them to be his own. 

A few days afterwards, his solemn coronation took 
place in the Church of St. John Lateran's ;— aitd 
before the altar of God, and by the hands <^ His 
holy servant, Rienzi was invested with the seven 
crowns of the Holy Ghost, emblematic of the seten 
gifts of the Spirit, which he pretended to have re- 
ceived from Heaven. 

On the 15th of December, in the same year, de- 



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312 ROME. 

poted,dkgi«ced,pK08cnbed~ii«itfaerliura 
ed with Boble blood-*nor his self-confened lunMNirs 
of kii]ghtliood-*-nor his sevenfold crowns — nor yet 
his miraculoiis mission of the Hdy Ghost — saved 
him firom wandering in disguise, in poTer^« and in 
exile, through the world he had so lately claimed as 
hifi own^ or protected him from the mercy of that 
Emperor* whom he had so insolently summoned to 
his own tribunal, by whom he was now consigned to 
imprisonment and chains. 

After seven years of confinement, which (as if his 
&ted number) form a curious coincidence with the 
seven months of his reign, and the seven crowns of 
the Holy Ghost, to which he made pretence— he was 
once more restored to liberty and to power, and sent 
by the same papal authori^, which had before ex- 
communicated him, as senator to Rome— *the sup- 
porter of that tyranny which he had before subvert- 
ed. 

But even his second inglorious gleam of greatness 
was soon closed. The barons and the citicens — ^the 
dergy and the laity— united against the plebeian ty- 
rant, — the upstart noble,— -the blasphemous prophet 
<< The doors of the Capitol were destroyed with axes 
and with fire, and while the senator attempted to es- 
cape in a plebeian garb, he was dragged to the plat- 
fiirm of his palace— the fatal scene of his judgments 
and executions T f and after enduring the protinct- 

* Charles the Fourth. 

^ Decline and Fall> voL xii. p. 322. 



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ROME. SIS 

ed tOTtuies of suspense and insult, he was pierced 
with a thousand daggers, amidst the execrations of 
the people. 

Rienzi was one of those, as Madame de Stael hap- 
pily observed, ^< Qui ont pris les souvenir^ pour les 
esp6rances.^ 



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814 ttOM£^ 



LETTER XLIX. 

TOB* BI CONTI, TOBRS DELLE MILEZIE ; OB THE 
TOWEB OF NEBO AND OF TRAJAN. 

THEBEare two old towers, not worth wasting many 
words upon, — ^works of the low ages, and built by 
some of the Conti family, whose name indeed they 
bear.* They are said to have been erected by Pope 
Innocent III. in the ISth, though, according to some 
accounts, one of them was built by one Pandolfo di 
Saburra in the 11th, century. They are supposed 
to haye been intended for soldiery, and the com- 
mon name of one of them is, to this day, Torre delle 
Milezie ; but, if meant as fortresses, it seems strange 
that they should have been placed at the base, in- 
stead of the summit, of the loftiest of the Seven Hills, 
and 'they have still less appearance of having been 
intended for military quarters. 

The Tor' di Conti, being considered in danger 
of falling, was partially pulled down by Urban VIII. 
In the rage for antiquities, it has been imputed to 
Trajan, whose memory has been loaded with the op- 
probrium of having built this hideous old brick tower 

* Vide Nardini, Roma Antica, lib. iii. cap. 15. lib. iv. cap. (». 



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UOME. 815 

as a 'station lor a isilkary guard orer tfak Foniin. 
The other is generally called the T<Mver of Nevo^ 
and poiiited out to stxsngers, on their first snival, 
as the post ftom whidi Nero beheU Bome in flames ; 
aldiough Tadtus says that Emperor was stationed 
in his own theatre on the EsqniMne, and this tower 
is at the £oot of the Quirinal HilL 

Peo]de pass through two regular coarses of study 
at Rome,-^the first in learning, and the second in 
unlearning, 

«« This is the Tower of Neio, flom which he saw 
the city in flames, — and this is the Ttmqie of Coi^ 
cord,-*a&d this is the Temple of Peace,-^and this 
is the Temple of Castor and PolInx,-*-«nd this is 
the Temple of Vesta,— and these are the Baths of 
Paulus iBmilius,^ and so on, says your lacquey. 

^ This is not the Tower of NerOj-^-^noir that the 
Temple of Conooid,«— nor the other the Temple of 
Peace,~nor are any of these things what they aire 
callec^^ says your antiquary. 

Vo^'lffe then led an igmsjiiiuus ehase dirouj^ 
quartbs of uncertainty and folios of despond, and 
yaitiljr deem you shdl reach the light of truth, 
which 

" Allures from far, but, as you follow, flies ;" 

till at last, fatigued and bewildered, you desist from 
the ineffectual support, and find yourself, after all 
your toU, exactly where you first set out. 

We have now contemplated, not only the ruins 
of Andent Rome, which will be viewed with vene- 
ration while one stone stands upon another, and 



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^16 ROME. 

mbidkf iridi erery ««eceediiig yttati aaniBie a deeper 
jntcrest; ho* we have also hastily exanuned those 
woriuy-^which are ndther ancicBl; nor modenn,. not 
beautifol mar lespectaUe,— the works of the low, the 
dark, the middle ages, which comprehend all that 
long« and baibaniiis period firom the days <^ Con- 
stantine* to those of the Medici'— from the Sth to 
-the IStfa century. 
. Ituhnost seema as if Italy, ind^naat of any other 
monuments than those of her days of greatness, had 
thrown fimn her bosom eTery yestige of the batba- 
xians by whom she was enalaTed. 

It is very surprising, but not irery martifying, to 
see so few of these -works remaining; though up- 
held by the arm of power, and consecrated by the 
spells of supeistition) they fast crumble into dust ; 
and, though enriched with the splendid .trophies of 
andfint taste and magnificence, theii^ remains. are 
yiemd, with, impatience, or. passed over with Gonr 
tempt : while the proud ruins of Roman times, de- 
&ced, destroyed, mid trampled upon as they have 
been, still stand like the giants of a former world, 
}ooking.down with.contempt on these diaproportioned 
and deformed structures of degenerate times. 

While you behold the perfection of beauty in 
the ruins of ancient Rome, you see the extreme of 
deformity in the buildings of the modem c>^.— 



, * AfWr the time of Constantine^ there is not a single menu- 
ment extant that is not diaracterized by decided bad taster 



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ROMEl 817 

That audi iMge and costly piles slMniU hiiwe been 
erected anjrwhere in sueli complete confiraletiiity of 
ugliness, is marreUous ; but thiit, in a countiy where 
the noblest monuments of andent taste leftood befine 
iikkit eyes, people should have continued, during 
eleren long centuries^ to ereet sutfh monsters of de« 
fonnity, is Inere matyellous stilL In our own, though 
without any ancient models, the buildings of parallel 
times are characterized by a grandeur of design, a 
sublimity of effect, a richness aifd delicacy of execu-^ 
tion, a perfection of parts, a harmony of whole, that, 
in these improved times, we vainly and servilely la- 
bour to equal. Our own barbarous ancestors are our 
unequdUaMe masters. 

Those theorists who maintain that our Gothic 
architecture sprung from Italy, will look here in vain 
for the root. There is nothing worthy of that name 
throughout the whole country, excepting Milan Ca* 
thedral, a work of more modem ages, and even in 
that, the doors and windows, the most beautiful parts 
of Gothic architecture, are anything but Gothic, and 
are totally discordant with the rest of the building. 

Indeed, excepting in a few cities of Germany and 
the north of France, (where, by the way, the finest 
churches were built by the English,) we look in vain 
out of Great Britain for every description of the true 
Gothic. 

Not only has Rome no Gothic buildings, but it 
possesses, in my humble opinion, no building of the 
middle ages, nor even of modern times, the architec- 
ture of which merits pnuse. 



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S18 ROME. 

I speak not of St. Peter^s, on whose merits and de- 
feets I have already given you my sentiments ; bat, 
setting that aside, among all the churches and palaces, 
and costly buildings that have been erected, during 
the fifte» hundred years that have elapsed since the 
death of Constantine to the present time, I do not 
know one that we can admire or imitate, in the city 
which profited by the genius of Michael Angdo in 
its meridian splendour, and which still boasts the best 
of masters, in the ruins of ancient Bome. 



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ROME. 819 



LETTER L- 

STREETS AND CHURCHES— ABC HITKCTURE—SCULP. 
TUBE— THE CHRIST AND MOSES OF KICHAEL AN- 
GELO— -BERNINfs SANTA THERESA AND SANTA 
BI9IANA SANTA CECILIA. 

The streets of Rome are narrow, gloomy, and in- 
describably dirty. Indeed, of all its antiquities, I 
imagine the dirt to be the most indisputable, for I am 
inclined to think that it never was cleaned since it 
was a city. There are no trottoirs for foot-passen- 
gers; so that they have the pleasure of walking 
through the- mire, as at Paris, with the agreeable 
anticipation of being run over every minute. But at 
Rome, no peoplcof condition walk ; a noble Italian 
would not be seen upon his or her legs for the world ; 
and as for the CanaHle, " gii PopoU^ it idgnifies not 
what becomes of them anywhere except in England. 
I i^member a Neapolitan Marchese ^suring me, that 
if you drove over a child at Na^s, you would have 
to pay a small sum of money,*— 4f a man, a larger 
one,— but if an old woman, nothing at all. 



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8S0 ROME. 

In ibat land, where old women aie held so cheap, 
the carriages drive so fast, that the accident may 
often happen; but in Rome, so great is the deliberar 
tion with which they move, that it is next to impos- 
sible that even an old woman should not have time 
enough to get out of the way. 

The best street of modem Rome is the Corso, so 
named, from being used as the race-course. Part of 
it is the ancient Via Lata ; the rest, which is beyond 
the site of the Flaminian gate of ancient Rome, fol- 
lows the Ime of the Via Triumphalis. It now ex- 
tends a mile in length, in a direct line from the Pi- 
asso del Popolo to the base of the Capitoline Hill ; 
bat, though Imed widi churches, and palaces, and 
handsome houses, its general effect is far from ^en- 
did ; the reason of which may probably be its nar- 
rowness. You can scarcely raise your eyes to the 
lofty elevation of die buildings on either side ; and, 
though you certainly do not thereby lose much aicfai- 
tectural beauty, yet it gives it an air of confinement, 
of meanness, and of gloomin^^ss, that nothing can get 
over. 

The system of narrow streets, which is defended 
on the ground pf being adapted to the climate, tends, 
on the contrary, in my opinion, to increase its evils. 
They are cold in winter, and hot in summer ; for 
when the sun is low in the sky, the height of the 
houses is an effectual screen from his beams, but when 
he mounts into the xenith, his meridian blase pours 
down into the streets, and the heated walls on either 
side ^ve out di^r alternate calorie, even through the 
night, so that the close confined air has the feeing of 



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, HOME. 821 

an oven ; and the gasping urhafaitants are half suffix 
catod,-"-at least, I know I was. 

The laige open piaasosas, wUdi had the free sun and 
air, I foond far less oppressive in summer, and far 
warmer in winter, than those stiffing lanes, into whose 
tortuous windings no cooling bveeEe can penetsate at 
the one seascm, and into whose depth no sun-»beam 
can descend at the other. 

I have often wcmdered that the inhabitants of hot 
climates do not adopt the Dutch custom, of plant- 
ing rows of trees in their streets, which, in summor, 
would really afford both shade and coolness without 
excluding the air, and in winter, when leafless, could 
proYe a very slight obstruction to the beams of the 
sun. This plan would surely seem to be peculiarly 
adapted to a town where- shade is of so much import- 
ance, that a map has been recently published to illus- 
trate the 49hady parts of the Campagna, at different 
hours idi the day. And how beautiful, beneath the 
splendour of an Italian sky, would look wide hand- 
some streets, planted with double rows of noble 
trees ! 

•But the stseets of Rome could never look hand- 
some, dis^aced (is <they are by erections in the vilest 
taste. NoAing oertabdy disappointed me so much 
as .the bad style of die modern architecture, more 
espeeially of die churches, which I haye heard so 
highly ^tolled. 

On the whole, I really thii^ the outside of the 
chuiches in London are quite as good. Putting St 
Peter^s and St. Paul's equally out of the question, I 
know no church at Rome, whose exterior elevation is 

VOL. II. X 



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882 HOME. 

80 noble as St MartinVin-the-Fields. There we see 
an approach to the simple majesty of the portico of 
the Pantheon, of which there is nothing to remind us 
in the city where it stands. St Paul's, Covent Gar- 
den, St Mary-le-bone, and several others, are in bet- 
ter taste than anything here ; and I need not men- 
tion the admitted superiority of the interior of St 
Stephen^s, Walbrook. 

There is, even in the most crowded Protestant 
cities, an isolation given to the churches by the bu- 
rial-places around them, that is highly advantageous 
to their effect. But here, with the exception of the 
great Basilicae, the common crowd of churches stand 
in the street without any open space allowed them, 
jostled and pressed upon by houses and buildings of 
all sorts. 

Perhaps no city in the world abounds with such 
numbers of diurches as Rome, or with fewer hand- 
somer ones ; I mean with respect to their architec- 
ture, not their decoration, — ^for in that no cost is 
q>ared. 

Their exterior may be involved in one common 
censure, that of being hideous, — and their interior in 
one common praise, that of being splendid. The eye 
rests with delight on the pomp of coloured marbles 
that line the walls, the superb columns that support 
the naves, — the beauty of the paintings that adorn 
the altars, — the profusion of precious stones that in- 
lay the shrines,— the accumulated magnificence that 
embellishes the chapels,— and the rich mosaic pave- 
ments that cover the floors. 

These remarks apply to almost all the churches of 



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ROME. 323 

Rome; for there are few that are not decorated with 
splendour, tnit perhaps fewer still that are decorated 
with taste. 

The Church of the Jesuits, which, like eveiy other 
I hare seen belonging to that brotherhood, is distin- 
guished above the rest in its overload of ornament 
and deficiency of taste, boasts a chapel, where the 
columns are entirely composed of lapis lazuli, and the 
eapitals, sculpture, shrine, and altar, of Oriental jaa- 
pers, transparent alabaster, gold, silver, bronze, and 
crystal. Princely wealth has been heaped upon it,— 
and Parian marble has been cut into ugly groups of 
statuary to adorn it 

There is, however, a pretty little church belong^g 
to the Jesuits at Rome, called S. Andrea al Novizi- 
ato de' P. F. Gesuiti, on the Quirmal Hill. It is 
built by Bernini ; and it is worth a visit, from the 
beauty of its form, and of the marbles that line its oval 
•interior. So also is S. Antonio de^ Portoghesi, and 
La Maddalena, where there is the finest organ I 
have heard in Rome. On Sunday, or any other festa, 
about half past ten, or eleven o'^clock, it plays beauti- 
fully. 

Nothing can be more tiresome than visiting a vast 
many fine churches, except, it may be, describing 
them ; or, what is worse still, hearing them descri. 
bed ; therefore, I shall only mention to you those 
which contain something in sculpture, painting, or 
antiquity, worthy of notice. 

The Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, built 
on the site of Pompey's great Temple to Minerv 



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S24 HOME. 

now liekiiigB to d&c DomiiiicaAs, mstead of the God- 
dess ofWifldiMB ; and tlie Sttperior of liie<eoi»re&tis 
the Grand Inquisitor. For, thanks to tbe ^iligiit- 
ened policy <i£ Fins VIL and his mittister, *tiie Car- 
dinal Gonsalro^ i^e hare lived in the 19th oentory, 
to see that upright fraternity, the Jesuits, restov^, 
<^and that righteous Court, the fnquisitioii, le-esta- 
hlished. 

The Fope I lespect as a irarthy and « vmenJUe 
old man, a sealeus, deirout, and sinoere, but bigotted 
-'€atholicv->-«.good priest, but a bad prince. 

The talents of Cocdinal Gonsslro I have Inofwn 
and admired ; but, as a tree must be judged hgr its 
friuit, and aprime minister by his actions, there is no- 
thing in 'these to ckll forth our admiration. 

That ^the Inquisition is established, not <mly at 
Romeand'Madrid, but at Naples and Turin, is, how- 
■ever, a lamentable facL The Soman Inqoiskors 
hold ctheir dittings every Wednesdi^ in lEhe sfoxesiiid 
Dominican convent of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. 
They have also d» pahce and the priscns of the 
Holy Office beside the Vatican, in irhich srejcham- 
bers fiill of its black records, and still there are 

" Ample space and room enough. 
The characters of Hell to trace." 

The times are indeed aver., in (which hundreds of 
poor capuchins were bumt.for wearing a litde coat,* 

^< Great were the disputes that were waged in the beginning 
of the 14th century, in the Romish Church, about the superior 
orthodoxy of great or litUe coats, or frocks, for the capuchins. 



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aad tiioiusan49 o( unfertuiiate teymen finr doing no- 
thiag at all. But vUl it be bdiered, that, m the 
nineteenth century, nay, even now, a grave solemn 
trial, fiir the ainie ^ witchcraft, is aetuatly pend- 
ing !^--Yet it is even so. 

But to h»ve done with the Incpiisition', and return 
to die Fine Axt&. In the Church of the Minerva, 
is the celebrated Christ of Michael Angslo. It is a 
very fine statue certainly ; but even while I said so, 
and thought so^ I caught myself inwardly addng, 
'^ And is this all that sculpture can do towaards re- 
pissentiiig the Savirar of the world P^' Disappcnnt. 
ment was, perhaps, a stvcmger feelisg than admira- 
tionr-^for my expectations had been highly raised. 
But though it did not come up to what I had es- 
peeted firom the Junius of the great sculptor, it sur- 
passed any of his works I bid hidierto seen ; and 
though it may not express all thab the. soul can con- 
ceive of the devoted hoHness of the suffering Re* 
deemerj it more neiurly approaches to the image of 
divinity in a mortol form^ anit bending under more 
thaa mortal sorrows, than a^y other attempt of man. 
The foot would long since have been kissed away by 
the fervent salutations (^ the pious, had it not bee^- 
cased in brass. 



wbich ended in all those who pereifited in weanog tbe little 
one, being denounced as heretics, and burnt accordingly. We 
have the names of upwards of a hundred who were burnt by 
the Inquisition for this cause, and are told by a grave histo* 
rian, that the Kst might, be increased to thousands ! Allowing 
for exaggeration, what a tale is this !— Vide Mosheim's ^e* 
cleHastkai HUtory, Part IL Chap, 2. 



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326 HOME. 

The conTCDi oontaiiis a library, said to be laige 
and valuable, wUdi is epen to all men at stated 
hoiin* 

The Church of St Pietro m Fimofi, upon the 
Esquiline Hill, is built upon the ruins of ihe Baths 
of Titus. Orthodox people used to pretend that St. 
Peter himself built a Christian church here in his 
life-time; but this is not insisted upon at present It 
is only affirmed, that the present church contains the 
diains that Herod caused St. Peter to be loaded with 
at Jerusalem, and that when these chuns came to 
Rome, and were presented to the other chains with 
which the aposde had been manacled in the Mamer- 
tine prisons, both chains leaped together in an sffec- 
tionate embrace, and have ever mnce been insepara- 
bly united. We visited this church to see the fa- 
mous Moses of Michael Angelo. 

This smgular statue, which is unlike anything 
that die imagmation of man has formed before or 
since, cannot be beheld with unmixed admiration. It 
is impressed with all the daring conception, the force 
and the grandeur of defflgn-*with all the excellence 
and all the faults of that bold and ori^nal genius. 
The terrific Prophet is frowning in wrath on his 
backsliding people. He threatens them with the ter- 
rors of the law — and before him they must tremble. 
But is it the sacred fire of a prophet, or the colossal 
strength of a giant, that they fear ? Is it physical 
force, or divine inspiration ? If he were to rise, the 
earth must quake beneath his tread. He is a being 
possessed ctf more than human strength, and seem- 



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BOME. 3S7 

ingly endowed with more than^huiiuui powers. But 
are they of good or evil ? 

*^ And briDgs he airs from heaven^ or blasts from hell ?" 

Should we not fly from him, lest he dmald injare^ 
rather than draw near, that he might protect us ? 

In a word, the brawny strength of the limbs, the 
force and tension of the muscles, the unwieldy bulk 
of the person, the enormous length and ropy thick- 
ness of the beard, the horns, instead of rays, that 
spring from the head, and the menacing aspect of the 
countenance, give him the air of an incensed giant, 
rather than a divine lawgiver and prophet Poly« 
phemus on the rock, it would more properly person- 
ify, than Moses in the wilderness. 

Yet it is sublime — ^it is wonderful The astonish- 
ment you first feel, soon yields to admiration. It is 
a statue you can never forget ; it impresses itself on 
your imagination ; it comes before you in your mind^s 
eye ; and it is unquestionably the finest of the worics 
of Michael Angelo. 

In judging of it, too, we ought to remember that 
it is a cobssal statue, intended fi^r a colossal monu- 
ment to Julius II., and the only one of forty which 
were to have adorned it, thftt was ever finished; and 
that, viewed in the situation, and at the elevati<m 
which it was originally intended to have occupied, its 
efiect would have been quite different. 

The project of this mighty tomb was unhappily 
abandoned — (unhappily — for the loss of forty statues, 
by Michael Angelo, must ever be regretted,) the co- 
lossal faronae Statue of Julius II., which he cast at 



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3f8 ROME. 

Bilqpia, was demolished by ^he fiiry dP tte pofju- 
laoe almost as socm as made ; and Us gcand esxtom 
of the Battle of Pisa, that greatest masterpiece of 
painting, and school of painters, unhappily perished, 
or, if report say triie, iras wantonly destroyed by the 
envy and malignity of Baceio Bandiaelli.* 

Thus the works of Michael Angelo, both m pauit- 
ing and seulpture, hare been particularly unfortu- 
nate. Stall we hare reason to wonder that we see so 
few of them. After yiatbg every town and village 
in Italy, I have only seen several unfinished tfid 
two or three finished statues of his at Florence; a 
small alto rilievo at Genoa ; a little angel at Bolog- 
na; and two statues, a bust, and a litde basso riliefV) 
at Rome ! 

This is, I think, all of his sculpture thift Italy 
contains ; and out of Italy there is nothing. 

His authentic paintings, except the frescos af tbe 
Sistine Chapel, are excessivdiy rare. Yet he liv^ to 
extreme old age ; his active and vigorous mind was 
quick to conceive and bold to execute ; and where 
th^ are the fruits of eighty years of labour ? 

T» years of his life, indeed, were devoted by tbe 
command, and to the eternal reproach, of Leo %»i 
to the drudgery of cutting bad marble oat o£ the 
quarries of Pietra Santa, and making a road for its 



* Vide Lanzi— Storia Pittorica. The rival cartoon of the 
Betile of Pisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, was destroyed at the 
same time ; a work comparativdy extremely inferior, though 
of great exoellence. These cartoons formed the gmnd epoch 
of painting,— -the transition from the Gothic 



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HOME. 

conveyance to the sea^eoftst lo be sli»i*P^i^^ ^^ 
—in osder to eave t^ wtpenee of h^jn^ k|^^ ^^m^ 

la this chnreh there iB a iMUiitt»« ^ ^t- 5|^ 
and the Monster, by GuBiciBO. I>a««U^|^/«^^ 
tore of the Angel libewdng Sfc* V^y ^^J^^ 
monks told us, is a copy from t**^ ^"^111111 whsu 
hangs in the Sacristy ; but the ^'^gf^iOiiy ]J^ 
seems sraaethiag duUous, wc r»tbcr, U j^ sufe^ 
much; finr whosoever painted, I*^™^°*^inacertainJ 
designed it. None but he could ha^« ^^oiiceiVed Hm 
angel. 

The mly speeifisens m the world of liaphad^s akiU 
in sitttuavy, are to be seen in the C^p^eUn Clhigi, in 
the Church of Santa Maria del Po|>ol<h The fi. 
gures of Elias, andef Joni^ with Ae whale, are exe« 
cuted from Ra{^aers models^ prindpoUy by another 
artist 

It is interesUng to see the soUtary attempt of ge^ 
niiiB^ 'm an unttfi^, but a kindred puraiit. These 
statues are certainly well designed, and their merits ' 
are suiSdent to show that Raphael might have been 
a good sculptor, if he had not chosen to be the first 
of pakters. The chapel is his arehitecture, and the 
altar-]^ece was painted from his design, but it is 
utterly destroyed The other two statues in the 
ehapel are by Bernini. 

But in the superb Church of Santa Maria della 
Vittoria, upon the Quirinsd HiU, is the groi]|» upon 
whidi Bemim was content to stake his fame. It re- 
presente Santa Theresa in pi ecstasy dP divine love, 
while the descending Angel of Death is about to 



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SSO BOME. 

pieree faer bosom with its dart. Now^ as Bemini^s 
stitiies are almost always in an ecstasy, whether thare 
is any occasion for it or not, this suited him exactly ; 
and his aberrations ftom Nature are less striking 
where the subject is out of Nature. But everything 
he did is marked, in some degree, by his extravagant 
mannerism and affectation. His talents were of no 
common cast, but their power was destroyed by his 
perverted taste. O for a Shakespeare, to warn him 
and his crowd of imitators, ^' not to overstep the mo- 
desty of Nature T 

His statue of Santa Bibiana, in the church of that 
saint, is far more free from these fiiults than any other 
of his works ; and^ in my opinion, so superior to them 
all, that had I seen it only, I should have placed him 
in the first rank of modem sculptors. 

The critics complain that the mantle, or what 
should have been the maHtle, of the saint, is fastai- 
ed above her robe, round her wabt with hier girdle. 
It would have been well if Bernini had been guihy 
only of faults such as these. 

This statue was one of his earliest works ; and it 
is said that when Bernini, in advanced life, returned 
from France, he uttered, on seeing it, an involun- 
tary expression of admiration. " But," added he, 
" had I always worked in this style, I should have 
been a beggar !'' This would lead us to conclude, that 
his own taste led him to prefer simplicity and truth, 
but that he was obliged to conform to the corrupted 
predilection of the age. I cannot, however, conceive, 
that it is possible, in the fine arts, ^^ to see the best, 
and yet the worst pursue." 



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ROME. 351 

The remaiiis of Snnt Bibiaaa, and of her moAer 
and gistera, who, it seems, w«re all saints, repose be* 
neath the altar of this church, in a beaatifiil ancient 
sarcophagus of Oriental aUibaster. We were assa- 
red that no less than jf£t?^ ^iousandjive hundred and 
Jiftyifvoe male martyrs were buried here— not to men- 
tion their wives, who, it seems, go for nothing. 

In the Church of the Santissimi Apostoli, there 
is a monument to Pope (Ganganelli) Clement XIV., 
sculptured in has reUef by CanoTa-— one of the ear- 
liest, but not one of the best of his works. His mo- 
nument, in the same church, of Friendship weeing 
oyer the tomb of a man whom he loyed and protect- 
ed, is honourable to his heart and to his taste. Op- 
posite, there is, on an ancient has relief, a dvic crown 
and a Roman eagle, emblematical of civil and mili- 
tary virtues. 

In Santa Maria di Loretto, the statue of Santa 
Susanna, by du Quesnoy detto il FiammingOj is con- 
ffldered by some connoisseurs the finest piece of mo- 
dem sculpture in Rome. 

In the Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, 
built on the spot of her martyrdom, there is a statue 
representing her lifeless form, shrouded in its grave- 
clothes, exactly in the position in which it is said to 
have been found many ages after her death. It is 
a beautiful and touching image of death ; and the 
whiteness of the marble well represents its cold and 
pallid form. It is the work of Stefigmo Modemo, an 
artist little known to fame. 

But its interest may possibly be derived as much 
from the subject as the execution. St. Cecilia, the 



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S88 EOME. 

dtTikie UMwntor •£ the otgtaif is, perluipB» ihe^only 
uintf wham PraleBtMitt, as well as Catbolks, sre 
Mdy te adere. Her name^ conseeraledl in the di- 
vine stnins of Poeqr, is indissoluMy ooniieeted with 
aU the ftelings ikat wake to the spell ef musiey and 
alnost with our vefy dreams ef heaven. 

The nuns were nngbg the evening service. We 
saw thdr figiufes, Ifte shadows, thzoug^ the gilded 
grate above us, but Aeir vetoes did not seem te be 
attaned by thdr patron: saint 



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ROME. 338 



LETTER LI. 

CHUKCHES— PAINTINGS— FIIESCOS^RAPHAEJL's SI- 
BYLS AND ISAIAH— AUGUSTINES^BENEDICTINES 
— FBESCOS OP DOMENICHINO AND GDIDO-— AN- 
GELAS SUPPEE WITH ST. GB£GORY*<-A MEETING 
WITH THE POPE— GUtDo's ARCHANGEL — ^THE CA- 
PUCHINS TEINITA J)E' MONTI — BUINED FBESCOS 

—TOMB AN3> HABITATION OF CLAUDE LOEBAINE. 

In "fi^ last, I beKefve, I enumerated the few 
cliurdies in Rome that possess any scalfttiiffe worth 
notice. Those that are adorned with 'fine paintings 
*— or paintings that were once fine— ^re far more nu- 
merous ; but these have generally suffered so much 
from time, neglect, dirt, damp, and smoky tapers, 
that their beauties, their cdouring, and even, in mai^ 
instances, their very design, areno longer discernible; 
so that you mwy go far to look at altiir-pieeeiB, iwbidi 
boast the names of the greatest masters, and, after 
aB, see nothing. The obscurity of the lateral chapels 
of thegloomyold churches in which th^ are hidden, 
>no doubt, is one cause of this ; and many of them 
mi^t yet 'be restored, if brought out to light, and 



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S84 ROME. 

properly deaned. If the Pope were to do this, and 
subBtitute copies in their place, I cannot conceive 
that he would be thought to have committed any great 
crime, even by the most orthodox of his subjects. At 
all events, the French, who were restrained by no 
scruples with regard to violating church property, or 
oommittmg sacril^ ; and of whose love for the arts 
~We hear so much, and see so little proof; might sore- 
ly have taken them out of the churches, and arran- 
ged them in a gallery at Rome. 

But, unless it were to adorn ** Parish they took 
no thought for the preservation of the fiagile works 
of genius. They have been the robbers, but I can- 
not discover how they have proved themselves the 
protectors, of the arts. They plundered Italy of its 
most valuable portable paintings, but they left all the 
untransportable ones to perish. I allude more par- 
ticularly to the frescos, which, to the disgrace of the 
past and present government, are mouldering away 
on the mildewed walls of old churches, without a 
single precaution being used to check the rapid pro- 
gress of thdr decay. 

Neglect and ill-usage are fast obliterating the 
touches of departed genius, and those beautiful crea- 
tions will soon pass away, whose perfection can never 
be equalled, and whose loss can never be repaired. 

At the Church of Santa Maria della Pace, above 
the ardies of the nave, are the four Sibyls of Ra- 
phael. They have suffered much from time, and 
more, it is said, from restoration ; yet the forms of 
Raphael, in all their loveliness, all thdr sweetness, 



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are8taibcf0rcii8;tVicybrf^ ^^^J^ty^^ 
timent, the chaste expTesfii<>^ tljf^^i^jJ^ ^ ^^ 
that characteme the ^orkB ^^^ the ^e^^t^^^^^^ 
The dictatmg Angels hover o ^^^ r^^ ^J^^^^ws: ' 



ed Maids, one of whom '^^^f^ ^0(^^ U^^^'''^'^^ 
reversible decrees of Fate. '^ fif hyL ^^^^^^ ^"^^ '^' 
musing attitudes of her «i«^^™ ^Pi-^^v "^^ 
feelm^ of habitual thoughtf^^ffOcJ p^S/^-f- 
ness, natural to those who are corsed ^j^^ ^^^ ^^^vid, 
ledge of futurity, and all its cotamg evife^^^ ^^^"^^ 
which they cannot preyent, and calanutf^g they canl 
not avert. 

In the same Church is the Presentation to the 
Temple, by Balthasar Peruza;^— a fine fresco—but 
it is extremely difficult to turn our eyes from the 
works of Raphael to those of .Peruzzi. 

In the Church of the Augustines, is RaphaePs in- 
imitable fresco of Isaiah — ^a work sufficient of itself 
to have crowned his name with immortality. The 
fire and fervour of the prophet beam from that in- 
spired and holy countenance. Even in force and 
sublimity, it will bear a comparison with the Pro- 
phets and Sibyls which Michael Angelo has left in 
the Sistine Chapel ; and which, in my humble opi- 
nion, are by far the best of his works, — ^at least, of 
the few that now exist. It is in fresco that the chief 
strength and glory of l^th these great masters lie ; 
and those who have only seen RaphaePs oil paint- 
ings, (even the Transfiguration itself,) can form but 
a very inadequate idea of his transcendent powers. 

In the convent adjoining the Church of St. Augus- 



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3S6 ROME. 

tuK^ Aere is tn exo^ent fibiaxy , contaiiUBg upfvaids 
of one hundred thoiuand volumes, open to tiie public ; 
I metn, of ooune, the male part of it. 

This oonvent, like every other, lost its rich pos- 
sessions at die arrival of the French, and will never 
teg^ them. But the Augustine monks, to whom 
it beloogs, stiU possess some little fnroperly. Thqr 
make a great deal more by befj^ng, by saying masses, 
and by the contributions of penitents ; besides which, 
the Pope allows to forty of th^n forty-five paoli a- 
month (about thirteen guineas a-year) each. There 
are above fifty monks in all, and the majority of them 
are young men. Wha£ can be expected fi^m a go- 
vernment that plunders the indusirious to pay a pad 
of idle sturdy beggars 1 I moition those particulan, 
not that there is anything eztrac»din«ry in the Pope's 
penaoning these monks more than others, but be- 
oause I was led to inquire into the affiiirs of these 
Augustines by a circumstance which aocideutally 
came to my knowledge the other day ; which, scan- 
dalous as it is, I shall relate to you, because I think 
'hypocrisy ought to be unmasked. 

There lived, and lives,, in a neighbouring street, 
oalled the Via ddla Scrofii, an honest cobbler, whose 
wife is young, and, as one of these good fathers 
thought, handsome. To warn her against the snares 
and wickedness ^of the world, he took pleasure in 
giving her his ghostly counsel ; and she became, in 
consequence, so sensible of her sins, as to come£e- 
quently to him for confession and absolution. One 
«ioming, last week, the cobbler rose, as usual, at the 

1 



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ROME. 3S7 

peep of day, and went away to his work ; but, in an 
evil hour, he happened to return some time after* 
wards, and found the Augustine in the place he had 
quitted, by the side of his wife. The neighbourhood 
was alarmed with the horrible screams that issued 
from the habitation ; but the cause was made eyident, 
when the holy father appeared, pursued by the cob- 
bler, who cudgelled him all the way to his convent 

A priest told me the friar would be sent to rustic 
caie for a time ; that is, banished into the country ; 
which is the usual punishment in these cases — ^when 
they are discovered. 

In the Church of San Luigi de^ Francesi, there is 
a chapel (the second on the right on entering) adorn- 
ed with admirable paintings in fresco, by Domeni- 
chino, of the holy deeds and sufferings of St. Cecilia. 
The finest of them all is, I think, the Angel present- 
ing crowns to Santa Cecilia and St. Valerian, (her 
husband.) Nothing can surpass the exquisite beauty 
of the kneeling saints. The next in merit is the death 
of Santa Cecilia. Reclining on a couch, in the centre 
of the picture, her hand pressed on her bosom, her 
dying eyes raised to heaven, the saint is breathing^ 
her last^ ; while female forms, of exquisite beauty and 
innocence, are kneeling around, or bending over her. 
The noble figure of an old man,'whose clasped hands 
and bent brow seem to bespeak a father^s affliction, 
appears on one ade ; and lovely children, in all the 
playful graces of unconscious infimcy, as usual in 
Domenidiino^s paintings, by contrast, heighten yet 
relieve the deep pathos of the scene. From above, 

voLt II. y 



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388 • ROME. 

an tfigel-*6adi «ii angel as Domenicliino alone knew 
how to paint, a cherab form of light and loveliness, 
is descending on rapid wing, bearing to the expiriDg 
aaint the crown and palm of glory. 

The other paintings in this chapel are the apotheo- 
sis of Santa Cecilia, extremely fine ; Santa Cecilia 
expressing her cpntetupt of the idols, which is on a 
small scale ; and Santa Cedlia distributing clothes to 
the poor. These frescos are indeed works of first- 
rate excellence, and, fortunately, though injured, are 
still yery yisible ; but, as an old Italian said to me, 
looking ruefully at the most beautiful of them, ^^ Venti 
anniJTdtJu beUa beUa assaif ma udesw si vanisce 
giomalmenteJ^ 

If these are spoiling, the frescos, with which the 
riral pencils of Domenichino and Guide adorned the 
Chapel of St. Andrew, are spoiled. They are at the 
Convent of St. Gregory, on the Ccelian Hill, which 
we visited the other day. 

We stopped upon the steps of the entrance, to con- 
template the dark masses of ruin heaped on the Pa- 
latine ; the melancholy beauty of the cypress, with 
which they were blended, the majesdc arches of the 
Aqueduct crossing the Via Triumphalis, and the 
grandeur of the mighty Colosseum. l?he deserted 
site of ancient Rome lay before us ; the gigantic 
monuments of her fallen magnificence were quread 
around us ; wild weeds waved over the palaces of her 
emperors, and the unbroken solitude that reigned 
through her once busy scenes, stole over the fancy, 
with feelings of deeper interest than the picturesque 



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BOK£. 839 

combiBatkuM of tbe pxospect alpne couW bave 
awakened* 

Whikt we were admiring it, the white robe of a 
Benedictine monk was swept over our faces by the 
wind^ as he passed us« He apploginedt and accpm- 
panied us into the outer court of the convent, where 
he found our lacquey pulhng at the bell with all his 
might, and grievously complaining that he pulled in 
vain. The monk was courteously shocked to flm) 
we had been waitbg, would not hear of our going 
away without seeing the frescos ; and promising to 
send the porter immediately, he let himself in, while, 
the lacquey continued his exercise without ; btfty 
though he made a peal which seemed rather intend- 
ed to summon the dead than the living, nobody came. 
The brotherhood seemed to be plunged into an ever-; 
lasting sleep. We heard the good father stornung 
about at intervals, above us, and making a most tre- 
mendous damour, while occasionally he put out his 
head, which, to our ineipressible diversion, wa^, by 
this time, enveloped in a ni^ht-cap, and exhorted tb^ 
servant to ring louder and louder still'— his rubicund 
face turning at last quite purple with rage, as he con- 
tinued to vociferate ^^ Corpo di Bacco t^^ospetto I 
Che vergogna r . At last a lay brother came drow- 
nly forth, looking like Sloth, and the enraged monk, 
having severely reprimanded him, shut the window 
of his cell, and consigned himself to bed and to his 
siesta. 

Our yawning conductor unbaked for us the doors 
of thsee little dingy chapels, near the churdi; and 



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S40 ROME. 

on Ae damp walk of one of them we saw the vestiges 
of the matchless fiescos of Domenichino and Ghiido 
— ^the spectres of paintmgs, ** the ghosts of what 
they were.'' 

Their decaying colours and fleeting forms, which 
the absorbing moisture renders every day more in- 
distinct, leave little room now to juc^ of their foi- 
mer perfection ; but while the faintest outline re- 
mains, the indestructiUe beauty "of their design and 
composition must be visible. » 

Domenichino^s fresco represents the flagellation of 
St Andrew, which the Emperor at a distance is seat- 
ed to witness. The suffering patience of the feeble 
saint is well contrasted with the brawny strength and 
unrelenting cruelty of the executiona:-*-(a figure, by 
the way, which is an admirable study for a painter) 
— awhile the varying passions expressed by the by- 
standers are beautifully told. 

Guido has chosen the moment in which the aged 
saint, led to execution, falls on his knees to adore the 
cross. His fresco, being on the dampest and darkest 
fflde of the chapel, has suffered even more than the 
other ; and, from the deficiency of light, it is still 
more difficult to trace it : but, by frequent and patient 
examination in the brightest part of the day, much 
of the beauty of both may stiU be made out. Sut it 
would be the height of presumption now to attempt 
to dedde the question of their respective merits, on 
which the first artists were divided in opinion, at the 
time they were originally painted. Annibal Caracci 
declared him'self unable to dedde the point, but he 



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BOMB. 341 

t let an old woman decide it for him ; for he saw her 

' so violently affected by the flagellation, that he was 

t ever afterwards convinced that Domemdiino^s must 

be the finest 
' That untutored nature is, after all, the most xmr 

\ erring judge of excellence, even in many of those arts 
: that seem the last result of refinement and cultiva- 
I tion, I am far from intending to dispute ; and in 
most cases, like Annibal Caracd or MoUere, I should 
be apt to take tta old woman^s opinion he£ixe a con- 
^ noisseur'^s; but, in this instance, flagellation is so 
immediately addressed to the senses and nerves, that, 
^ perhaps, it was the nature of the subject, rather than 
> the superiority of the work, that affected the old wo- 
man with such violent agitation. . She would. shrink 
i with natural horror at the sight of the lashes that 
lacerated the bleeding shoulders of the saint of Do- 
menichino ; but could she enter so fully into the holy 
i rapture of devotion-— the sublime act of adoration — 
that burst from the saint of Guido, and sustained 
! his soul in that last and drea^^ moment of an im- 
pending death of torture and ignominy, that human 
nature shudders to contemplate ?* 

St. Gregory used to feed twelve poor men every 
day here, and once, to his great surprise, he found 
there were thirteen ; but the interloper proved to be 



* There are very fine copies of these admirable compositions 
in the Palazzo Tenari, at Bologna. 



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342 HOME. 

an angel, who went away after eating his dmner, for 
wMdi purpose indeed he teemed to have come, for 
be spoke not, 'and did nothing bnt eat Of the Act 
there can be no doubt, because we saw the very table 
at which he sat. — ** Eccola !^ exdaitned the man, 
triumphantly, stsiking it with his hand, when some- 
body laughing, asked if he believed the tale. A finesco 
joi Guidons which representcfd this dinner of the angel 
and the bej^^ars, is all but totally oUiterated. Not 
io his choir of angels, in another of the chapels; 
bat unfortunately, though beaiulifuly they are by no 
means the best of his works. 

Among them there was one brown ai^l,-^for an- 
gels, like women, *^ are best distinguished by black, 
brown, dr fair ;*" there was one angel — ^brown as an 
Ethiopian, bnt with eyes so bright and piercing, 
and shining with such liquid lustre, that ^ey shot 
through the heart ef poor -^— — , and possessed such 
fiudnation for hini, that he has actually returned three 
times to look at t3mn. 

There is a statike of St. Gregory sittbg in his 
pontifical robes, and yeiy stately he looks. It is said 
to have been begun by Michael Angeb, who coitld 
never peiauade Imikscdf to finish it ; and I cannot 
wonder at it ; fi» Popes, even when they happen to 
be saints, ore but hopeless subjects for statuary. 

I was, however, pleased to see the likeness of this 
extraordinary pontiff, who was favoured with the 
sight of an archangel, on the top of the Castle St 
Angelo,— with the company of an angel at dinner,— 
with the attendance of the Holy Ghost, in the form 



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nOME. 343 

of a dove> at his ear, and with th^ love of the ladies. 
Certainly, a personage so blessed with the favoiu^ 
of angels and women, deserved to be samted among 
men. 

The old walls of his house lie scattered about, and 
are preserved with great care. 

We had scarcely come away from seeing this Pope 
in marble, before we met another in reality. 

We were proceeding along the ancient Via TH- 
umphaiisj that leads from the Church of St. Gregory 
to the Colosseum, when the coachman observing t6 
us, " Viene il Pwpa^ drew up close by the side of 
the road, and stopped. His Holiness was preceded 
by a detachment of the " Gua/rda NolMe^ who, as 
soon as they came up with our open caleshe, com- 
manded us, in no very gentle voice, to get out of the 
carriage. But — - , whose spirit did not at all 
relish this mandate, nor the tone in which it was ut- 
tered) manifested no intention to comply, and our 
servant, with true Italian readiness at a lie, declared 
we were Forestieri, who did not understand Italian. 
The officers resolved to make us understand some- 
thing else, repeated the order, andflbegan to flourish 

their swords about our ears. But sat with 

more inflexible resolution than ever, and all that was 
John Bull in his composition now refused to move. 
For my part, I make it a rule never to oppose these 
pointed arguments, and therefore jumped out of the 
carriage, and purposely contrived to get myself in- 
volved among the horses and drawn sWords of the 
tavahy, knowing that I was in no real danger, and 



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844 BOM£. 

that -^-* — — - would foiget hia dignity, and come 
to my asflifltance, which he acoordbgly did ; but 
otherwise nothing, I believe^ but mun force, would 
have got him out of the carriage* We saw the papal 
procession advance up the Triumphal Way, along 
which the victorious cars of so many Roman heroes 
and conquerors had rolled in their day of triumph. 
His Holiness seemed, however, content with the ho- 
nours of an ovation, for he was walking on foot, and 
instead of a myrtle crown, his brows were crowned 
with a large broad-brimmed scarlet velvet hat, bound 
with gold lace. This hat he very courteously took 
off as he passed us, and afterwards made another 
bow, in return for our courtesies. Our lacquey was 
on his knees in the dust, and all the Italians we saw, 
awaited his approach in the same attitude, then pro- 
strated themselves before him to kiss his toe, or ra- 
ther the gold cross, Embroidered in the front of his 
scarlet shoes. His robes, which descended to his 
feet, were scarlet ; on state occasions be wears no co- 
lour but white. He was attended by two cardinals, 
in their ordinary dress of black, edged with scarlet, 
followed by a train of servants, and by bis eoach, 
drawn by six black horses, the very model of the gilt, 
scarlet, wooden-looking equipages you may have seen 
in children's baby-houses. It looked exactly like a 
large toy. 

The Pope himself is a very fine venerable old man, 
with a countenance expressive of benignity and pious 
resignation. His is the very head you would draw 
for a Pope. I have since frequently met him walk- 



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BOM£, 345 

ing in this manner, on the roads, for exercise, after 
his early dinner. 

The old King and Queen of Spidn, and that ini- 
quitous wretch, the Prince of Peace, may be seen 
every day, at the same hour, about troen^-two or 
twenty-three o^cIock, or an hour before sun-set,* ta- 
king their accustomed drive, in two large coaches and 
six. There is a most amusing collection of ex-royalty, 
of all sorts and kinds,-— remnants of old dynasties, 
and scions of new, — heirs of extinct kingdoms, and 
kings of ignoble families, — ^legitimate and illegiti- 
mate, all jumbled together just now at Rome. Be- 
sides the old King and Queen of Spain, there are the 
Ex-Queen and the young King of Etruria — the 
abdicated King of Sardinia, turned Jesuit-— Louis 
Buonaparte, the deposed King of Holland, living like 
a hermit— Luden Buonaparte, the uncrowned, living 
like a prince — ^and Paulina Borghese, his sister, li- 
ving like — ^like — ^but comparisons are odious, and 
sometimes they may prove scandalous. In this pious 
pilgrimage of churches, we must think only of the 
lives of nuns and saints. 

Let us go to the Capuchins. Their Church, in the 
Piazza Barberini, possesses Guidons painting of the 
Archangel Michael trampling upon Satan. It is a 
daring attempt for a mortal hand to pourtray the forms 
of heaven, to make palpable to human vision, those 



* Time is always reckoned in the south of Italy from the 
setting of the sun^ which is the venti quattro ore, — twenty- 
four o'clock. — If you ordered your carriage at one o'clock^ 
your coachman would bring it an hour after dark. 



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346 ROME. 

unreal, undefined images of exalted sublimity and 
unearthly beauty, that float before the poet^s fancy, 
and are dimly revealed even in the dreams of giftied 
genius. Perhaps it is impossible to satisfy the mind 
irith any representation of the Angel of Light, which, 
in its loftiest aspirations, it essays not to picture ; 
but Guido has made the nearest approach of any 
painter to realize the presence of a celestial spirit, 
and if the being he has pourtrayed were to appear be- 
fore us, we should worship him unquestioned, as a 
delegate and a power of Heayen. 

Radiant with divinity, and clad in celestial beauty, 
that light and ethereal form tramples into the bottom- 
less abyss, and chains in torture the gigantic and 
Herculean fiend, that howls and gnashes his teeth 
with impotent rage. There is no exertion or effort 
of strength, on the part of the Angel— it is the act of 
volition alone ; there is no struggle or attempt at re- 
fiistanee on the side of the sutgugated demon — ^for 
fesistance is vain. We feel ihatjthe united powers of 
earth and hell could not cope for an instant with the 
might of that slender arm, which wields the omnipo- 
tent sword of Heaven. 

It is said that Guido, having a pique against the 
Pope,* " damned him to everlasting fame,'* by paint- 
ing his portrait in the likeness of Satan, and so strong 
was the resemblance, that it was impossible not to re- 
cognize it. 

I imagine Guido did not exactly meet the same 
return for this as Ghezzi, who caricatured Benedict 

* Urban VIII. 



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JiOME. S47 

XIV. and all the coUq^ of cardinals ; but that good- 
humoured Pope was so delighted that he made him 
a handsome present n 

X>omemchino^s Ecstacy of St. Francis, which, in a 
fit of piety, he gratuitously painted for this church* 
is not, perhaps, one of the best specimens of his 
powerftil pencil. It is a good painUng, but a bad 
Domenichino. The only fresco of Giotto in Rome 
adonis this chnrcfa. It represents St Peter walking 
on the wayes ; and, considering the infimcy of art in 
which it was painted, and that it was a work of the 
end of the thirteenth century, it is, indeed, a most 
wonderfiil and masterly performanoe. It is executed 
in UMMudc at St Peter\i : so also is Gnido^s Archan« 
gel ; and Domenidiino^s St Frands is at this mo- 
ment copying at the mosaic manufaotosy. 

There is in this canTent a sort of Bsuseum of bones, 
the property of the deceased oqpudiins. We went 
one day wiA a party of ladies, wh^ had a curiosity 
to see them, in Ae hope of getting admittance ; but 
the friars were inexorable, though we represented 
that it was not the live capuchins, but the dead ones, 
that we wanted to see, and that we could not possi. 
bly do them any harm ; that they would never know 
anything of the matter, and that the sig^t of their 
bones would be avery edifying spectacle to our fledi. 
They laughed heartily ; but to let us pass through 
the cloister of their convent to the cemetery was not 
to be permitted. 

The Church of the S. S. Trinitil de' Monti once 
boasted what Nicolas Poussin pronounced to be ^^ the 
third picture in the world^--*Daniel da Volterra^s 



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348 ROME. 

D^OBiti0n firom the Cross. It ranked^ in his esti- 
mation, after the Transfigorationy and the Commu- 
nion of St Jerome. But it was totally destroyed by 
the French, in their clumsy attempt to remove it, 
at the time they plundered Italy of her works of art ; 
and this masterpiece is now irreparably lost to the 
world. St Helena^s discovery of the Cross, another 
celebrated work by the same artist, on which he spent 
seven years of labour, was also ruined, and the church 
now contains nothing worthy of a visit, except the 
tomb of Claude Lorraine. His house, built upon his 
own design, with a simple Doric portico, which he 
loved to introduce into his paintings, stands close be- 
side it, and commands one of the most enchanting 
prospects that the eye ever beheld ; although it is 
modem Rome only,— the multiplied domes of her 
churches, and the towers of her convents, rising be- 
neath the pine-covered heights of Monte Montorio, 
and Monte Mario, that meet the view. Ancient Home 
is not visible — one proud obelise, that rises before the 
church, alone tells of its ruined grandeur. But the 
scene has a charm so inexpressible — a beauty so 
peculiar to itself— that its study alone might well 
have formed the genius of a Claude ; and those who 
have gazed upon its morning brightness, and its 
evening sunsets,— or watched the harmonious tints 
of golden splendour fade in the soft floating purple 
dQuds that mantle the west, must have beheld real- 
ized the pictures of Claude Lorraine. On the op- 
posite side of the way, adjoining the church, is 
the house of Nicolas Poussin ; and close by it, a 



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ROME. 849 

house once inhabited by Salvator Rosa. The Tri- 
nitfl de^ Monti is still the favourite residence of meii 
of genius. It is thronged with the studii and the 
dwellings of artists. 

The Church of Santa Maria VaUicella, re-erected 
by that renowned saint, Filippo Neri,,and therefore 
called the Chiesa Nuovo, is built after the designs, 
and adorned with the frescos of Pietro da Cortona: 
On the ceiling of the Sacristy, the Archangel bear- 
ing the symbols of our Saviour's PassioA to Heaven, 
is one of the best of his works I have ever seen ; the 
colouring is thought particularly good, and the effect 
of the cross, which, though painted on a horizontal 
ground, appears perfectly perpendicular, has been 
much admired. But even when called upon to ap- 
prove and commend them, the paintings of Pietro 
da Cortona do not touch our hearts with admira- 
tion ; they want the vivifying powers of true genius. 
Equally remote from its seducing errors and its re- 
deeming beauties, they keep on in the dull beaten 
path of nlediocrity. We see nothing to offend, and 
nothing to charm us ; and even without faults they 
please less than many more imperfect works. 

This church was adorned with the altar-pieces of 
Rubens, Ouercino, and Caravaggio, all of which are 
utterly ruined. In the Oratorio, into which the room 
where Saint Filippo died has been converted, we 
were shown his portrait, by Guido. The fathers of 
the order of / Padri deW Oratorio^ instituted by 
himself, are now only twelve in number, and inhabit 
a convent large enough, I think, to contain some 
hundreds. It is built in the form of a square, en- 

9 



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350 ROME. 

clodtig an internal court, with open conidors, three 
stories high, and every part of it is airy, clean, and 
commodious,-— which we ascertained ; for as the good 
monks were, as usual, fast asleep when we arrived, we 
took the liberty of walking all over it. 

Indeed, the liv^ of the whole race of monks and 
friars, hladi, white, brown, and grey, in every coun- 
try where I have had the happiness of seeing them, 
may b^ aptly described by some lines of Prior's :— 

" They soundly sleep the night away^ 

They just do nothing all the day ; 

They eat^ and drink^ and sleep — ^What then ? 

Why then — ^they eat and sleep ag»in. 

If human things went ill or well — 

If changing empires rose or fell*^ 

The morning went — the evening came» 

And found tJiese friars ^uat the same." 

In the Church of Santa Maria dell' Anima, the 
Nativity, by Giulio Romano, though it has suffered 
from injury and restoration, is the best of his pamt< 
ings I have seen in Rome. 

The Church of San Andrea della Valle, is built 
upon the spot where the Curia of Pompey once stood, 
in which Caesar fell. You may imagine the interest 
with wh^ch we visited it, although not a stone re- 
mains, nor an object appears to recall the memory of 
the deed that altered the destinies of the world. Yet 
did that memorable moment not the less strongly recur 
to us, when the blood of Caesar was pouredforth on the 
ground on which we trod— -when Brutus, mistaking 
the excess of crime fer virtue, stifled the soft plead- 
ii^s of Nature, the natural beatings of his own heart, 



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ROM£. 851 

and plunged his treadierous dagger into the bo0om 
of the friend to whom he owed his life. 

Paintings of the martyidom of saints, and monu- 
ments of the fanaticism of sinners, now met our view ; 
yet was not that memorable scene which our imagi- 
nation recalled, much the same ? Was not Brutus a 
fanatic, and Caesar a martyr? 

The one was a moral, or, if you will, a political 
fanatic — the other the martyr of ambition,— but it 
was the ambition of ^^ heroes, not of gods.^ 

But we came here-^iot to moralize over the death 
of Caesar, but to admire the frescos of Domenichino. 
He painted the flagellation and the glorification of 
St. Andrew, near the altar, and the Four Evange- 
lists on the angle of the dome. Among the latter, 
the beauty of St John caught my attention* The 
colouring is peculiarly fine — the conception grand — 
the design correct and perfect — the composition pure 
— and the expression true and forcible. They are 
works of real genius, and succeeding generations have 
done them the justice which their contemporaries de- 
nied. Pietro da Cortona, and all his crowd of scho« 
lars and imitators, were envenomed in their animo* 
sity against Domenichino ; and n^en these frescos 
were exposed to view, they raised so violent an out- 
cry against them, that the prejudice was universal. 
Domenichino, who heard them abused on all sides, 
took it very patiently, and every morning, as he went 
past to his labours, he used to stop to look at these 
much reviled productions ; and regularly, after at- 
tentively gazing at them, he shrugged his shoulders, 
and exclaimed — ^' Well, after all, they don't seem 



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S5S ROME. 

to me to be 80 very bad — Non mi pare ^es3er tarUo 
catHvo.'^ 

His << Cardinal Virtaes/' in the Churcli of San 
Carlo a^ Catinari, could be sarpasscd only by him- 
self. Yet, beautifid as they are, I did not admire 
them, on the whole, quite so much as these ; and his 
four frescos, in the church of S. Silvestro on Monte 
Cavallo, representing David dancing before the Ark, 
-^Judith with the head of Holofemes,— Esther be- 
fore Ahasuerus, — and Solomon and the Queen of Sbe- 
ba, I thought inferior to both. Whether they really 
were so, or that I was then as tired with churches 
and paintings as you must be at this moment, I 
won^t pretend to say. His Assumption, a small fres- 
co on the roof of Santa Maria in Trastevere, is well 
worth visiting. 

In pity to you and myself, I will, for the present, 
conclude this pilgrimage of the churches ; bat do not 
flatter yours^ that you are done with them. Good 
night. 



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ROME. 358 



LETTER LII. 

CHURCH OF AKA COBLI-— STKPS ASCENDED ON TUS 
KNBES BY JULIUS CiBSAS, AND THE MODERN ITA- 
LIANS—THEATRICAL PRiSSEFIO — GENERAL OF 
THE FRANCISCANS— MIRACULOUS BAMBINO — SA- 
CRED ISLAND ESCULAPIUS AND ST. BARTHOLO- 
MEW-— INDULGENCES— TRASTEVERE AND TBA8- 
TEVSRINI— iASSASSINATION — GAMES — CONVENTS 

TASSO'S TOMB— VIEW. OF ROME FROM MOUNT 

JANICULUM-— COMPARISON BETWEEN PAGAN TEM- 
PLES AND CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. 

The ugly old Chiirdi of Sante Maria in Ara Coeli, 
which crowns the highest sarnmit of the Capitoline 
Hill, and is supposed to occupy the site of the tspkot- 
did Temple of Jtqviter Optimus Maximus, is adorn- 
ed b the inside with twenty-two ancient columns, 
and on the outside with a flight of one hundred and 
twenty-four steps of Grecian marble, said to have 
formed the ascent to the Temple of Romulus Quiri- 
nus. Up these Pagan steps I have frequently seen 
good Christians painfully mounting on their knees, — 

VOL. II. Z 



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S54 ROME. 

a method of loco-motion they seem to think more u 
the taste of the Virgin that lives at the top of them, 
than the Tulgar mode of walking ; and it is eitbez 
practised in order to repay her for some benefit al- 
ready received, or to obtaui some desired gratifica- 
tion. One woman told me she had gone up on her 
knees, because she had made a vow to do it, if the 
Madonna would core her of a bad sore throat ; in 
this case it might be termed a debt of honour. An- 
other performed this exploit, in order to prevail upon 
the Madonna to give her a prize in the lottery, and 
really, in this instance, it could, I think, be consi- 
dered no better than a bribe ; but as the ticket came 
up a blank, it is plain the Virgin was not to be cor- 
rupled. 

Nineteen centuries ago, Julius Caesar, at his first 
triumph, ascended on his knees* the steps of this 
very Temple, (that of Jupiter Capitolinus.) Strange ! 
after the lapse of ages, to see, on the same spot, the 
same superstitions infecting opposite faiths, and en- 
slaving equally the greatest and the weakest minds ! 

The last time I visited this church, it was crowd- 
ed almost to suffocation, by, peannts firom remote 
mountain villages, arrayed in i^ir grotesque and 
various holiday costumes, who had perfimned this 
festive pilgrimage in order to see the Bambino^ the 
new-born Jesus, and pay their respects to the Virgin, 
irho, at this season^ sits in state to receive company. 



* Dion. 1. sdiii. e. 81. 



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ROME. 355 

This exhibitioii is called the Pfas^epio^ and, after 
Christmas, it is to be seen in almost every ehuich* 
and in most of the private houses of Borne ; but it 
appears in its full glory in Ara Cceli, and there we 
wenttoseeit. 

The upper part of the church, around the great 
altar, was adorned with painted scenes, and convert- 
ed into a stage, in the front of which sat the figure 
of the Viq;in, made of wood, with her best blue satin 
gown and topaz necklace on, and her petticoats so 
stuck out<--^that unless she wore a hoop, which the 
friars, who were in the secret, positivdy denied, it 
was impossible to beliete that her acooudiement had 
yet taken place* There, however, lay, in proof of 
the contrary, the new-bom Bambino^ the little Jesus, 
rolled in rich swaddling-clothes, and decked with a 
gilt crown ; beside him stood St. Joseph and the two 
Marys ; and at a little distance, were seen two mar« 
tial figures, who, we were given to understand, were 
Roman centurions, made of pasteboard, and mount* 
ed on white horses. Near ihem, projected fiKHU a side^ 
scene, the head of a cow. And all these figures, di<» 
vine, human, and bestial, were as large as life. But 
off the stage, there waij a figmre even larger than lifis. 
He was the Goieral of the Franciscan ord^r, who re*- 
sides in this convent. The rope that girded his waist 
could not, I think, have-been less than a yard and a 
half in leogth. He might almost have represented 
Falstaff without stuffing ; and certainly I never saw, 
even on the stage, a caricature of a fat firiar, appnMU^h* 
ing the circumference of this portly fath^. It is 



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U6 ROME* 

wid thcM caanot be too mudi of a good thing, but 
oartaiiify, I think, there was rather a supeiabandaiioe 
of this good capuchin. 

I hare heard many of the Italians, even of the 
middling and lower classes, cut much the same jokes 
upon the friars, and langh as much at their fondness 
fiir eating and drinking, imd all sorts of sensual io- 
dnlgenoes, as the Engfish do. Yet, by a strange ap- 
parait contradietion, they are almost invwaUy the 
oonfesscnrs, the preachers, the spiritual monitors and 
eonnsdlors, selected by all ranks, in preference to the 
secular deigy. 

There are onJy a hundred capuchins now in this 
oonyent, but, before the French turned them all out, 
there were nearly four hundred* 

I forgot to tell yoo, that the aforesaid Bambino 
which we had been to see, was originally brought 
down from hearen one night by an angel, and is en- 
dowed with most miraculous powers, and held in 
wonderfol repute. I suppose no phyacian in Rome 
' has such practice, or snch fees. When people are in 
^tremity of sickness, it is sent fcr, and comes to visit 
them in a coach, attended by one of the friars. One 
of our Italian serrants assured me it had cured her of 
a ferer, when all the doctors had given her up ; and 
I irmly believe it did ; for, upon inquiry, I found 
that the doctors, resigning her to the care of the 
BambinOy discontinued their visits and medicines. 
The *wr blisters they had put on were allowed to be 
taken off; she got neither wine nor broth, «id drank 
nothing but pure water to relieve her thirst. After 
hearing this account, I was no longer surprised at 



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ftOME. SA7 

the BanibM$ well-einied repuUtion finr pooling 
diseaMfi. 

XhiB church takes ito name of << AnXkiXr bam 
tho Tulgar tradition of the Sibyrs prophecy to Ai^ 
{^oBtus, of the l»rth of the Redeemer, and \a% eoiis&- 
quent conflecration of en altw on thb qpot, ** to the 
first-born of Grod^*— « monkish impodition» wholly i»> 

supported by historieal testimony. 

Leaving the Capitol, we crossed tbePoiii^ QbmUr9 
Capi^ anciently the Fafacician Bridge, to the island 
of the Tiber, whose date, if history may be credited, 
is more modem than that of Rome itself, and whoae 
carea^ion is not the work of nature^ but <^ chanosy and 
of aian. 

It is related Iqr Liyy,* that at the ocpalsioA ef 

the Tarquins^ a large field bdoaging to them, winch 

was oonsecrated to Mara, and afWwards caUed the 

Campus Martins, was covered with iqie cam. It 

became die property of the R^nan people; but, dia^ 

daining to eat the bread of thdbr tyrant^ th^ threw 

the sheaves into the river, whidi, as is usual at that 

time of the year, was low ; the com stuck ia the 

muddy bottom, and recriving continued aggmgatiotts 

of slkne, soil, and othar substances, deposited by the 

stream, it gradually formed a solid island, which was 

afterwards stsengthened, and the margin buik round 

wilh walk. 

When the ten ambassadors, sent ficom Rome du* 
ring the plague, returned from their solemn embassy 

* Vide lib. ii. eap. v. Also^ ride Pliny, Hist. lib. ii. in 

prindpio. 



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358 AOMfi. 

to the Temple of Bsculapius in Epidsuras, tlie sa- 
cred serpent, which had voluntanly embarked its^ 
with them, left the ship, siram to the island, and was 
never more seen by man.* That it was the god vho 
had assumed this shape, and that he had chosen the 
island for his habitatimi, could not be doubted. The 
pestilence ceased — ^the island was formed into the 
shape of a ship, in commemoration of the sacred yes* 
«el which brought him, and, near its extremity, the 
great Temple of Esculapius was built. An hospitd 
was attached to it for the cure of the sick ; but the 
Roman slaves were almost invariably exposed befoie 
the pcnrtico, to be cured, if such was the will of the 
god, or if not, to perish. To check this inhuman prac- 
tice, the Emperor Claudius ordained, that those who 
recovered should never more return to their former 
servitudci* Ever after the arrival of Esculapius, 
the island was denominated the Sacred Island, and 
the Temple of Jupiter, of Faunus, and perhaps of 
other deities, were built upon it« 

The site of the Temple of Esculapius is now oc- 
cupied by the Church of St Bartholomew ; and in 
the garden of the convent, where the statue of the 
god, now at Naples, was found, there is still to be 
seen the sacred serpent, sculptured upon the prow of 
the vessel, into which the extremity of the island was 
formed. But, as the good fathers would by no means 
incur the guilt of letting a female look at it, we were 



* Livy, lib. ii. cap. 13, 14. t Suetonius, Claudius, 95» 



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HOME. 859 

coiuAruiMd to fongo that criminal graiific»tiai» and 
patiently to await the return of the privileged sex of 
pur party^ who went to see it. 

In this church they offer plenary indulgnices; 
nostrums for the cure of the soul have supplied the 
nostrums for the cure of the body» that used to be 
administered here. Corporeal is changed into spiri- 
tual quackery. Pagan into Catholic superstition, and 
Sscnilapius into St Bartholomew. 

I soon grew tired of looking at some bad fireaoos, 
by Antonio Caracci ; and observing this inscription 
of ^* Indu^^zia PUnaric^^ I adced one of the young 
friars, why« since they had the power of giving ^^ un« 
limited indulgence"'* to /ill, he would not grant us the 
restricted indulgence of walking through the garden ? 
He crossed himself in admiration of my extrava- 
gance, and ejaculated, '^ Jesu Maria P I then urged 
Mm to explain to me what plenary indulgence meant 
He said it was ^^ a mystery"" — ^* a thing incompre* 
faensible to us"" — ^^ a spiritual good"";—** a blessing 
of all the saints*"^ But all these, and all that follow- 
ed, were separate and reluctant responses to my va- 
ried interrogations. 

Did plenary indulgence ^ve permission to perpe- 
trate murder? I inquired. ** No ! no i"" ** Could mur- 
•der, when committed, be expiated by it?"" That 
was again a mystery. Murder could be expiated* 
The ** Santo Padre'' (the Pope), who had received 
from the Prince of Apostles the keys of heaven, and 
the power to forgive sins, could pardon that, or any 
crime*— but how^ he might not say— all that he would 



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S60 ROME. 

ny to a heretk like me, after all my crofls-qneitioD' 
ing, was, ^^ that far hell, he believed, no indolgenee 
was to be obtained, but ftom poigatcxry there wis 
plenary indolgenoe accorded to die fiuthftil, through 
the Madonna, St. Peter, and the Pope.'^ 
' Oar theological oontroyersy was here broken off, 
much to your satisfaction, I should suppose, as well 
as the friar^sand mine— by the return of our jfriends. 
We left the church, ud crossing the Ponte San Bai- 
toloneo, formerly called the Pons Cestius^ from its 
lbund0P-**tfaough who he was nobody knows— oi 
eiae8,-«enteTed Trastevere, that part of Rome that 
lies beyond the Tib^, and along the foot of Mount 
JaniciQua. 

In Trastevere there are no remains of antiquity ^ 
abundance of monuments of superstition — chisrdies 
fidl of the shrines of saints, and oonyents full of im- 
prisoned sinners-^plenty of houses, but few inhabit- 
ants. These inhaUtants, however, boast of being 
descended firom the ancient Romans, and look on the 
upstart race on the other side of the rirer with so- 
Tereign contempt. They will not intermarry vitl^ 
them, nor associate with them. . 

They call themselves Enmienii, and support their 
daims to superioxity by the ferocity of tbdr nuume^ 
Hoody quMiels and vindictive passions, rage, jeft- 
kmsy, and revenge, seem to reign amoi^ them with 
onlameaUe violence. They, among idl the people of 
Rome, aie the most addicted to carrying the prohibit- 
ed knife, which, in the paroxysm of fiiry, they so often 
phmge into each other's breast. 



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BOME. 361 

I dunk we mre quite misUkea in oar estinuUe of 
Ae Italian character, in one respect. Murder is 
generally committed in the sadden impulse of un- 
govemable passicm, not with the slow premeditation 
of deliberate revenge. That it is too common a ter- 
mination of Italian quanrds, it would be Tain to daiy; 
and it is equally trae, that however Englishmen may 
fidl out» or however angry they may be, drunk or 
sober, they nevw think of stabbmg, but are always 
eofitent with beating each other. But in England 
murders are generally committed in cold blood, and 
fhr the sake of plunder. In Italy, they are more fire- 
qnently perpetrated in the moment of exasperation, 
and for the gratification of the passions. An Italian 
wiU pilfer or steal, cheat or defraud you, in any way 
be can. He would rob you if he had courage ; but 
he adldiHu murders for the sake of gain. In proof of 
this, almost all the murders in Italy are committed 
amongst the lower orders. One man murders another 
who is as much a b^gar as himself. Whereas,. our 
oountrymen walk about the unlighted streets of Home 
or Na]^e8 at all hours, in perfect safety. I never 
heard i^ one having been attacked — although the 
riehes of Mihr* Ingleri are proverUal. Amongst 
the inmiense number of Enj^sh who Iiavc lately tra- 
veUed through Italy, though all have been cheated, 
a few only have been robbed ; and of these, not one 
has either been murdered or hurt. I am fiir, how- 
ever, from thinking that murders are more frequent 
in England than in Italy. In England they arc 
held in far more abhorrence; they are pimished, 



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362 ROME. 

Hot only with the terrors of the Iaw> but the execra- 
tions of the people. Every murder resounds through 
the land — it is canvassed in every dub, and told hj 
every village fire-side ; and inquests, and trials, and 
newspapers, proclaim the lengthened tale to the 
world. But in Italy, it is unpublished, unnamed, 
and unheeded. The murderer sometimes escapes 
whoUy unpunished — sometimes he compounds finr 
it, by paying money, if he has any — and sometimes 
he is condemned to the galleys — ^but he is rarely ex- 
ecuted. 

The Trasteverini are passionately fond of the 
game of Morra. It is played by two men, and mere- 
ly consists in holding up, in rapid successicm, any 
number of fingers they please, calling out at the same 
time the number their antagonist shows. Nothing, 
seemingly, can be more simple >or less interesting. 
Yet, to see them play, so violent are their gestures, 
that you would imagine them possessed by some dia- 
bolicid passion. The eagerness and rapidity with 
which they carry it on render it very liable to mis^ 
take and altercation — ^then phrensy fires them, and 
too often furious disputes arise at this trivial play, 
that end in murder. Morra seems to differ in no 
respect from the Micare DigiHs of the ancient Ro- 
mans.* 

There is another pastime among them called La 
Ruzzka^ or La Rotuolay which seems to me to bear 



* Cic. Divin. 11, 41. Off. cxi. «3. 



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ROME. 36s 

« close resemblaace to aa ancient Roman sport — 
that of throwing the discus. 

The Trastevere game condsts in coilbg a long 
string round a piece of wood, of the shape of a Glou- 
cester cheese, as tight as possible — ^then rapidly un« 
twisting the string, when the wood flies off with im- 
mense velocity, and the length of its course is the 
criterion of victory. This diversion was prohibited^- 
for it sometimes happened that legs of unwary pas- 
sengers were broken, by coming in contact with these 
bowling machines ; but it is still practised, though 
no longer in the streets or public roads. 

The resemblance of the form of the ruzxiea to that 
of the discus, and the attitude of the Trasteverini as 
they throw it, so strongly recalled to my mind the 
discobolus, that I could hot help thinking it must 
have taken its origin from that sport 

They are the only people in Rome at all f<md of 
dancing, and on the afternoons of Sundays, and other 
festa, especially during the Carnival and about East- 
er, most amusing exhibitions may be seen, of young 
handsome couples, in their picturesque holiday cos- 
tume, dancing with an infinity of attitude and expres- 
non, in the courts and gardens of Trastevere. 

Trastevere is «dd to have been the ancient quarter 
of the Jews, and its inhabitants now, as formerly, 
bear no very high character.^ 



•Martial,l. i. Ep. 116. 



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S64 ROME. 

The mok ttmck me as astrongandTigwfousiioe; 
yet Trattevere is said to be very unhealthy^ and itis 
certainly reiy depopulated. Its palaces are deserted, 
and its streets untrodden. The soourge of die mal- 
aria infests it in the summer ; and it is appsraidy 
finr this reason that they have established so aumy 
convents here, thinking, I suppose, it is no matter 
how many nuns die— «nd indeed, as £ur as the 6d- 
j<qrmettt of this world goes, it would, perhaps, hsYe 
been better for many of them that they had ne?er 
been bom. 

In Italy, a <* monaHeruT means a nunnery— and 
a ** convenkT a monk^ or a friary, which is exact- 
ly the rcrerse of the application of these names in 
France and England. This part of Rome seems to 
have been considered insaluhious even in andent 
times. Pliny, in one of his invectives against Be- 
gulus, says, ^^ he (Regulus) staid at hb villa, on the 
othn shore of the Tiber, in order to have the nali* 
cious gratification of making people visit it at that 
unwholesome season;"^ an accusatimn whieh, Iqr the 
way, is no proof of the philosopher's diacemmwt, 
since Regulus must have dcme fivr more injury to bis 
own health by a continued residence, than his firioads 
could have recaved by their occasional visiis-^t it 
is a proof that the air here was even then reputed im- 
healthy at certain seasons. 

Tacitus, too, somewhere abuses the Vatican, which 



* Vide Ep. ii. lib. iv. 



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HOME, 365 

is a {wrt of Trastevere, for its bad air.* As a proof 
of the disoemment of the Popes, or the desire they 
have to send the sick poor to a better world, they 
have set down the great hospital of the Borgo San 
Spirito in the very worst air of this disreputable re- 
gion. 

The Church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, like all 
the other old churches of Rome, is adorned with an- 
cient columns, all of which are of Oriental granite ; 
but their varying proportions and capitals proclaim 
them to be the spoils of diiferent Roman edifices. 
There are seven of the Ionic capitals of these columns 
mentioned by Winkleman, which, instead of the rose, 
have Lilliputian figures of the little god Harpocrates, 
with his finger on his mouth. On the left of the altar 
are two ancient mosaics, one of which represents a 
sea-port. Thereof is adorned with a small Assump- 
tion in fresco, by Domenichino, unquestionably a 
very fine painting ; although it did not, I own, im- 
press me with the high admiration and delight which 
his works generally afibrd ; but I do not mean on 
that account to undervalue what better judges than 
myself pronounced to be equal to his finest perform- 
ances. 

If we may believe the priests, this was a public 
Christian Church as early as the beginning of the 
third century. It might be so ; for after the death 



* The soldiers of Vitellius's army, while quartered there,^ 
fell victims to the same fatal fever which still depopulates its 
precincts. Tacitus, Hist. lib. ii. cap. 93. 



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866 ROME, 

of SepdBdttB Sevenis (a. D. 211), the Cteirt»»«, d^ 
ring Iperiod of nearly forty ye«., not «ily enjoyed 
toleration, and obtained the pritilege of opeidy ha- 
vbg places of wonbip. bat weie even high m feTO^ 
rtAe Imperial Court. It is even asserted,* that 
Alexander Severus, in the early part of his r«g», 
imbibed the maxima of Christ, and entert«ned se- 
rious thoughte of erecting a temple to him as one of 

^\TLe times, it is related, a miraculous f«mt^ 
of sacred oU sprung up in this c^««J, »ni4e spot 
ui stiU marked with the inscription of Fans OU>t 

As^we had already visited the Convent of Sarat 
CecilU once, we did not return to \^* J«^°; 
foot up a long and steep ascent to the Church ot 
Sant' Onofno, where the remains of Tasso repose^ 

A paltry inscription on the ^«W fl«»« ""^^ *' 
apot ; for, neglected in death as well as life, hu un- 
jjatefol cou^ has denied a tomb to the poet wh««e 

memory is at once her glory and her shame. She 

has not even 

" To bniied genius raised the tardy bust" 
Italy was unworthy of having Tasso for » son. 
But his name is worshipped in every l^d,--bi8 no- 
nument is erected in every heart; and though ««e 
laurel crown, which never encircled his Uving brows, 
is not suspended over his grave ; no traveUer fom 
the remotest regions of the earth, wiU leave the 

• Vide Gibbon, fOecHne .nd ¥a», vol- «• P- S**') ''''* 
quotes the Augustan Hi»*^*^' P- ^^- 



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ROME. 367 

Etemal City ,"" without shedding a tear over the stone 
that covers the genius and the sorrows of Torquato 
Tasso. 

In this gloomy convent was passed the close of a 
life made wretched by oppression, by contumely, by 
poverty, and by chains ;— maddened by sensibility, 
and cursed by genius. It was by his last request 
that his remains were buried here. — ^^ Buried hereP 
I involuntarily exclaimed, as we gazed on the dark 
flag-stone, trodden by every vulgar foot that records 
the tale.— -And is the genius that awakened those 
strains of divine poesy, which will resound through 
the earth while it rolls in its orbit, really buried 
here ?«-*Is the fancy, whose heaven-taught powers 
erected such glowing visions of beauty and of bliss, 
sunk in this narrow spot? — Is the heart, whose 
blighted feelings wept immortal tears through long 
years of neglected solitude, and burst its prison bars, 
entombed beneath this lowly stone ? — How can we 
believe, that the powers which embraced the uni- 
verse, and seemed intended for eternal duration, are 
thus shrunk to nought ; and that in this speck of 
earth is all that remains of Tasso ? 

From the tomb of Tasso we might have turhed to 
the frescos of Domenichino in the portico, which 
have for their subject the miracles of Saint Jerome; 
but one glance at their worn and washed-out appear-* 
ance sufficed ; and with some feeVng of indignation 
against the land where the fanaticism and the mi- 
racles of saints are honoured and commemorated, 
while taste and genius are oppressed and forgotten**- 



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368 ROME. 

we gave one ^^aiice to the poet's graye, and left the 
coDTent of Ssn Onofrio.* 

We agun dimbed the steep sides of Mount Jani- 
culus to S. Pietro m Montorio, and firom the terrace 
in front of it, which seems to overhang Borne, we 
enjoyed the finest view o£ the Andent and Modem 
City I had yet beheld. 

Beneath us were spread its massive ruins, over- 
shadowed with the dark pine and cypress — ^its de- 
serted mounts, its fidlen temples, its splendid basi- 
licas, its gorgeous palaces, and its cloistered con- 
vents ; even the proud dome of St. Peter's lay at our 
feet— the magnitude of the Vatican was shrunk to 
nothing; far over its glowing gardens and depths of 
cypress shade, the eye wandered, delighted, to the 
majesty of Monte Cave, the storied Alban Mount, 
hung with ancient woods ; — ^to the purple hues that 
painted the Sabine Hills, on whose sheltered sides 
reposed Tivoli, Frescati, and Palestrina, as if in- 

* These nearly obliterated frescos of DomenichinOf of whidi^ 
on careful examination^ I found the outline still visible^ re- 
present the Baptism of St. Jerome^— St. Jerome tempted by 
the devU^ who is rolling on the ground^ and scratching bis 
head in despairing perplexity what next to essay against tbe 
yirtue of the saint^ — and St. Jerome scourged by an Angel, 
an erent which is gravely asserted to have happened^ thongh 
why the saint was chastised in this extraordinary way I could 
not learn. I afterwards saw^ in a house adjoining the churchy 
a Madonna by Leonardo da Vinci^ unquestionably original ; 
to which, being unproyided at our first visit with a Cardinal's 
pass of entrance to convents, we were, as females, refused ad- 
mittance. 

15 



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vitii^ our djpproach ; a&d to << gU Alpestri dossi 
iFApennino,^ whose snowy summits terminated the 
view. 

But I am forgetting, in the delight of retrosped- 
tion, how insufferable is description, and how wholly^ 
inadequate to give the faintest idea of the beatity of 
any prospeet . /y.\.' 

I turned from this enchanting scene, sldwly and^ 
reluctantly, to enter the ugly old church of Soal-Fie^ 
tro in Montorio, for which the finest picture in the 
world, the Transfiguration, was originally painted—-^ 
but fortunately, both for its preservation and the 
just display of its unapproached perfection, it is no 
longer here. 

The flagellation of Christ, designed with all the 
energy and correctness of Buonarotti, and painted 
with all the vivid colouring of Sebastian del Piombo^ 
still adorns one of these obscure chills. 

I believe Mr. Angerstein'^s Resurrection of La- 
zarus, which was also designed and painted by the^ 
united powers of the same great masters of design 
and colouring, was taken from this church. 

In the cloister of the convent, there is a small mo- 
dern circular Doric Temple, erected by Bramantey 
at the command and expense of Ferdinand and Isa^ 
bella of Spain, on the spot which tradition points 
out, as the scene of the martyrdom of the Prince of 
the apostles. 

Small and simple as this little building is, Bra< 
mante h^ contrived to make it a proof that the best 
of Italian architects (and he was the best) would 

VOL. II. 2 A 



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970 HOME. 

lltve sQcoeedcd as ill in temples is they have done 
in churcbeSf 

If, however, there is a complete contrast in archi- 
tectural Waoty— it 13 curious to see in how many par- 
ticulars, jBmall and great, modem Cathdic churdies 
correspond to ancient Pagan temples. It is not only 
in the pictures and statues, in the plan and the de- 
corations, in whidi we might be glad to trace even a 
closer resemblance— *but it is in the plurality of gods, 
in the worship of images, in the holy places, in the 
real presoice, in the altars and votiYe offerings, in 
the holy water, in the multiplied ceremonies, in the 
pompous processions, in the refuge of sanatuaries,— 
in all that we see, hear, and do,— that we might al- 
most as well be in a PagKn as in a Christian t^nple. 
Even the glory that surrounds the heads of samto 
formerly encircled the statues of gods. Images of 
Apollo and Diana, of Fortune and Pallas, had this 
mmbusy or halo of light, round their heads — and it 
seems afterwards to have become comipon.* The 
Virgin is often represented with the crescent, as the 
symbol of chastity-— exactly like Diana of old. 

It is curious, too, that the door-ways of ancient 
temples, like those of all the Italian churchesy were 
dosed with a heavy curtain.f But we should never 
be done, if we were ^o go through the parallel be< 
tween them in all its minutiae. 

And here I gladly finish this haisty and perhaps 

* Winkelman, Hist, de I'Art, lib. vi. cap. g. § 37. 
t Winl^eilman, sur TArch. § 64. 



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EOliE. 971 

imperfect surrey of the diiirclies of Rome^ irith the 
fiillest conviction that you will not oompUun of its 
brevity, however you may suffer under its tedious- 
ness— that what is dull in investigation^ cannot poa. 
sibly be amusing in description ; and that it is un- 
reasonable to expect you to listen with pleasure, to 
the description of what I could not see with patience. 



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978^ bOM£* 



LETTER I4IIL 



FOUNTAINS. 



Feck St Pietio in Montorio^ where we fisished 
ear weary Yintation of churches, and, I believe, al- 
most made a vow never to enter another as long as 
we lived, from motives of curiosity, we walked to the 
Pontana Paolina. Long before we came in sight of 
ity the rushing of its mighty waters, stole gradually 
upon our ear ; but the sound did not sufficiently pie- 
pare us for the sight, and we stood transfixed with 
astonishment to behold three noble cascades, fiillbg 
in foam into an immense basin, whose sur£M» was 
agitated like the waves of a lake by their concus- 
sion. 

The beautiful solitude of its situation, surrounded 
by a deep evergreen shade, and yet commuiding (me 
of the most enchanting prospects' over the whole of 
Home, and the plain of the Campagna, bounded only 
by the romantic heights of the distant Apennines, ia 
one of its greatest charms. 

The Fontana Paolina, by a whimsical coincidence, 
combines the names of its architect and maker. Fob- 
tana, and Paolo V» I never could forgive that good- 



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BOMiU trS 

fbr-luidimg oU Pope, tar despoiUng the Forum of 
Nerra^yf its predoiis remains, to ornament the taste* 
less fiibric which the joint skill of himself and hk 
builder has raised. Two dragons^ heads, fixed on 
each side of them, and which, instead of fire, spout 
out insignificant streams of water, contribitte to spoil 
the' fine effect of these beantifiil cascades, which have 
-no iMKrallel e^en in Borne* Nothing, indeed, strikes 
« stranger with more just admiration on his anitai 
in this capital of the world, than the immense num- 
bers of fountains, which pour forth their unceasing 
Aovf of waters on every side. It is a luxury, the full 
-value of which cannot be felt but in such a climate 
as this ; and those only who have known that ddBi- 
cious moment, whoi die blase of the summer-day 
fSules at last in the .golden douds -of evening, can 
understand die vdupUious delight with which, in its 
hushed hour of stillness and repose, you listen to 
the music of their dashing murmur, and rest beside 
Jiheir firesfauees. 

The betfutiful fountmns that play before die grand 
£ront of St. Feter'^s alone, of all those of Home, sa- 
.tisfied my imagination, and delighted my taste. I 
Jknow not how to. dejBCribe to you their beauty ; but 
vidt them, in therqpose of etening, when that moom 
which here shines like a brighter, planet, walks in 
her glory through the heavens,— when the stass 
jkwake their mysterious fires, and die soft moon-beam 
fSdls upon the lines of the Gredan oolumns-^-^n the 
swellinggran^eur of the majestic dpme^ die fuU height 
.of die ancieq^ pbetisc, and th^ 9we0f <itilb cirdtDg 



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S74 SOHE^ 

mhmoadtBj'^ifhm, it brings e?efy beauty into wr, 
iiuoms every defect mte Aade^^when the freAnes 
af the ntw4ieni breeae fims the cheek widi itb to- 
bptooua braali, and die Toice oC the faUmg wateis 
aootbes the soul to teat ;^— visit them then^ and yot 
irill feel ihcir enduantment 

To detcribe, or to listen to the descripcioii of sD 
the principal foentsins of Rome, would indeed be 
a terrific iuk. They are, generally spekiaagf idl ds- 
fident in that greatest of beanties, which, die«igfa it 
iroold seem the eeriest to be found, is always die 
last attaiQed — the beauty of rimplieity ; and whid 
is to Ae fine arts, what action is to the (wator,-- 
the first, the second, and the third requiriteb 

The feimtaiii of Trevi has been renowned througli 
liie world, and so highly extolled, that my eacpecta- 
tiens wm raised to the highest stretch ; and great 
wasmy di sap pobitmeiit whai I was taken into alittle 
cBrty, confined, miseraUe piazsa, nearly filled up with 
one large palace, beneath which spouted oat a yth 
riety of tortuous streamlets, that are made to gurgle 
oyer artificial rocks, and to bathe the bodies of va- 
rious sea-horsesi, tritons, atfd- other maiMe monsters, 
wttcb ate spmwlhig aboAt in it After sbmfe cogi- 
aation, you £soover they are tiying to *awr iJep- 
tane otf,' i^ho, thou^ stuck up in a niehe (dt the ps- 
lae^ waft, as if meant to be sfattonary, is sfaltatkg at 
tibe same time ^th Insfei^f on a sort of car, a«^ if in- 
tended td be riditfg dver the waters. 

I^ow, all this seems to me to be in very bad tast6 
J have no objections to the ttiouittdi of the n^pbs 



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HOME. 37ff 

^of the W9U9^^io triions, or river god% (Ht any odier 
desnqitkm of these creatures, either in painting or 
sculpture, irhere all is equally fictitious, and conse* 
iqulraally lA in unison ; but it strikes me as an out- 
rage upon probability and taste, to have real water 
and airtificial monsters, and to see sea-horses and men 
caonred of stone, sitting immoyable in the pure Ii« 
▼ing stream. Indeed, the copious quantity and pelf- 
lucid deamess of the water, is the only beauty that 
I could see in the Fontana di Trevi It would, I 
tkiok, be difficult to dispose of so much water to less 
advantage than the contriverB of this fountain have 
ptodttced ; and they have done their utmost, l^ the 
«iM»nK>us palace they have built above it, and the 
mlossal staUies they have stuck up in it, to diminish 
as much as possible the effisct of the immensity and 
tlie grandeur of such a body of wat«r« 

This water is die ddicious Aoqua Vergine, the 
same that flowed into Rome in the age of Augustus, 
aond was brought by M. Agrippa for the use of his 
baths* Modem Rome is chiefly suppUed with it ; 
although the Fontana Felice, on die Quirinal Hill, 
is said by some to be of still finer quality* 

Thit Fountain is called <^ Felice,'' because Sixtua 
v., who built it, was called Fra Fdiv in the dois* 
ter ; an auspicious naine, which migured well the 
fiutunes of him who was raised firom the station of 
a shepherd boy to a throne,* and not only to the 



* He was the son^of a poor peasant in the March of Anoo« 
lUL, and tended his father's flocks. 



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876 /BOME. 

Tttik of a prinde, but to be a ruler of princes. It is 
also called Forttana di Termmi, 60m its yidnity to 
tiie Thermas of Diocletian. 

It represaits Moges striking the rock,— -or rather 
Moses does not strike the rock, nor b there a rock 
to strike ; but it is supposed he does ; and he stands 
in one niche vith a rod in his hand, and Aaron and 
Gideon, or some such superfluous persoiis, are star 
tioned in others, amidst bas-reliefs. 
. What have fi>ur lions, either ancient or modem, 
to do with i^utmg out water ? and what budness 
have they here ? Two of these lions, formed of ba« 
salt, are of Egyptian extraction, and are supposed to 
have been brought captives to Borne, when Angus* 
tus returned after the battle of Actium. The poor 
animitis were taken from the portico of the Pan- 
theon, to perform this unnatural employment. Bam^" 
heads, lions,- masks, all kinds of mouths, were u^ed 
for this purpose by the ancients as well as the mo- 
dems. We seem to have kept all their absurdities 
in addition to our own. 

. The front of the Fontana di Termini is built of 
large masses of Travertine, adorned with little co« 
himns of marble, and surmounted with a long in- 
scription ; the whole is weighed down with a cam<> 
hrous attic, and is much admired. 

In the Piaz^ Navona are three fountains ; the 
centre one supports the obelise brought firom the 
Circus of Caracalla. It consists of a great mass of 
artificial rock, to which are chained four river gods 
—a truly Bernini idea ! He has not placed them at 



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home; S77 

rest, {n the recumbent, meditatiye, clasdcal posture 

of river gods, but fastened tbem in the most uneasy 

attitudes, and unnatural contortions ; and in order 

to show proper contempt for the architecture of Bor* 

romini, who built the front of St. Agnes^s churchy 

the two water deities on the side next it are made to 

throw up their eyes to it in the shrinking attitude of 

terror, as if expecting it td fall upon them. But the 

Church of St. Agnes stands where it did, and has no 

appearance of moring ; so that the alarm of these 

huge creatures seems only lucficrous and cowardly. 

If they had held up their hands and eyes at its ugli* 

ness, I should have had some sympathy with them $ 

but of its stability there is, unfortunately, no reason 

to doubt. From eadi of these colossal river gods, 

springs his own dnbbiing stream* You see at once 

the source of the Nile, which some stupid people 

imagined had never yet been traced— and* the Da* 

nabe spouts out his mighty waters, in force sufficient 

to fill a moderate-sixed bucket After a short course 

down the sides of the artificial rock, the four great 

rivers of the different quarters of the world are lost 

in the basin of the fountab, which represents the 

Ocean. 

I forgot to mention that there is, besides, a ca- 
vern in the rock, in which a lion and a horse reside 
in the most amicable manner possible ; though what 
they do there in the middle of the sea, I do not ex* 
actly comprehend. This fountain is contrived so as 
to overflow annually ; wd during the l>armng heats 



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878 ROME. 

«f fUBmer, for a few ereniags in the moBih of Aa- 
gaatf it is the delif^t of the people of Borne to drive 
aboat among its waters, wMeh fill the Piazia Navo- 
na. It was suggested by an ingeniotufnend of mine, 
that this custom was probid>ly the remuns of the 
aports of the Naumachia, exhibited at the amnisl 
gamea in honour of die gods, at this very period of 
the year, andinthisvery spot, which was the sncient 
Ciieus AgonaUs. 

There is a mucfakadmbed fountain in the Piasss 
Barberini, upon a design of Bermnrs, in which a 
atone Triton sits upon four dolphins, and throws up 
the water from a large shelL But the prettiest of 
these minor fountains, in my opinion, is that of the 
Tmianu^f in the Piazza Mattei, in which four 
bronze figures, in singularly graceful attitudes, sup- 
port a vase, from which the water flows* It derives 
its name from four tortoises that adorn it 

On the whole, I admire, with fond adrairatioD, the 
fountains of Rome4 not that as fountains I dunk 
them beautifbl; but that falling water, in ample 
quantity, must be beautiful in a oHmate like this, 
where its sound, even in ^nter, is so sweet to the 
senses. I love to repose my fiincy upon the three 
ooble cascades that are poured fordi at the Fontana 
Paoliiia ; the copious streams wluch burst from the 
rooks of the fountain o( Ti^vi ; and those silyer 
fountains that throw high in air their glittering show- 
«s^ within the grand colonnades of St. Peter's. Then 
4m beantiful 9 but fpt idl the ugly statues of monsten 






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ROlfE. 879 

and men, — sea-horses an4 dragons,— prophets and 
lions, — ^and fishes and gods, — I hold Uiem in utter 
abhorrence, as well as the clumsy and hideous build- 
ings erected above them. 



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SSO ]tOH& 



LETTER LIV. 

VATICAN LIBBARir. 

The Vatican Library is called tbc largest in ibe 
"world ; not that it contains the most books, but the 
most space ; for although it has been formed cTer 
aince the days of Hilary, Pope and Saint, and been 
augmented by the accumulation of several subse- 
quent Popes and Saints ; and has received the entire 
libraries of various kings and cardinals, (amongst 
others, that of Queen Christina of Sweden^) and part 
of the library of the Roman Emperor of Constan- 
ibople — ^yet, after all, I am assured, by what I be- 
lieve to be good authority, that it scarcely possesses 
forty thousand volumes, although the amount is ge- 
nerally stated at double that immber. 

The collection of mmuscripts is, however, extreme- 
ly rare and valuable, and amounts to upwards (^ 
thirty thousand. Some of these are very curious. 
The famous Virgil, with its costume paintings of the 
TTrojans and Latins, supposed to have been executed 
«bout the age of Constantine; the Terence, with its 
paintings of Masks, of nearly asimci^t date ; the ma- 



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mnctipi of Pliny, widi ite pictwed NoahV atk of kaU 
mals ; Henjy VIII.^s Letten to Anne Boleyn ; and 
his Treadge on the Seven Sacraments, whidi he preu 
smted to Leo X., and in return received the title of 
Defender of that Fdth which he was so soon to oYer-* 
throw; the Tasso and Dante, and an infinity of 
ethersj-^interesting as they are, have hecn already so» 
often described, that I shidl abstain firom any obser-^ 
ration upon them.* 

The only access to the Library is from the Mvbi 
seam. The great door, which is cdT bronae, and verys 
magnificent, seems intended for ornament rather than 
mse, for it is ncTer opened. The usual entrance ia 
by a small door, which opens into die office of the 
seyen clerks, or writers of the principal European 
hmgoages, who are attached to the fibary. A car« 
dinwX is idways the nominal librarian, and this room- 
ie hung with the portraits of these Cardinali Bitiku 
Ucarfj amimgst which there is one by Domenichino. 

Passing on through an ante-room, you enter a hall 
two hundred feet by fifty, entirely painted m fresco,, 
with colours so glaring, and contrasts so Tiolent, that 
it reminded me of an imwf^nse China bowL This 
capacious apartment conUunsr. no visible sign ct 
hocks, and indeed you may walk thrcfug^ i&e whole 



* Slaoe the aatfaot left Rame^ a discovery has been mado 
hj the Abate Maio> of a part of the loet books of Cicero />& 
RepuNiea, upon which some of St Augustin's treatises ^ave 
been written— but the original MS.^ though much mutilate(^ 
is said to be still legible. 



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Vattdm XdbMtoy nillmil Meing wi^rftt they are 
Ant up in woodeii|nmae8, wMohkaayooiified either 
giest wealth or great poVeB^v . 

In dns hall these !« a cetaUm of most beiitfifiil 
Oriental aUbaaler, spitalty flula9d» bienght fioiii the 
Baths Gif the EafierorXiordian^ near the TtojAoca 
ef Marina, and ereoted npon a pedestal of t^^cfe on* 
ticD- The capital is unfortDbialely lost 

Here abo are two small Etmscto cinemy nms, of 
Urra coUa, with the conunon sepnidind has relief of 
the fratricidal comhat of ^eodes and Pdymces.: 

On ^iher ride of them appear their gundiisn fpi- 
rits, who, the Etruscans supposed, never left m»i 
iicom the cradle to Ae tomb.^Qr rather, perhaps^ faere^ 
Aey lepresent the Furies, who urged on the rvjral 
brothers to this sanguinary ecinhat, and who siauid 
emlting oter their yictims^ flapping thrir loi^ wfaig& 
But the Etruscan Drities are generril|r winged^ Mi- 
nerra is represented on an Eatruscan monnmenit hk^ 
Mercury, with wii^ both on her heels and ahdiil- 
ders ; and Venus, Diana, and several odiess, have 
the same attributes. 

We were shown die remnant of n piece of eloth of 
Asbestos, found in a sarcophagus ou the Appian 
Way, whidi the man who exhibited it, assared us 
was quite indestructible by fire ; at the' same time 
that he very consistently lamented that it was redu- 
ced almost to niching, by havlngbe«i so often burnt. 
The ftct is, that to a certain degree it resists the 
action of fire, and it was therefore used by the Ro- 
mans to collect the ashes of the wealthy dead. 



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Ha?iiig oMceiyed this hall to be the #hde librae 
ly, great wa» my surprise to bdidd at ita ,eiLU^s^tji 
oil either haud^ a long gaUery opeu upoft me ia 
almost interminable pexspectiTe.* I actually dtoocl 
nuite with antonishmentr^Hi rare effect on the female 
mind^-and like the ass between two bundles of hay». 
I scarcely knew which gallery to take* 

The one is terminated by the Sacred* ihe other 1^ 
the Profane Cabinet, as they are pleased to caU. 
th«n ; the first being a collection of Chiistiany the 
last of P^an antiquities. 

On our way to the former^ we encountered the 8ta% 
tue of St. Hyppolitufi, with a modem head, but s 
body of undoubted authenticity, and unqoestionaUy 
the moiE^ ancient statue of a Christian extant. It is s 
work of the age of Alexander Severus, and was dug 
out of the catacombs. Opjposite to him sits Aiistides 
-^not the anci^t philosopher — ^but a rhetorician of 
d^enerate days— ^whose statue bears no more com* 
parison to that Aristides we had so lately adpaired at 
Naples,f than does his &me to that of the Grecian 
Sage ; and we passed him without one tribute of re- 
spect or admiration. 

The Sacred Cabinet consists of curiosities taken 
from the catacombs — ^laborious carvings of Madon- 
nas in ivory — ^little pictures of saints on gilt grounds 
—has reliefii of the barbarous ages, representing mar« 



* We afterwards learned that it is 1200 English feet in 
length. 

t Found in Herculaneum. One of the finest statues in the 
world. 



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S84 uOyCE. 

tyidoras— bfttnimeatB used m martyriring die early 
Christtans, and a long ei cetera of all sorts of hete^ 
xogeneoas artides. There are a number of red vel- 
vet jewel cases — empty ; the French having carried 
off all the predous stones they could find, without 
aiiy regard to their sanctity ; so that the ear-rings 
and brooches of the saints ud martyrs, in all proba- 
bilityy are now ad<»mng the belles and el^antes of 
Paris. 

The adjoining chamber of the Papyrus is the most 
beautiful little bipu I ever beheld. Its architecture 
and decoration are by Raphael Mengs, who was em- 
ployed by Clement XIV. to make it, and to paint 
the roof in fresco. He haa represented history wri- 
ting on the wings of Time, and Fame hovering in 
the air, and sounding forth to the world the deeds 
she records. The composition is not, perhaps, very 
learned, but the figure of Time is fine, and the 
colouring, when compared with the horrible daubing 
of the present French and Italian schools, deserves 
the greatest praise. 

Mengs, like many other artists, was too much 
cried up in his .lifetime, and cried down since his 
death. 

The pavement of this superb little apartment is 
of the richest marbles ; the walls are encrusted with 
giaBo and verde anticoy with porphyry and pilasters 
of Oriental granite of the highest polish ; and the 
whole decoration is as much distinguished by taste as 
magnificence. 

The Papyrus mwiuscripts, which consist of ancient 
volumes unrolled, are enclosed in the walls in long 



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ROME. 385 

eolumns under glass. They are of ihe fimrth, fifth, 
and sixth cenftaries, in Greek and in Latin ; but in 
matter are of liule interest. When doaely examined, 
the papyrus has the appearance of vaxed doth. 

The library, at thia extremity, has been extended 
l^ the present Pope, who has added some rooms, in 
which the books can actually be seai, and even got 
at. He has also formed a narrow little gallery, the 
walls of which are entirely composed of inscriptioiia 
in terra coUa^ that otherwise might have been entbe* 
iy lost. I am sorry I can give you no account of 
them, my attention having been entirely engrossed by 
some Etaruscan, or, more properly, Grecian vases, of 
singular beauty. An immense number of vases are 
ranged on the top of the book-cases, along the whole 
extent of the gallery ; but these are by far the largest 
and finest, and, indeed, surplus any I have seen, ex- 
cept the unrivaUed collection at Naples. 

This library possesses a very fine cabinet <tf me- 
dals, which was carried off, and has been restored, by 
the French ; bat it is still in such complete confix- 
fiion, that it cannot be inspected. 

There is, too, attached to the libraty, a whole 
chamber filled with a fine collection of prints, to 
which it is necessary to have a particular order for 
admittance, and in anoth^ chamber, are the secret 
archives of the Vatican, to which there is no admit- 
tance at all. 

We traversed the whole extent of this immense 
gallery to the Profane Cabinet, at the other extre- 
mity, which comains a vmX ^tertaiiung collection of 
antiques. Some of the bronzes, especially, are ex- 

VOL. II. 9, B 



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386 HOME* 

tretnely corious and rare. Two bronze heads^ from 
their singular beauty^ first catdi the eye ; and also, 
but from an opponte cause^ a bronze Etruscan figure 
with the bulla, or amulet, about his neck, bearing an 
Etruscan inscription, a part of which has been de- 
ciphered, signifying that it was a votive statue. It is 
very much in what we should call Chinese taste ; the 
form and features, as well as the style, bear a near 
q^ooach to it. There are numbers of Penates ; of 
those long-legged, spindly, little bronze figures, with 
enormous casques, exactly like cocked hats, on their 
heads, which abound in every Museum. Among 
these I saw the Egyptian Sethos^ dressed in a tunic, 
and armed with a shield and a long sword, which, I 
think, precisely answers to the description of the Se* 
cutor.^ I observed some types for stamping— so 
dose an approach to types for printing, that I cannot 
but marvel how the ancients missed that invaluable 
invention. 

There are several lead water-pipes, marked with 
the plumbers' names ; but I might write a little vo* 
lume, were I to particularize one half of the curiosi- 
tiec( I observed. I will, therefore, pass over the most 
complete collection of kitchen and household uten- 
sils I have ever seen, and many exqaisite little pieces 
of art in gems, bronze, &c. 



♦ The Seoutores were one of the kinds of gladiators. They 
fought with the Retiarii, who endeavoured to entangle them 
hy throwing their net over their head, while tHe Secukres 
pursued them to prevent their purpose, and slay than.— Vide 
Isidor. xviii. 65. ^ 



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HOME. S87 

Perhaps the most singular thing in the whole, of 
its kind, is the long hair of a Roman lady, found in 
a tomb on the Appian Way, and in peifect preser- 
vation. It is strange how it alone should have esca- 
ped the common doom, and be, I may say, die sole 
physical remnant of hundreds of generations. Their 
bones, their ashes, their every vestige of mortality, 
have all vanished ; not even the paring of a nail, as 
far as I know, is left of all that lived and died in 
the long ages of Roman glory or degeneracy — except 
these tresses ; which still remain brown and unchan- 
ged, as when their beauty first pleased the eye of her 
whom they adorned. 



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388 ROME. 



LETTER LV. 



THK SISTIKA CHAPEL — THE LAST JUDGMENT- 
MICHAEL A14GSLO— THE FAOLINA CHAPEL — SALA 
BOBGtA. 

The French, ia permanently placmg the most 
celebrated portable productions of art at Paris, would 
have committed an irreparable injury to sculpture 
and painting ; for, by remoying the apparent strong- 
est temptations to artists to travel through Italy, 
they would haye excluded the majority of them from 
the true schools of art, which are the frescos of an- 
cienkmasters, and the innumerable and unremovable 
works of Grecian sculpture, (especially bassi rilievi ;) 
to the study of which, painting itself owes all that is 
great and beautiful in its design, conception, and exe- 
cution. 

There is no part of Italy that does not present a 
field of study. Bologna, Florence, Venios, Naples,* 



* Naples for the sculptor, Bologna and Venice for the paint- 
er, and Florence for both, are inestimable schools. But let it 



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BOMB. 889 

and eren Grenoa and Milan, abound in instnicdan 
and delight. But Rome surpasses all. Here, at 
every step, the artist will drink in instruction, that 
years of study could not give him in our GolUc 
countries. If he has taste or genius, here it must de^ 
velope itself, and find in every surrounding olgeet 
aliment for its growing powers. 

The inexhaustible treasures of the Vatican, the 
Capitol, and the Villa Albani, with innumerable sta- 
tues, bas reUefs, and fragments of exquisite sculp- 
ture, that meet the eye at every turn— the frescos of 
Michael Angelo, Raphael, Annibal Carrachi, Guido, 
Domenichino, andGuercino — all these, and far more, 
does Rome contain. Until you know these frescos, 
you cannot know what painting is. From these alone 
can you understand the true principles, powers, and 
perfection of the art. Experience only can make this 
be felt. Thousands who behold the Transfiguration 
never dream that they see the least part of Raphael. 
Hence the student, satisfied with the collection of 
the Louvre, would rarely have explored Europe to 
visit the forgotten treasures of Italy. 

The French only lopped a few branches of the 
tree of art-— they could not remove its root and stem. 

But, independent of the inconceivable mine of in- 
struction contained in those models, which must be 
fixtures here, the artist will here find a finer nature. 

be remembered^ that though the sculptor may he excused the 
study of painting, the painter can never sufficiently study 
sculpture. 



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990 ROME. 

Fmam^ whose contour and Bymmetry far sarpasftin 
perfection those of our ungenial dimates ; whose at* 
titudes and expression, untaught grace, and cbsacal 
beauty^ I hare often thought eyen approach the 
ideal,— continually meet his sight ; and their study 
must give to his imaginatioQ new combinations of all 
that can constitute p^ection. 

To retnm to the firescos, the value of which can- 
not be justly estimated at the first glance. I imagine 
no one can now sec the Last Judgment of Michael 
Angelo without a feeling of extreme disa^)ointment. 
It is, indeed, somewhat difficult to see it at all. The 
architect of the Sistine Chapel has so ingeniously 
joontrived to exclude the light, that, unless when the 
sun shines unclouded, high in the meridian, the at- 
tempt is yain ; and eyen then, blackened with the 
smoke of innumerable tapers, durix^ three centuries, 
it may be supposed that many of its beauties are now 
obscured. Besides this, a huge, high, red yehet 
canopy, lifts its awkward back from the altar into the 
yery centre of the picture, breaking up the subject, 
and spoiling the effect of the whole. 

We had interest enough with some of the red- 
Ic^ged race to get this machine remoyed, for oar 
especial benefit, during two or three days ; but until 
a Pope of taste shall wear the tiara, there is no chance 
of its beii^ carried off altogether. 

The common engraying — bad as it is, for a. good 
one is still a desideratum, — ^will giye you a fat 
clearer idea of this celebrated fresco than the most 
laboured description ; therefore I shall conteait my- 



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BOME. 391 

vAf ividi obflervingy that it coven the wh<^ of the 
wall of the upper end of the chapel, fixmi the ceiling 
to the floor. High in the centre, is Christ judging 
the world, in the yery act of denouncing to the widced 
beneath, on his left hand, that tremendous sentence 
— ~^' Go, ye. cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared tn 
the devil and his angels.^ While glory ineffable 
surrounds his head, and saints and beatified spirits 
hover around him, the heavenly ministers of divine 
vengeance are hurling the condemned downwards to 
the bottomless abyss. Their last uplifted looks to 
that heaven which is shut against them for ever,-^ 
the ghastly fear depicted on thdr countenances,-— 
and dieir desperate struggles of resistance, are hor- 
rible beyond conception. 

At this comet of the picture, at the bottom, u re- 
presented Charon, ferrying them in his boat over the 
dark waters of Styx, and driving the reluctant sfMrits 
out with his oar, esuictly as Dante describes him— 

** Batte col remo qualunque s'adagin." 

The depths of hell open on its brink, and yetting 
demons, with diabolical gestures, and girt with hissing 
snakes and scorpions, such as even Dante^s imagina^ 
tion could scarcely have conjured up, stretdi fiirch 
their fiery arms to sieze their trembling victims. 

On the other hand, around the throne of gbry, 
angels are sounding the golden trumpet, at which the 
dead arise. Their lifeless re-animating forms, half 
lifted from the grave, are so finely designed, that, un^ 
natural as is the sulgect, they seem to come to life 
before your eyes. Others, disencumbered of their 



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398 Raii£« 

mteUd cbj, are ascending into heaven, and «i^l«9 
8loo|nng fiom tlie clouds, are assisting them to xise 
into light and glory. 

The grand and prominent figure of the Judge and 
Redeemer of the votld, instantly strikes the eye, 
serves as the dividing point of the picture, and gives 
to the composition clearness, grandeur, and effect* 
Above his head, the fleeting forms of angels are seen 
bearing the symbols of his passion. St. Bartholomew, 
below, offers up his skin, the symbol of his martyr- 
dom ; and the figures of some other saints are done 
with a force and grandeur of design truly wonderful 
But I have a particular objection to some of the fe^ 
male saints. St. Catherine of Siena, in a gteea gown, 
and somebody else in a blue one, are supremely hi- 
deous. It seems that one of the Popes — I believe 
Paul IV. — in an unfortunate fit of prudery, was seised 
with die resolution of whitewashing over the whole of 
the Last Judgment, in order to cover the scandal of 
a few naked female figures, in the grandest puntrog 
in the world. With difiSculty his Holiness was at last 
prevented firom utterly destroying this unrivalled cbm- 
porition, but he could not be dissuaded from ordering 
these poor women to be clothed in their unbecomiog 
petticoats. Daniel da Yblterra, whom he employed in 
this office, received, in consequence, the name qf ^^ II 
Barghettone.'** 

On the whole, I think the Last Judgment is sow 
mere valuable as a school of design, than as a fine 
painting, and that it will be more sought for the study 
of the artist, than the delight pf the amateur. Beau- 
tiful it is not— but it is sublime ;— sublime in con- 



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ROME. 898 

ception, and astomishing in executicn. Still, I bdieve, 
there are few who do not feel that it is a labour rather 
than a pleasure to look at it Its blackened snifeoe 
-^^its dark and dingy sameness of colouring— >the ob- 
scurity which hangs oyer it-^the confusion and muU 
titude of naked figures which compose it, (to say no* 
thing of the grossness of such a display) — ^their un- 
natural position, suspended in the air, and the same- 
ni^ss of ferm, attitude, and colouring, confound and 
bewilder the senses. 'These were, perhaps, defects in^ 
separable from the subject, although it was one ad» 
mirably calculated to cdl forth the powers of Michael 
Angelo. He has, indeed, here shown himself master 
of the grand and the terrible ; and the learning, the 
science, the perfection of design, the vigour of genius, 
and the grandeur of thought, this sublime composi*- 
tion evinces, must be admired by all who are capable 
Off estimating them. 

To merit in colouring it has confessedly no preten- 
sions, and I may venture to say, that I think it also 
deficient in expression — that in the conflicting pas- 
flions, hopes, fears, remorse, de^air, and transport, 
that must agitate the breasts of so many thousands 
in that awful moment, there was room for powerful 
expression, which we see not here. But it is faded and 
defaced-— >the touches of immortal genius are lost tor 
ever — ^and from what it is, we can form but a fiunt idea 
of what it was. Its defects daily become more glaring 
—its beauties vanish ; and, could the spirit of its great 
author behold the mighty work upon which he spent 
the unremitting labour of seven years, with what 
grief and mortification would he gase ^pon it now ! 



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394 ROME. 

. It may be fimciful, bul if seems to me that in thi$, 
and in every other of Michael Angelo'^s works, you 
may see that the ideas, beauties, and peculiar excel- 
lencies of statuary, were ever present to his mind; 
that they are the conceptions of a sculptor embodied 
in painting. 

Michael Angelo, indeed, deserves our highest ve- 
neration for the just principles which he rescued fiom 
oblivion, for the emancipation from Gothic barbarism, 
and for the total and happy reformation he ef&ctedin 
art, by introducing the study of the antique, of ideal 
beauty, and of nature, in all their truth, simplicity, 
and grace* He was the reviver of true taste, and may 
be called the author of all the excellence we have since 
enjoyed — ^the master of successive generations ; but, 
perhaps, at least as far as painting goes, he is rather 
to be admired for the excellence he has caused in 
others, than for his own. 

In fact, he always painted unwillingly, and few of 
his works remain. The Sistine Chapel may be said 
to contain them all. The frescos of the roof were 
painted before the Last Judgment, and, though less 
famed, are, in my poor opinion, far superior — more 
especially the noble figures of the Sibyls and Pro- 
phets, round the frieze^ which have a grandeur and 
aublimity that painting has rarely equalled. These 
are in far better preservation than theLast Judgment ; 
so also a^ the nmeMUtonic pictures, which adorn the 
roof— representing the figure of the Eternal Father, 
calling the world out of chaos — the Creation of Man, 
imd of Woman — their bliss in Paradise— and, above 
all, the last beautiful picture of their expulsion from 



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KOHE. 

those blessed seats. But it would be i 
tion, to attempt to give you any idea 
of these great master-pieces of painti 
fore refrain, even from the ezpressic 
—and the dear delight of eriticum. 
These, then, are all that remain c 
Michael Angelo 



" quel ch'a par sculpe e 

Michel^ piu che mortal^ ADgd di^ 

For we are told that he never paintei 
{Mece in oils,f although many of his c 
cuted by Sebastian del Piombo, M; 
and others. 

In the Paolina Chapel, indeed, ' 
J;her were — some of his frescos; 
thoroughly blackened with the smok ; 
tapers that bum before the Sepulcl i 
in Passion Week, that they are al 
terated. 

* Ariosto, Canto 33. t Vide ^ 

X Marcello Venusti^.of whose works 
England^ was a native of Mantua^ and. i 
colour-grinder to Perrin del Vaga, but 
way^ in spite of all his master's efforts t( I 
a protector in Michael Angelo^ and^ b} 
and receiving his instructions, caught 
as well as that of Raphael's, whose woi i 
died, that he is thought, by many critics 
of the peculiar excellencies of both mat i 
the envious master of Marcello Venusi 
successful of Raphael's pupils in cop; 
works, although decidedly deficient to 
ginal genius. 



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S96 KOME. 

Besides, the dungeon darkneia that reigna in tfais 
chapel, rreii <m the brij^teat auiiiHMr's day, renders 
it abaolatdy impoaaible to see th«n. As well as I 
oodd gaeaa at them, under sudi ciicamstanoea, they 
must have been grand compositioiis. The subjects 
are the Conrersion of St. Paul, and the Cmdfixion 
of St. Peter — ^both admirably suited to his powers. 

It is cruel to see works such as these, the sole re- 
mains of the Father of Paintiog, which might serre 
for the instruction and admiration of future genera- 
tions^ not only abandoned to neglect and decay, bat 
BCfcilaasly, and, one would think, sedulously de- 
alloyed. But it is no use to be angry. 

The Sala Borgia, the anti-hall to the Sistina and 
Padina Chapels, is painted with fietoos, more re- 
maskable for their subject than execution. They re- 
present the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, thus 
oommemocated on papal walls, and by papal com- 
mand, as a meritorious action 1 Times are changed. 
No Pope, I imagine, would venture now to give 
openly a sanction of approval to such a deed — ^nor, 
in fact, could any person, I should hope, be found 
capaUe of planning or of perpetrating it. These are 
the days of political rather than of religious fana- 
ticiam. 



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ROME. 897 



LETTER LVI. 

THE CAMBBK OF EAPHAKL. 

I THiHK there is a chiracter in Raphael whidi 
Btumarotti wants— «a truth of eKjweanon, a soul* 
touching beauty, a sentiment, a niajes^, which none 
but Raphael eyer so eminently possessed, but which 
Buonarotti strikes me as being peculiarly defident 
iiL^*<-We turn from his works with our understand* 
ing satisfied and instructed, but omr soul unmoved* 
They only address themselves to the head, but Ra- 
phael's toodi the heart. The fimner will only be ad- 
mired by the learned, the latter will be felt by all. 

It ought not to be forgotten, in estimating the 
performances of these two great men, that Midiael 
Angelo lived more than two lifetimes of Raphad«^ 
What Raphael would have been, had he not been 
cut off in the yery day*spring of his genius, we may 
with sorrow estimate, from the works which even at 
six-and^thirty he left to the world. He might be in- 
feriov to Bnonasotti in leaming-*«-he might owe to hu 
more advanced studies much of his grandeur of style, 
-<-but he dsew his perfection from himsel£ In the 
noble air of his heads, and the grand flow of his 



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S98 ROME; 

draperies, he is confessedly unrivalled— «nd in tbat 
touching beauty of expression — ^in that power which 
speaks from his works to the understanding and the 
heart — ^neither Buonarotti, nor any human beiiig, 
ever approached him. 

It is years sinc^I saw the Cartoons, an<i still they 
are present to me. Even while I write, the image of 
Paul preaching at Athens, and that suUime head of 
Saint John in the death of Ananias, return upon my 
remembrance. What sentiment !— What soul !— 
What holiness !— What beauty !— What must have 
been the mind of him who conceived it ; and what 
an ineffaceable imfn-ession does it leave upon the 
heart ! 

To how few has been given that wondrous fiunilty 
of breathing' into their works more than human 
beauty, sublimity, and grace— the power of surpass- 
ing nature, without departing from her laws, and 
creating by the conceptions of their own exalted 
minds, forms of unima^ed thinking beauty ! 

On Raphael, and on the unknown author of the 
A{N>llo, this precious gift was bestowed ; and the 
admiration of successive generations, the firuitless 
imitations of artists of every age and country, have 
made us feel ^^ we shall never look upon their like 
again r 

One can never sufficiently regret that Raphael was 
tied down so continually to the samaiess and sense- 
less repetition of Madonnas and Holy Families. He 
knew, indeed, how to vary them — to give them that 
unparalleled grace, that tenderness of expression, and 



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ROME. S99 

that soul-affecting beauty and divinity, which make 
us gaze upon, them for ever with unsatiated delight 
Still, if there be any feebleness of design in his works, 
it is in such as these. But it is in his great histori- 
cal compositions, in the sublimity of the Transfigu- 
ration, the matchless Cartoons, and, more than ^1, 
the immortal frescos of the Camere^ that we feel in 
all their force his transcendent powers ; and these 
imperishable memorials will for ever consecrate his 
name. 

Imperishable, did I say ? Alas i while we gaie 
upon the mouldering frescos of the Comer e^ how do 
we mourn over the decay of works such as the world 
can see no more ! 

All that brutal mjury, culpable neglect, and still 
more culpable restoration, could do to accelerate their 
deatruction, has been added to the slow attadu of 
time. Scarcdy ten yearfi after they were painted, 
when Borne was taken by assault,* the licentious 
soldiers lived in these chambers, lighted their fires, 
in default of chimneys, on the stone flows, blacken- 
ing the paintings with smoke, (which is far more de- 
structive to frescos than to oil paintings,) and even 
wantonly injured and defaced many of the fiaest 
heads* These, Sebastian del Piombo was employed 
to restore; though a capital colourist, his powers 
were by no means equal to the task, and he executed 
it so ill, that Titian, who afterwards visited these 



♦ A. D. 1528. 



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400 UOME. 

chambers with him, purposely asked him, if he knew 
who was the presmnptuoQS «nd ignorant blockhead 
that had daubed over these noble heads ?* 

But the injuriei that would have wholly ruined 
any other paintbgs, have scarcely thrown a cloud 
over these ; and while the faintest outline remains, 
they must retain their pre-eminent superiority. Bat 
that superiority, in their present state, is by no 
means striking at the first glance. After all your 
high-raised expectations, you will walk through a set 
ci cold, square, gloomy, unfurnished rooms, with 
some old, obscure, faded figures, painted on the walls ; 
and these are the Camere of Raphael ? You will in- 
quire, Ubi est Raphctel f Your disappointm^t will 
have no bounds. But have patience-Hsuspend your 
judgment — learn to look on them-p^and every fresh 
examination will reward you with the perception of 
new beauties, and a higher sense of their excel- 
lenccf 

Every inch of the walls, firom the ceiling to the 
floor, and the whole of the roo&, are covered with 
paintings. They are not, however, all done by hb 
own hand — ^many of them, either entirely or in part, 
were executed by the principal pupils, under his eye, 



* ^^ Che fosse quel presuntuoao ed ignorante^ che area em- 
brattati que' volti ?" — Lanzi^ Storia Pittorica. 

f Such is the gloominess of these chambers^ and the ob- 
scurity of the paintings^ that they never ought to be visited 
except early on a bright clear day. Even before two o'clock^ 
the light is lost for them. 

15 



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4(M BQMe* 

T]m powerlew bw^png Mmlw^ mid the bd^l^w 
feddcnwhof the old iajui> are beautifoUy rqp9rQ8«sito&^ 
£¥4iry subordinate part u a» p^rfisct. aa lh« ^Aok 
of thia great composition, witboiU atUactisep a4tte»* 
tion unduly. The v)^ paToownt c^ the alreet ia 
inunitaW» 

Thia vaa the hvst, and p^bapft the heat of the 
fteacoa paioAed by Raphael himselft The ceiK«g ia 
this Tpam, ia painted by Fielsoo Pemgioa^vhose werics> 
fieom ro^ect to his masteF, BaphaeLxefiisedtaeffiMe. 
In anothei; painting in. the saio^ roomr-^^be Coro- 
nation of Charlemagne by Leo. IIL, chiefly esucur- 
1^ by Raphael's pupils'-^I was. nMch stenck with 
the beauty of the little page. Th^eis a.oontraat too 
between the youth and smilijcc innocence. (^ the boy, 
and the weight of cares and woes, one attaches to the 
idea of the crown he bears,, that perhapaadda to its 
effect The head of one of the bishops, loo^^but we 
dMuld ncTer be done were I to- enumerate the hvst- 
dredth part of the beauties that delight me in^ thssfi 
frescos* 

The head of Charlemagne is the pmttrait €£ Ersft* 
ds the First of France, and that of l4eo III. of Leo 
X. 

The Justification and Pivgatiwi by oath <^ Char- 
lemagne befbce Fope Leo and bis Cardioal^ ovec 
thQ window iu thia chamber,^and the Deseenl of 
the Saracens upon Ostla> ajre also painted from Ra- 
phael's, designs,, by his pupila. Net so the School 
of Athens, which was evidmtly the woah of his own 
hands* I cannot fnd w.ovds suffidieut %^ nipe$k my 
admiration of this wonderful performance, which is. 



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ROME. 409 



a 



II 



Sv 



pcthaph thi finest jnetBmre in tbe wMld, and one of 
^ the greatest and most peiftct prodnctions of mind. 
^' llie skin of the eoinpo8ilioi»-*-Ae art with vhich 
^' fif^-two figures^ all of equal inportanee, all pUlo- 
80f>h«», all in the same style of dressy ase anrnngedl 
io one piece, without monotony, crowding, or eonfis^ 
rioD, the diaracter preserv e d in eadi--4he interest 
< given to a eold sehdastae disenssion^-iio praise can 
*' do it justice, and without seeing it, you never can 
-'* conceive its perfections. 

A . Cki tike stops of a Grecian portico^ stand Aristotle 
^r and Plato engaged in argoment, and each hoMing 
K a volume in his hand. Their ^seiples are ranged 

around, attentively listemag t» them. Aenealb is 
ia Dlogcsies, — an iniraitaUe 6gure,*-^tlesidy extend- 
f ed on the steps. On the loft, at the top^ is Socrates^ 
» earnestly talking to young Aleibiades, who listens 
-i in a lingering sort of aCldtnde, as if half subdued 
IS by the wisdom of the sq;e~half willhig to tu^ 

1 away from it ; aeknowtedging inwardy the truth of 
his doeteines — yet still resolved to ^ve the reins to 

I pleasure, and run the career of gay enjoyment I 
know not, however, why the young Greeiim was not 
made more handsonne. The eld man beside him, 
N widi a cap on, hstening to Socrates, is illimitable: 
\ Anodier looking over the shoalder of Pythagoras, 
i who is WTtring his works, is, if possible^ still finer, 
f The fignvlf, in deep distracted thought, leaning on 
ii his elbow, with a pen on his hand ; Zoroaster hold* 
I ing a globe ; Archimedes (which, it is said, is the 
1 portrait of BaphaeVs unde, Br ama n le , the vtt^A* 
i test,) stooping to trace a geometrical figure, widi 



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404 ]tOM£. 

oompasMs on a slate on tlie ground, and the vbole 
group that aorrounda hin, are beyond all praise. In 
the comer on the right, the figure with a Uack cap, 
is the portrait of Baphael himself^ and that beside 
him, of Pietro Perugino. Several other figures are 
said to be likenesses of his contemporaries. But what- 
ever were the features he oopied, he has given them 
that character and expression which exactly suited 
his sulgeot, together with the very truth of. nature 
itself. 

With grief do I say, that ihis inestimable work 
has suffered still more than the rest, and I even 
I fanqr that since I first saw it, now nearly two years, 
some of the heads are more de&ced. 

Opposite is the Dispute upon the Saorament — the 
first ct these frescos which Kaphael painted. Sur- 
rounding the altar appear the four Doctors of the 
Boman Church, attended by the Apostles and Bless- 
e4 Saints, in high dispute :•— «id above their heads 
are seen in air the Father, the Son, and Holy Ghost, 
-'^•with the Virgin Mary, and John the Baptist. 

Above the window in this room, is painted, by 
Baphael himself, Apolb, on Mount Parnassus, en- 
circled by the Muses, and playing on the violin — ^I 
could have wished it had be^ the lyre— espedally 
since we were to see, not to hear \u The whole group 
is beautiful, and the figure of Sappho, reclining be- 
low, peculiarly so. Homer, Vurgil, Horace, Ovid, 
Dante, and many other great poets, appear in the 
sacred choir. I had repeatedly passed many hours in 
gasing at the walls in this room, before I thought of 
looking at the ceiling„ which is painted by Baphael 



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ROME. 405 

himself. The figures oP Philosopby, Poetry, The- 
ology, and Justice ; and tbe jnctures of Adam and 
£ve, of the Judgment of Solomon, and of Marsyas 
and Apollo, amply repay the fatigue of contempla- 
ting tl»em, which, firom their position and obscurity, 
is not small. 

The ceiling in the next chamber is punted in 
chiaro oscnro by Raphael, and all the four pamtings 
on the walls are executed by himself. They con- 
sist, first, of the Miracle of Bolsena — in which the 
real presence appears in the Eucharist, for the con- 
version of the unbelieving Priest, who is administer- 
ing the Sacrament, and who looks sufficiently sacred 
at this literal manifestation of the truth of Tran- 
sobstantiadon. The painting represents a miracle of 
somewhat more importance, and doubtless of equal 
authenticity. It is the meeting of Attila and his 
victorious army on their progress to Rome, by St 
Leo I., attended by his train of priests on the earth, 
and by the Aposdes Peter and Paul in the sky,— -an 
apparition which immediately fr^htened all the Huns 
backagain*—- Thefigureof Attillaisveiy fine. Pope 
Leo I. is the portrait of Leo X., who was Pope when 
this fresco was punted. 

The liberation of St. Peter from prison is one of 
the finest paintings genius ever produced ; but such 
is its wretched situation, immediately above the great 
gothic window which cuts into it, that its effect is, 
in a great degree, lost, both from the bad light and 
the uiMouth awkwardness of its form. 

This wallhasbeen thebedof Proerustes,^on whidt 
the productions of genius have been stretched out t>r 



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406 BQMIE. 

conpmnd. As it u, tkis nay perikaps fee cMuidcr- 
ed three pdntiiigs raiber than eae. In tbe centre, 
through the grated window of the dmgemi, is aecD 
Sc Peter in ehaia8» and the angel appeanag to liim, 
and coaimanding him ta riae. The transeendant 
gloiy that surrounds the head of the o^etial mi- 
tor, fonaa the aok light <^ the piece. Again, on the 
ii(^ at the pxiaon daors, the aogel appeua leading 
finrth tbe apostle. Th«r 6gures, in hoik repedtioBs, 
are woadeifolly 6m. On the kft» (at the other »de 
of the window,) are two aaldienit hastily deseendusg 
the steps leading fraai ihedungeon» incmttrtemalioii 
and alam, tbe moon Aiafag bright on their glitter- 
iog armour, and shielding their eyes fraai iiie suddoi 
Uinding glare of the torch dim comrade haUs at die 
£oot of tbe stair, which fidls fuU en tbe face of ano- 
ther gol£er, awakening froai sleep^-^admicaUy ex- 
paessed. Bat vain is all deserfption-^^rain would be 
aU imitation. The very mediauisni of this wonder- 
fol pictnr»<^the variety ef lights^ tbe moiMriigbt shi*- 
mag on the distant coinitfy, and en the soldiers^ anns, 
tbe torch gleamslg cin dieir laces,— «aDd tbe two ce- 
lesldal lights enaaating firoa the preaonec of tbe an- 
gel, — are alone, in their man^jencnt and effect, s 
prodigy of sldU aad science. 

We BOW turn lo tbe hist of tbelanr paintii^ in 
this chamber) tbe ezpulsinn of Hetiodostts firatn tbe 
Tempie hy sMgAs. Thfe faistoiy is rdated in Mac- 
cabees. When attempting to s«se ^^ iba mmuj bid 
up here for the fatherless and widows, an a^pasxtaon 
sppearedr-^ bprae with a terrible rider, adorned with 
a very fiur covering, and he ran Seredy and smote 



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ged him continually.^ * 

iMbimg am 'tisieeed die fnsfaiiig of the attack— 
tbe tttpidytydf the onaet-^the magic, that makes the 
aiftioti 'seem to go on before your eyes. 

Hie aiiperhuntan force and activity of the venge- 
fbi tticM^igers, strike yott widi awe ; bat tihere is no 
«xaggenfd<m, no violence, no overstraining. Pope 
Juiitu n. inflated upon bemg brought into this «c£fne, 
tlmiigh it happened at least eighteen hundred years 
h^tbte he ^aa bom. 3b Rajdiael was obliged to in- 
trt>AACe him, and he appears at the comer, borne in 
on bi9 thair of «tate. Raphael has certaiidy done 
this group, (which, of itself, is a masterpiece lofpimit- 
k^,> t)ie hommr t>f painting it with his oWtt hand, 
d^ I doubt die eiteeutive pasrt of die whole of the 
resl bf tke picttrri^ bdbg hiSi, thotigh it is generally 

In tbe fMrth ahd last thiimber, none of the paint- 
i^ are exebttted by Raphael^ excepting the figures 
xf Justice and Metcy, painted in oils by himself; 
iind, according to some accounts, the last works of 
hfei hand. Tfaalt gtatid painting, the battle between 
Constantine and MftxebtiXui, at the Ponte MoUe^ 
ttear Rome, deSigtMed by Raphael, and painted after 
his death by Oiulit) Romano, is worthy alike of the 
master and the scholar. The colouring, indeed, has 
the faults of his great pupil,— too much of that red 
hue, that t>paque faridciness, th^t general diffusion 

* II, Mac(!abees^ chap. iii. 



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408 B^ME. 

of lights, and want of dbiaro oflcium, that «e see in 
his works ; but it is given with all his charaeleristic 
spirit and energy. 

In this grand composition^ Raphael has sucoess- 
fully triumphed over all the confiessed difficulties of 
the subject. It has all the action and hurry and 
movement of a battle^ without the smallest confusion. 
At one glance you see the whole. The figmre of 
Constantine, riding over the field on his milk-white 
charger, at once catches your eye. Victory sits on his 
crowned and lofty front, while the defeated usurper, 
sinking in the stream, grappling, in his last conyul- 
sive agonies, with instinctive desperation, the bridle 
of his spent and panting steeds forces you, shudder- 
ing) to gaze upon its horrors. 

In this room, and painted also by Giulio Romano, 
is the apparition of the Fi^ Cross in the Heavens, 
which Constantino witnessed previous to the battle. 
Though excellent in itself, it is inferior to the battle. 
The rest of the paintings in this room are executed 
by other pupils of Raphael, from his designs ; none, 
excepting the comer figures of the eight Fopes, be^ 
ing by Giulio Romano. The roof of this chamber 
was painted by an inferior artist many years after- 
wards, and not from the designs of Raphael 

It may possibly interest you to know the order in 
which Raphael painted his frescos. It was as fol- 
lows :— 

1. The Dispute upon the Sacrament, intended to 
exemplify Theology. 



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ROME. 409 

S* Jwitfprodcnee,— exemplified on one ride by the 
"Emperat Jnstiiuan, wbo receives the Code of Lawi 
from Trebonian ; and the other by Gregory IX., 
who detivers the Decretals to a member of the Cob^ 
sistory,— pointed above the windows of the same Cfr- 
meni* 

S. Mount Parnassus, with Apollo and the Muses, 
representing Poetry. 

4* The School of Athens, representing Philoso- 
phy. After finishing this great work, Baphad paint- 
ed the Prophet Isaiah, in the Augustine Church, 
and the Sibyls in S^. Maria della Pace. He then 
painted, 

5. The Miracle at Bolsena, of the real presence 
in the Eucharist. 

6. Heliodorus expelled from the Temple by the 
Angels. After this, he painted the Cartoons for the 
Flemish Tapestry; seven of which we have in Eng- 
land. Then returning to the Vatican, he successive^ 
ly executed, 

7. The Liberation of St Peter firom prison by 
the Angels. 

8. Attila arrested in his progress to Rome by St. 
Leo, with the apparition of St. Peter and St Paul 
in the sky. 

9. The Burning of the Borgo San Spirito. 

I have passed over almost without notice, many of 
the frescos, which I have spent hours, and I might 
add days, in studying and admiring, firom the wish 
not to swell this letter with vain and tedious descrip- 



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410 ROME. 

tioiiv. It is nol fiirnie to Attempt to praise die last 
9md best works of iMs gt^sHMt of piainters. LiClie 
aS) perbftps, I am aVk to esiimato all thciir merit a&d 
aeimoo^ I hsn^ felt tlieir poActioii, and drawn ftom 
Aar alsdy a deUglit whiA words can never describe. 
It is impossible, indeed, to see works such as these, 
witliKmt ftein;^ tbe nnnd etikrg«d^ and oonstSons of 
higher ideas of beauty, of perfedlbm, of mond dig- 
nity and pawvr. That I have seen them — that their 
i«iage is indelibly engmv^ npon my mind-^will be, 
through 1%,^ source of unalienable pleasure to me ; 
nor would I part with their veiy temembrante, for 
much that this world oould bestow. 



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ROME. 411 



LETTER LVIL 



T1I£ S^QQGJF. OF BJLrUA£]>-*THft PAIKTINGS tN THE 
VATICAN* 

I HAVB but « ikw woitSk 10 My on tke Loffgte of 
Hiqabad; for, besMes tluA enocigli has already been 
said snd vrifelMi upon t hcm -' A fct tliey snre decided- 
ly inferior to die onnitaMe ftesoos of the Camere, 
pamled «t a nraok earlier period, and fbr the most 
funrt executed fton ias des^s by his pupils— to en- 
ter into tbeiA «t all, would require a minuteness of 
detail that would be perfectly intoleraUe. 

The first story consbts merely of omanental paint- 
ings of treillage, shdls, flowers, &c. which merit lit- 
tle notice. The second comprises that series of pic- 
tures^ from the creataon of the wm'ld to the cmd- 
fixion of our Saviour, which has sometimes been call- 
^ RaphaePs Bible. These paiiitiiigs are on a very 
smaUscafe* Sach arcade, or hgffia^ or space be^ 
tween two piUaes, contains four, on the fbur sides of 
its Ooved roo£ 

The first of these, which represents Gk»d the Fa- 
dier, in dte toid of cbaos, caliingfoith the world and 



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41S BOMB. 

the deep, is unquestionably the work of Raphaers 
own hand, and is prodigtooslj eztoDed by connois* 
aeon. Michadi Angelo himsdf must have been 
atfuck with its sublimitjr, for he ezdaimed, that Ba- 
phael could never have painted it had he not seen 
his own figure of the Eternal Father on the roof of the 
Sistine Chapel, fiom which, at his desire, Raphael 
had been jealously excluded. No one, however, but 
his rival, will charge Raphael with this petty pilfer- 
il^. The work is his own^ whatever be its merits or 
defects. For my own part, I confess, that I do not 
see in this, or in any of the paintings of the Loggie, 
that greatness of st^le^ .ihat ekvadon of thought, 
and wondrous beauty of expression, that charaeteriw 
his later and better works ; nay^ more^ that this fi- 
gure of the Supreme Being, sprawfing about, with 
his aims and legs extended in every oppodte Utec- 
tion, so far from striking me with its subKmity, was 
so inezjHressibly shockbg to me, that I turned bom 
it with disgust 

The quadruple image of the Almighty fills the 
four compartments of this first Loggia. In one of 
these, painted by Giulio Romano, he is represented 
with the sun in one hand, and the moon in the 
other, kicking the earth to its place with his feet. 

Not even Raphadl's pencil can xeoondle me to any 
representation of the Deity. Numa ferbade the Bo- 
mans to represoit the IMvinity under a human ferm. 
It would have been well had Christians observed the 
sameresiwet. 

The Baptism of Christ, which is, I believe, al- 



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&OMB. 413 

most the only other pictaie of the I^oggie eieealed 
by the hand of Rajdiael himadf, I adwoed the moel 
of any. But the exuninatioii of them k so pecoliaiw 
ly lattgoing, from their number, and from the pod. 
tion into which it throws the heod» that I have not 
studied them with the attentiMi they dcsenra. On 
the whole, however, good engravingB will gi?e you a 
fiur better idea of the Loggie, than of meet paintbgi, 
for their chief merit OHHiflli in their design and 
compoaition; the colouring, perhaps originally fiinhy, 
is now orach injured by time, sad ezposnre to die 
atmosphere. 

The gallery of oil psinlings in the Vatiosa, now 
in the Borghese Chunbors, contsins the two finest 
pictures in the world — The Trsasfigaratbn of Ra- 
phael, and the Communion of St Jerome of Dome- 
mchino. It is the fsshion now, I beheye in conse- 
quence of Madame de StaeFs commendatien, to giTe 
the preferaace to the latter. The fiu^t is, that Ra. 
pbael is the first, and Domenidiino the second, 
painter in the world— and these are their master- 
pieces. But we must not estimate the merits of the 
masters from these works. The Communion of St. 
Jerome equals, if not surpasses, any of I>omeni«dii« 
no^s JBrescos ;— -the Transfiguration does not approaA 
to those of Raphael. The Transfiguration, too, has 
sufifered more from time, injury, and restoration, and 
it is only to the eye that has die true feding for Ae 
highest species of perfection, that its superiority will 
be manifest. The beauties of the Commimion, which 
is in iar finer preserratiim, are much more palpable 



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ItOBfS. 




ggiWCf^ 



it 18 ccm* 

^ the first ais^t. as the 

sBguraiticm ^rill 1>c far vicMre ad- 

^li time than the first. It is, be- 

d^fflo^il^^ lM[&ny punters might 

uminiafii. of St. Jerome, but "who 

luiiie pefinted the- frmsfigura- 






figiare of our Sa- 

cloi&ds, is am attempt tbe 

A pre»ixmp ta a a s» tlurt 

-painting — and, at the same time, 

^tteomifiiL.. Xt is,, indeed,, tlue tri- 

I lurre nerrwr seem it. ^wathout the 

^ ecvald be divested off Moaea and 

^de; but the truth at geqpel Us- 

^^B^aphodL to thia. X^iOok at the Tcaas- 

^^^onx alene, ^wit^wnt these accom- 

and jou wiU better js^Ag^ q£ its 

_ strange to see: the wbsle picture of 

^^^^ijH-'-^iwkidiiaig the thrse apostles^ 

'^ ^gsfiovgaty ehadikig^ theb: dasaled s&aaeA 

^^^^aWe bcigktUQefiB^^^-occujpgsiug only t 

^^^ tofi of: the cxaaemBm^ — and the princi- 

^^^ith a totally disl&iuH;^ and cerlaiBly 

.tjctwe—that oC the desiK«iac boy, 



_ oared an. eoaais^ diown fiwm the 

^ traasfigraraldmau Biidkt thaa wae d<mc 

^ ^ith the ord^t-^ o£ the manha of St 

^^,i^iti<^*>'^hiMe cdnuseh it was painted. 



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It WM the miymml covlosi of ih« ^ gp - .i he jrd ii»* 
bftDidMid tMtn of Gothic dny a-^^^ b«¥e two pidwci^ 
9 cdefttial and a tenestnal oae^ wbdly unooiinected 
with each other ; accordingly wo ace few, otca of tilo 
finest paintu^pi, in. which tbcro is 9ot. a heavenly 
sutg ect a1;M^ye and an eartUjy one bdow--7for the | 
Qwwtera of l^ digr>. ^^ our omi Shakspenct 
compelled to. suit timr works to the taste of theiv 
^nployers. 

CiOBAenipIuiiQ lived uk M age which had shaken off 
HMWiy torhnrifflw^hii aneela ate oamflcted wiA the 
pictwfy and losk dawn i^xNtthe dyhig saint, whoae 
failuigji trembling hmfas aro «appoKltd«. bieetii^ i» 
lifers last momontsy to jceenve tbe* enpi ef Chiistr*^ 
with looks of such holy love and raptnsev Aat we 
could vat widii them away. I do no* thiiA the Gom- 
munion of St. Jerome equal to the Transfigiinitie» 
— ^it is a. work of less ademcot Isss diffiflu]^,.kss. com- 
plication, and lesa power ; but I da think it the se^ 
cond painting in the wor)d». and pediaps the Minder 
of Peter the Maartg^ is the thard* 

Certainly the mi9iy«Ued snperioriiy o£ the gioali 
masters of art oa^n^t with jw^ be asaibed ta Ae 
patronage they met with. Soflsemduni^zaocivedfifff 
Roman egawn s i - ^ib oi tf , twelve gomeaa— for hia Cohk 
nmnioi^ of @t Jerome ! 

The coloumg of thatt g!Dfat masttrpieoc^ the Ma* 
doroi^ del £'(di0ip^( ii> this eeUeeia0% i» die finest, 



* '£fas.nisstei|iieoe.o^Titiftii> newat Venioe. 



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41C WOMB. 

pwiilpi b>B— idAe ItrnH injateA, «f Rspiwel^i trades. 
It B»7 m with Titum. It hn svffived in some de- 
gvee from Fvendi icitantiini, bat notlmig compared 
inOi the TViMigantioii. 

Guide's Vottmw^ mc of hu beMtiiid poetieal 
dMugkU, is cnbhantbg. You fei^ to detain her, bat 
it m vain. She dttdn Tottr gnwp, «id poor little 
Cnptd, who is piiramighcr thf»ug^ theamlnentair, 
yott ate will be left in the loroh. A sei^mentdirt 
might aay, thtt Love addon laya hold of Fortmie. 
But what abaU we flay to Lom panning Kartaneao 
mgeAy? ThatitisinMfi^eainthepietuMP Ihnfe 
aeen aome duplieaaea, and many oopiea of tlneteau- 
tifiil worfcy in wieuB parta tf the worid j but thia is 
by far Ae fineat 

Andrea SaochTa Dieam of St. Bfouo^ b hm ma»- 

Thia saint, the foonder of the Carthosian Order, 
had, it seems, adieam, in which he saw a number of 
monks, in long whitedannel gowns, go up die steeps 
of the Apemunes ; in conseqaenoe of which the order 
wsaa founded, and CtrtoM convents built all over 
Italy; and as painters in those daya had no cboioe as 
to their aidycta, and ware obliged to paint what piety, 
rather than taste, diotated^*-Andiea was ordered to 
paint this dream* There couid not well he a more 
unpromisii^ sulgect ; and it is wonderful, that with 
all its disadvantage8,-^«<die want of action or interest, 
the uniform white figures, dressed in garments of the 
same hue and form; and ranged in a long row, — ^he 
could produce such a cajdtal picture as this. 



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KOMK. 417 

OfWciMW Soito FdCmiak^ 10 a nwk of gmH 
p^wer and fide^iort and k jnidy comidifed we of 
the first masterpieow of this gfMlvtitl. Hbincfe- 
diiUtjr of St. Thomas is ynaj fiM» sad has aU the 
brotdtk and teoe of cflbet, wilhoiit en^ggeiatioii, finr 
vhi<A his woiks an se eonqpicnoiis. His SMidds aio 
said to hare boen Ae heads <^ peasants ; bat, at leasts 
there ia notfaa^g low or ignoble in theas. In Cara^- 
vagipo we sse both. Wemaytnni tohisDepositioa 
from the Cross, fine as it is, in proof of it He never 
painted anythaig wilhoat Tv^arity— nor yet any- 
thi^ without fiMfcii^ OS to. adfldie it 

Titian's Mertyidom of St Sebastian has been 
qiiite as Bmdieonmieaded as it deserves. Theocdoar- 
ing of the saint, indeed, is beyond all praise. Itlires 
and breathes. But dus very animation disunites it 
from the rest It seems a real figure among painted 
oiies. It attraetis the eye entirely to itself, and by no 
means' pleases it ; for it is vilely drawn— -absolutely 
mis-shapen. His model has hem bad, and he han 
copied it as dosely in the fi>nn, as in die cdoniing. 
The expressicm of St Catherine is fine;, but, on the 
whole, the oompotttion is but- poor. 

BaroocTs Aimunciadon is esteemed his capo Sope^ 
ra* In my humble opinion, be neter produced any 
capo d*<^era at aD. I have never been aUe to ad- 



• Since theae letters, were written, this admirable painU 
ing has been removed to the Museum of the Capitol, where it 
enjoys a mudi better light and sitoation. 

VOL, II. 2d 



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41B noil£, 

Mn tttlicfaMty the pMBli4doMom cdkmifaig rf tUs 
nmtiffeetidiMd^mHiiir^fflnitev; but tiM gcnerft- 
lk]r of ooiiiioiieiin tdlk Tttty fine. 
' I bive ptsMd ovar the noit yatt of the pttotingi 
A tbeVationu /TiMUghliot vtty nomemui, tl^r 
0» all tery fine, wtik not neie tfami 4m6 or two e^ 
eeptione; But I know beiwitmBonfe all deaeriptioiM 
oP pakittags.are, 4Md hoiw ofteii these have batn d^- 
seribed; and, theicfore, I abBtaia eireftfieni mca- 
tmnig ihein« 

^ I codd iriah they ireroiiii better lig^tid rom, 
and should not be ^aofry.that they hadftamei ; M 
diieAy, I irish tfase the whole tcabe of copyiils, with 
aH their kimb^, was Uehed out Bodihae^aBdui 
theCamcre of Aaphael^ dieir fangh pictum and flcaf- 
Mds Uock up oueVi liew of the onginals. Cbpying 
is an nnfaHmg trade at Rome. NaaibeM live upon 
Raphkel alone; and it is astaEiag how well tboe 
gentlemeh -often seem to be aatisfied with diarofo 
woika. <<JVbfo^ca<^a,''(wh]oh, in Italian sooepta* 
tioD, mtams Tery good indeed,) obsenredoae, jfier 
comparing his own daub with the TransfigonUsii- 
Another subscribed to the compliment of a jH^BoMSS 
fiiend, that his eopyfirom one of Ae firescos was <fl^ 
qwde with the wiginal^ And yet it was an artistof 
rather more fimie, who, b former times^ aft^ lepeyt- 
ed attempts to copy one head from the School of 
Athens, threw away his pencil in despur, declaring 
it was impossible ! . 

I am now, once more, at the very entrance oj 
the noble galleriea imd halls, which form the Vsti- 



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BOMJE. 419 

canMttseumof ScDlptin c m d yet I awst not enter 
it. '^Tifl true, I have (^ven you only ft hasty and im- 
perfect sketch of my first yisit to die place where I 
have spent so many delightfiil hours, or rathet days ; 
but to describe it at all, I must write Tolumes, and I 
therefore forbear. Nor will I say anything of our 
visit to it by torth Jight, eacBpl thi^ the masterpieces 
of scnlptnre, in general, oertainly aj^peared to far 
gremteradvan^ige^ and the infierior ones to less. You 
cannot be said to see the Torso at all, if you onlj 
Tiew it by day-light. Much depends upon the man- 
ner in'whidi ike IMah is hcid* In somf l^(hts ^ea 
th^ LaooQon looked iUt tboi^ fat the proper sitni^ 
tioli, it was beyond eipfesrion fine. The Apollo le> 
quifes to have the torcki held hehind it* 

Nobody ever goes to see the Musetun of the Ci^ 
{Mtdl by toidwlight, though everybody makes a ptiiit 
pr ¥iaititf g the Vadcait ; and yet, I daifesay, the Dy* 
ing GhidiatcMr would bate as flae an effing tried by 
thU test ef 8(ftdptiire« as the ApoUo and the Laobota* 
But I believe I haveneter giTw you any acooi^titf 
thenobk Museum of the Capitd at all IwiHythcre^ 
fore, do it in my next letter. Few ^ttes cto boast 
eren of otie fine musemn of sculpture ; but Rome has 
three«-the Vatican, the Captol, and the Villa AK 
baiii. 



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4S0 BOME. 



LETTER LVIII. 



MUSEUM OF THX CAPITOL. 

' A succsstion of profoand critics, among whom is 
tbe cdcbrated Winkelmaii, have written most yolii- 
minously on the Museam of the Capitol. But this 
▼eiy redundancy of desoription annuh itseK Few 
will explore nine or ten folio volumes, but all must 
wiah for some account of one of the finest collections 
of andetit sculpture in the worid. There is, howerer, 
no medfium between a little dry two-penny catalogue, 
and these ponderous tomes ; and, thoii^ far be from 
me the presumptuous thought of supplying the defi- 
ciency, I will, as I hastily lead you through thenbUe 
halls and galleries of the Capitol, point out, on the 
way, a few of the most remarkable of its varied works 
of ancient art and genius. 

You enter the court, and discover, in the opposite 
* recess, the figure of Ocean, reclining, not upon his 
own vast plains of water, but upon a little bubbling 
fountain. This briny God was the ancient respond- 
ent of Pasquin, and, if report says true, infused much 
attic salt into his pleasant replies. According to some 



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ROME. 4S1 

authorities, he is the Rhine ; but be this as it may, 
this hoary, father of the flood is uniyersally caUed 
Marfbrioy from having been found in the Via Mar- 
forio, the name of which has obviously been corrupt- 
ed from the ancient Forum of Mars. Near it are. two 
satyrs, as Caryatides ; three consular fasces (on the 
left wall), and two Pagan sarcophagi, found in the 
catacombs (that receptacle only of Christian mar- 
tyrs), on one of which is inscribed the portrait and 
the name of the Pagan Roman, whose remains it con- 
tained. The Genius of Plenty, with the horn at his 
feet ; marine monsters ; the chase of the wild boar 
and the stag; and such heathen devices^ adorn these 
urns. 

On the centre of the portico of the court, two long, 
lank, colossal, and truly Egyptian figures of Isu, 
istare you in the face. One of basalt has the modifuri 
on its head, which is* covered with hieroglyphics, as 
well as its shapeless back. The other, which is of 
red granite, has the lotus flower on its brow, imd 
three figures of the Ibis, the sacred bird of the Nile, 
on its.b^pk.. 

The best statae I saw in this portico, was Diana 
looking after the arrow she had just thrown. The 
spirit and attitude of the figure are very fine. It ex- 
presses all the life and freedom of the huntress of 
the woods.^ The drapery, blown by the wind, dis- 
plays, to great advantage, the beauUfiil buskined leg. 
Diana's petticoats, I must beg to observe, are always 
tucked up ; so that, you see, the Sootoh fashion of 
the women kiltiDg, is quite dassical 



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432 nOME. 

At the extremity of tins little pcHrticoi is s pedes- 
tal) «A which is sculptured, in reliero, the Wnd 
ttid oaptiYe personifieation of the piwince of Dacia, 
kiMMm by the ue she bears. Beside it, staftls a fine 
firagment Ik pavofiazeHo marble, of one of the statues 
of die captire Dacian kbgs, that once adorned Trt- 
jaa^s Arch of Triumph. It was rcmoTed by Con- 
stantino to his own arch, and from thence, by onetf 
the Popes» here. The full trowsers of those captive 
hin^ B»e exactly the Turkish dress of the present 
day— so long do modes continue. There is also a 
stiU finer fragment--^the leg of a Hercuks trampling 
upcm the hydra. The rude sculpture rf the Wolf 
and the Twins, found at Albano, seems to prove its 
antiquity, although we can scarcely admit its chums 
to have adomed Alba Longa. Adrian, as Fontifei 
Maximus, is sacrificing, with the head uncovered-^ 
whieh, therefore, must have been to Saturn, for to 
^rvery other deity the priest was veiled. 

The restorers have made fine work here. You 
will see Polyphemus, notwithstanding his extra eye 
over his nose, transformed into Pan— 'Muses and 
Geniuses, which have become celestial smce their 
mutilation— one figure, by the help of a cornucopia, 
transformed into Plenty, and another dubbed an Im- 
mortally. 

A warrior in complete armour and a long beard, 
usually called Mars, is als6 caHed Pyrrhus, who, as 
well as all the Oreeka of his day, it is well known, 
used to shave himself. Winkehnan, having assigned 
this reason why it cannot be Pyrrhus, very saga- 



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BOMB. 4St 

^iqilfiljr opsgeoliures thtt it jaeUher infitat cr A0»- 
xnemnon.* Now, though it is certain that the 
Greeks did not begin to shave till the age of Peri- 
cles, and that Jupiter never was known to shave at 
all, the asusumption that it is either the king of the 
gods, or the \^ ]dng of men,^ is purely gratuitoua. 
It may just as well, represent an ancient Roman, 
as a Greek hero, fer they abo wore beards. It is 
gravely related in history,f that in the year of Rome 
464, barbera first came from Sioily to Rome, and 
first began to shave the Romans, j: Caligula used 
to wear ago2tfefi beard fixed to his cfain.B Hadrian, 
on account of a blemish, allowed his beard to grow, 
and afterwards beards grew common. This bolossal 
statue is, however, at all evento, eztsemely kte* 
resting, from the minute details of the osartial ao* 
coutrements it bears. The weight of the lorica^ 
compressing the thick folds of the tunic, looks as if 
the man incased in it could never have moved, iaudk 
less fought It reminds cne of the heavy coat of 
mail described. by Virgil, that two servants could 



* Hist, de VArt, Uy. m. chap. 4k § la. 

t In seaioiiB of deep afflicdon^ the Romans at aO periods 
frequendy used to allow their beards to grow. Thus bearded 
statues may lepresent a Roman in any age, moaming the loss 
offiiendsar tkeiereriesoftetune. A bearded head of Au- 
gustas on a fine eBmeo> notiosd by Wiokehnan^ lib. vi. oap» 6, 
§7,h supposed to represent him in grief for the defeat df 
Varus and the three Legions. 

t Plutarch's Life of Camillas. 

H Suet CaUg. 68. 



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4M BOM£. 

^•CMwfy hold, dioogb, uBdtr it, tbe m^ 6 
racbcxecation-*- 

'' LcTilnit hiiie hamis ocmaertam aoroque trilicexn, 
Loricam, 

Vix inam fiurali, TtkegeoM, Sagaruqae^ ferebaot 
Miiltiplieeiii» comiixi luinerii : iadutiiB at olim 
Demdeoa caim palantis Troas agebat" 

iSn. T. 268. 

A.wliole room ia filled with Egyptian aculptiire, 
.Ixongbt from the Egyptian Temple, or Cmopus, of 
^drian^a y iUa. Canopus himaelf, the Egyptian Nep- 
,tii]ie^*.haa the lotua flower on his little head-<-aiid 
18 of black basalt 

In thia room, all the sculptares in basalt are an- 
dent Egyptian. The rest, in nero aniico marbk, 
,whlch lo^, from tlnrir beauty and dasahng polish, 
as if fresh from the artistes hand, are of the ageof 
iHadrian. Of the ktter dass, are the beautifal con- 
joined heads of the Sun and Moon, or Osizis under 



* Canopus, wbidi was the name ot one a( the moatbs of 
the Nile, was, in faet, nodiing but the vase^ in which its wa- 
ten, at the annual inundation, were carried in the reHgjoas 
ritea. But, from the propensity of the Egyptians to deify 
everything, it was worshipped as a god of great importance, 
and had a beautifal little human fiu:e> which surmonnted the 
. Tase. It does not appear to hare been of very high antiqui- 
ty; for> if we may belieye history, this mouth of the Kile 
itself received its name from Canopus, a Spartan Pilot, who 
waa buried on the spot at the time when Menelaus was driven 
on ihe ooaat, and in memory of whom a city was built*— Ti- 
eitus, Ann. lib. ii. cap. 60* 



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ROME. 436 

the farm of Afiis and I«t ; jud both dm exqiiiritrijr 
finishecL The hawk-headed divinky^ the tvtelar or 
guardiaii god we see io constandy on the hierogly- 
phical monuments of the Egyptians, whether in 
paintmg or .sculpture— on their mummies or thefar 
atatues-*-is also supposed .to be Osiris* represented 
with a hawk's head, firom the supposed pow^ of the 
hawk's eye to fix its gaie upon the sun ; in conse 
qu^ice of which, even among the Greeks, the hawk 
was aaaed to Phoebus, f Serapis, whose image is 
alao bene, waa undoubtedly the tiue Serapis, the 
Egyptian Pluta This statoe was first imported 
into Egypt from Sinope^ in Pomtus, kk* censequence 
of a vision of one of the Ptolemies, j: His worship 
was not received in Rome till the reign of Antoninus 
Pius. He bean the modiu8«n his head, as an em- 
blem of fecundity* Here is an Isis, with a wig of 
peaoodc's featbeis, whidi also bears the modius on 
its head. Anubis, the Egyptian Mercury, with his 
canme head, is the only deity in white marble. He 
bears both the cistrum and the caducous, and is also 
of Hadrian's age. Certainly these* works are greatiy 
relieved from the straight, stretched- out, peirpendi- 
cullur rigidity, of the true Egyptian sculpture. That 
people seemed to have much resemblance to the Chi- 
nese in their works, and much of their stationary and 
unprogressive character. They made no advances in 



• Elrcher, torn. iii. 501. 
t Odyss. V. 525. 

J Vide Tacitus, Hist. lib. iv. cap. 83, 84. Civ. Div. S. 50. 
•— Fausanius, lib. i. cap. 18. lib. iil cap. 34. 
9 



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426 r6me. 

art ; and, indeed, wkeee anatomjF was a sutgect of 
raligioos mystery^ and an incision made into a dead 
body acoonnted worse than nutder^-^xceU^nce in the 
lepreaentatiou of the ^luman fivm vas manifestly lu^ 
attainable* It always seemed to be their aim, tp 
make men m much as poi^tble l|ke mummies. Their 
image8*«-for I oannpt call them stataes-*bad never 
any principle of life ; ffot less did they bear any ap- 
proach to freedom, or grace, ear expression, or moment 
tary-action« Their stiff, ufyright figures, their hmg 
faaboim arms, banging clpse to their sides ; th w large 
flat feet, their mnte insensible fiices, their vmfimqed 
limbs, destitute of all articulationof joints and mus- 
cles, remind one, rather of the first rude attempts 
^ sculpture thaii of its finished state. 

The Egyptians might give the art of sculptme to 
the Greeks, but theirs was only the Ufidess figure of 
clay* It was the Greeks who strudc the Promethean 
spark that gave it life. 

During the enligbtoied reigns of the Ftolemiefl^ 
however, Alexandria rivalled Athens, and the artists 
even of Greece received in their courts that asylum 
and patronage, which their own exhausted and op- 
pressed country could no longer afford. 



• Vide Winkelman, Histoire de I'Art, liv. ii. cap. i. § 9^ who 
quotes Diod. Siculus, 1. i. § 91* The embalitUDg of llie dead 
among the Egyptians was intrusted to ol^ fiuaaily, «ad trans- 
mitted from father to son. It is related^ that these openitf»rs, 
after haying finished their work, were generally obliged to run 
away, from the childish rage of the relations at the necessary 
incisions that had been mJade f or this purpose in the corpse of 
the deceased. 



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ROME. 497 

Btfjroad die EgyptiiDi mom, is a ehambar filled 
widi'msGiiptioiit, embracing the whole period of the 
jRoman empire, fiom Augustas to Theodoritts. Here 
Btands the Coluoma Millisrium, an ancient Roman 
marUe mile-stone, with two inscriptions, one in 
I^tin, the other in Gredk* A pedestal, of the finett 
style of Greek sculpture, xepresents the labours of 
Hercules ; and, on a sepuldirsl dppus, and also on 
a column, I observe sU the ancient instruments 
«aed in srdiitecture, and in mensuration«-*the trowel, 
die hammer, the compasses, the pltimmet, and the 
quadrant, &c. exactly such as we use at the present 
day. . 

The last room contains the great marble sarcopha- 
gus, in which was found the Barberini— H>r the Port*- 
' land Vase,* as it is cslled from its late possessov. 
The subject represented on that beautiful rase, which 
has excited so much speculation, is supposed, by the 
best critics, to be the story of Feleus and Theti^, 
who metamorphosed herself into a serpent to escape 
the pursuit of her War. 

The sarcophagus itself, from two figures, of bad 
soulpture, at the top, has been called the tomb of 
•Alexander Severus^ and Mammea, his mother. But 
Winkelman obsenres, that as the man represented 
bore is at least fifty, and Alexander Seyerus was 
murdered before he was thirty, this is impossible. It 
is more reasonably supposed to be the tomb of the. 
parents of Alexander Severus. The bassi rilievi, on 



* Now in the British IMoseum. 



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488 ROME. 

the four sides, are of vsiying degrees of excdUence. 
The front, which is very fine, represents the contest 
•between Achilles and Agamemnon at the departure 
of Chryseis, for Breseis. The trembling maid, the 
assembled Greeks, the noUe figures, the oontendii^ 
passions expressed by their actbn, and, aboye all, 
the transport of Achilles, whose uplifted arm is with- 
held by Minerva, are admirably given. 

On the side next the window, the faur, captive is 
leaving the tent with the heralds. The sculptor has 
aimed at giving even a (Wronger interest to this part- 
ing scene thiin the poet, who describes her, 

" Oft looking back, slow moving o'er the strand/ 

by the expression of longing regret which she throws 
.upon her departing lover^ whose horse is hdd by his 
attendants. 

The third side, which represents the Gredcs sup- 
plicating Achilles to revenge the death of Patrodus, 
is of very inferior sculpture; and the fourth — the 
principal actions of Achilles-^is the work of a barba- 
rous age. 

In this apartment there is a very curious inscrip- 
Uon in the Palmyrean language^ the.only .one I ever 
met with— many of the letters, are unknown. 

While my companions were admiring an andont 
mosaic, representing Love oonqu^ing Porce, <Hr htde 
Xoves mounted on the subdued Lion, I was much 
amused with a curious basso relievo of one of the 
Galli, Cybele^s vagabond priests, (supposed to be the 
Archigallus,) in fiill costume, and surrounded with 
all the symbols of her worship. 



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ROME. 42d 

^ While examining them, I omild not tefrain from 
speculating upon what had become of the sacred 
simdlacram of Cybde, which the Romans having 
obtained by humble supplication, transported by so- 
lemn embassy from Phrygia to Rome. In the early 
ages of Greece, not only Cybde, but all its deities 
— Bacchus, Venus,* Cupid, and even the Graces 
themselves, wore represented and worshipped under 
the forma of shapeless masses of stone. The com- 
bmed figure in the Zodiac, which still designates 
Ciistor md Pollux, shows that they were anciently 
adored under the form of two parallel sticks con- 
nected together.-f" What strikes me with admira- 
tion in this is, that in the very infancy of society, 
while the arts were unequal even to the rudest imi- 
tatioh of the human form, stich abstract and poetic 
ideas as those of Beauty, of Love, of Grace, of that 
devoted a£fection which could make an immortal re- j 
sign immortality, or share it with the being he loved f 
—of " the Cominon Mother,^' of man, and of crea- 
tion,— should ever have been conceived at all — 
much less generally adopted and worshipped. The 
origin of the Grecian mythology, its high antiquity, 
and the complicated and. refined ideas it involves, 
considered in a philosophical light, would form a 
very interesting subject of inquiry. — But to proceed 
on our way through the Museum of the CapitoL 



* See the description in Tacitus of the Paphian Venus, 
t Winkehnan, Hist, de I'Art, liv. i. 
X PoUux. 



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4S0 ROME. 



On ib€ tUmu^ ue ibe tiraMgMx ftujwititlrf 
die tmoMt idan of Bbtte^ wludi fttned the ^ve* 
me&t <tf the Teikipk of Bcviiihir «ii Bemns, or tb 
Churehof S. S. Cosmo and Damiatio. Hitf w^q^ 
is one of those numcvoos slMU!S« generally alki 
Mod^ty-^-tlie head nfled, and the figwe efivdopedi 
but not oolicfaled, in the ihiif^ trsBspa^ent^ dliogbg 
drapery. Thejr uied t^ go by the name rf testab, 
and are How sttppoged, fike all VeOed statoeSf to be 
sepulchral figures* 

In the gallery, you will stop to adn&^e the strike 
iBg, but disgilsting figure of «n old, ^hiiAen, sttem- 
lag BacdiaBte, grasping widi both haods a skiii of 
wine— 4he deep despair of the abandoned Fsy cbe^<- 
one of die finest of thd daughters of Niobe-^tbe 
torso of a Discobolus, restored as a fiiUing Gladiator 
-—the head of Jupiter Amman,— the saieDphsgiis, 
with the has rdief of the Rape of Froserpine,«-Jmt 
more parlicuhnfly, the irfant Hercules stnmgliiif, 
without an effinrt, the 8crpeni8--«»w]B€h has always 
seemed to me a beautiffil dl^ry of Innocence de- 
stroying Evil. 

Here we have the bust of Sdpio AfHcanug— H»f 
whom I have seen at least m heads, differing fiom 
each other in everything but ugliness ; for every bust 
marked with a scar is invariably called the bust of 
Scipio ; but as this is inscribed with his name, s»d 
resembles the bust of green basalt of the Palaxso 
Bospigliosi, which was found in the ruins of Linter- 
num, we may contemplate it with the hop^, tt least, 
that we really behold the portnut o^that truly great 
Roman. 



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EOME. 481 

Hei^ tdo, we have a bust of Bi«itiuh:-4hough be 
vfbx> had dared to preBciYe the head )of the ttumrnxk 
of Ceesar^ would prohaUy nof hmg hure xetaiBed 
his own on his* shouldert ;-4-eiioCher of Poibpey 
laay be genukl^i thot^ hb fuM is somewhat apo- 
cryph^Xi^ — a third is called Cato the Censor^ 
though wis have not evea tradition to help iis to 
hispbysiognomy-^andnMay moreof the famous ho* 
roes of the BepubliC) whidk hothhig could prevent 
us from contanplating with the deepest mtcrest, ex- 
cept the ooaviction that they a«e all impo8tors.*f- But 
the fitfe eottoartd bust of Maieus Agcippa is both 
beantilbl and authentta Here, too, is a bust you 
would, perhaps, hardly cfxpect to Be^-*-4hat or Co- 
Crops, Ki]}g ei Athens 1 

I observed a sarcophagus, the sides of which are 
sculptured iridk the education of Bacchus, and hia 
first adoration, after having planted the vine ; and 
in the cehtfe, a Most ctirtous representation cxf a 
sport eelebtted in his honour, in whidi a party 
of m&k are jumping upon a skin, swdled out with 
wine, and well oiled; while old Silenus is lau^« 
ing at an unludcy wight who is sprawling on the 
ground. 

* I mean compared with the medal, the imprtaitoii of 
which may be s^eii in Maffei Rac. di Stat. tav. 197. Neither 
does it bear the nnalleat resanblance to the statae at the Pa- 
lazzo Spada. 

+ Once for all, I must notice the mortifying truth, that, 
with scarce an exception, there is no authority for any head 
of ReptLbUcan date. Pompey,— -and even he is dubioos,— «s 
far as I remember, is the sole. 



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4SS ROME. 

On a VotiTe attsr, «f tile sculpture, wMeh now 
serves Ibr a pedestal to astatue of Jove, you see the 
Vestal Claudia, drawing after lier the vessel contain- 
ing the sinmlaeroiii of Cybele. 

Two rooms on the ri^t of the gallery, contain a 
most entertaining variety of inscriptions, marbles, 
bronses, vases, &c. 8r& Of these, I shall mention 
very few ; but I cannot altogether pass over a beau- 
tifid bronxe vase, found in the sea at Antium, which, 
as the inscription upon it proves, was given by 
Mithridates, King of Pontus, to the Collie of 
Gymnasiardis. There is also a noble GreA mar* 
ble vase, which ^ves to the room its title of Stanza 
del Vaso, encirded with its sculptured foliage of 
vines, which was found among the ruined tombs of 
the Via Appisp— as if the spirits of the ancient Ro- 
mans had been quaflSng nectar from its brim. It is 
placed upon a' marUe pedestal, sculptured with the 
twelve great god^^a work which Winkelman enu- 
merates among the very few undoubted monuments 
of Etruscan art. He remarks, that Vulcan, who ap- 
pears young, and without a beard, is' armed with a 
hatchet, with whidi he is preparing to cleave Ju- 
piter^s skull, in order to help Minerva out ; exactly 
as the Inrth of Minerva is represented on the Etrus- 
can pateras. But in those, Jupiter is always sit- 
ting ; here he is standing : nor could I trace any 
design of breaking his head on the part of Vulcan : 
not to mention that it seems wholly unnecessary, as 
Minerva is already out, and appears on her legs in 
this procession of deities.—- Tlds curious piece of an- 



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obnt Mj^lav^ tifil^ appiErenily tierteS as ^h mSSSA 
of a weU, for the marks, vom by the cordb, are' sM 
diakbotly ^iUe. Tlftis; the aiiicients, vith (rue 
rsfinenentand tasle, carrkd the embeffishments of 
the ViAe Arts even to the huttiUM cotrrcniences 6f 
doHMMsc life. The meanest utensil was elegant in' 
its £>fm-^h»> pdofeAV gttntient graceM in its folds 
and draiterjM-aild the pit>digalit7 of painting atid^ 
scdlptiire, widi which not only their streets and 
public bnildfaigs, but their private haUtations were 
adovnedy iB«y well raise our wonder aitid our sbame. 
Nor weie they confified to Patriciaii wealth. The 
hunUe dinfling*- of an oMcme little cbutitty sea^ 
pc^^ moil at Herealaaeda and Pornpefi, were 
afkumed' with paigvlingB of exquisite beauty, and 
fiUad inth statoe» which miist be for erer the ad- 
mMratimt of every ocuMtty and every age ; — ^wlnl6, in 
London itself, the modem metropolis of the world, 
ovarflowing with wealth and luxury, n'6t on^ of the 
private booses of its werithy cttizens can bbicst a sin- 
gle pieee of sculpture. However opulent, however 
prodigal) however hixurious, — ^it is rai^ly oii wortrs 
of art that Engli»bmen lavish tlieb wealth.^— Nor is 
it their coat that renders them now unattathable ; 
for^ atcBBge as the fact may seem, ancient sculpture 
actually bore a higher price among-the anoents them- 
selves, than it does even in the present day.* Yet, 
notwithstanding the extravagant price ci statues ill 
ancient times, we hear of one hundred and tixty^Hf" 

* HUt. dc I'A^t. liv. iv. 7. § 51. 
VOL. II. 2 E 



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4M ROME. 

tmmi sUiues of beonse befaaig eieelad mm» yMtte 
one man* at Athens. 

But to return from Adieni, whither this k^ 
digression has carried us^ to the Musecan of the 
Capitol — I must not let pass umMticed the hmtm 
Iliac table. A joTial priest, who was out huntiBg, 
found it on the Af^ian Way, at a place called JUe 
FraHocMe^f where, it is believtod, the Enperor 
Claudius had a villa, and this remarkaUe has re- 
lief is supposed to be a wmrk of his mgn4 It is 
only a small square slab of marble, though it has 
made so much noise in the world ; and upon it are 
sculptured the principal actions of the Iliad, with an 
explanatory inscription in Greek, whidi has beat so 
often trandated and commented upon, that it is not 
necessary for me to say anything about it ; a eircaiii- 
stance that is peculiarly fortunate, as I do not on- 
d^rstandit. 

Diana Trifbrmis^ is a small bron/iC seuiptare, as 
light and portable-looking as a child's jdaythii^ ; 
the three figures joined together, back to back, in 
the form of a small triangle. This goddess oer* 
tainly forms die Pagan trinity. She is three in one 
— ^here she appears in hell, on earth, and in hearen^ 
at once— As Proserpine, crowned with the six rays 



* Demetritts of Phalerias. Vide Pliny, 1. xxxiv. cap. 0. 

t Fotmerly Bovills^ where the murder of Clodius by Milo 
is supposed to have happened. 

t Winkelman, Hist, de I'Art, liv. iv. chap. «. The engra- ; 
ving and full explanation will be found by F^gini, Hus* 
Capit. 1. iv. tav. 68, 



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ROME. 4S5 

of die pliiiel8» a serpent m <me batid-HM Heeale, 
her brows bound with Urard, holding a key-— 4m 
JDiana Ludfera, a ktus flower on her forehead, 
and bearing a toreh. In all these Taried chanc* 
tenh— in the chaste huntress, and in the motimi- 
ksB Ephenan idol incased like a mttuuny in mystic 
symbols, who cm recogniae the same goddess ? 

Here is a bionae foot of the colossal statoe of 
Caius Cestius ; a bronse inscription of Sep. Severas 
and Caracalla) (the name of Geta erased,) a triumph 
of Bacchus, columns, busts, bassi rilievi, dneraiy 
urns, minute images in bromse and alabaster of gods 
and goddesses; ancient tripods and candelabras; 
beddes a hundred little other interesting antiques 
which will oatch your eye* 

I noticed a statera, with its weight, exactly like 
our steelyard, which I had no notion was so dassi* 
cal a thing. 

. In the wall of this room is the famous FvrietH 
mosaic, found by the Cardinal of that name at Ha- 
drian'^s Villa, representing four doves, perched on 
the brim of a Luge vase or basin, filled with water, 
one of which is drinking firom it. Simple as the sub- 
ject is, the taste of the design is most beautiful. It 
answers so exactly to Fliny^s description of the fa- 
mous Mosaic of Sosus in the temple of Pergamus, 
that if not the original, which I confess I do not be- 
lieve, it must at least be conndered a copy. Win- 
kelman* denies its originality, firom the difiiculty, 

* Winkelman, Hist, de I'Art, liv. vi. chap. T. 



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496 ROM£« 



of lMM8poitet»D» ^fmm we oib acandf hold 
▼idid; but hb oommeDtator obseilyes terj justly^ 
thait M Hadriin vm zemarkabto for his careful pre- 
gervation <^ ancient voiks of aet, encouraged th^ 
imitiitioii, and emulated tbdr. perfection^ but never 
oafcited ihem off from thor proper posaeaBors and 
situationat (unlike ma modnn patrcms of the atta,) 
it is much mote probable that he eaased the beau* 
tiftd mosaic of Sotus to be ce|>ied by the best 
ai^lasls of his own time^ than that he tore it up from 
the Teinpln of Peq;anius» to embellish his own pa- 



. There, is a sarcophi^^ in this rocmi, adorned 
with a has relief of wretched sculpture, p^haps 
(^ the fourth or fifth centnrj) but the subject of 
which is yery curious. It represents the whole Fro- 
n^thean creation of man. First, we see Frome- 
theus moulding the figure out of day, while Mi- 
nerva is infusing into the lifeless mass, the spirit^ 
in the form of a butterfly. Cupid and Fsyche 
esibradng each other, also represent the union of 
the body and the souL The four elements, ne^ 
ceSsary to the. life of man, surround them, andT 
ar^ personified by JEolus blowing his airy horn— 
Ocean, with the monsters of his watery reign— ^ 
Vulcan at his fi^y forge, and the ^' Common 
Mother,*" raising her bfeast above the ground, with 
a cdrnucopia in her hand. Man then appears, en« 
dowed with life ; and the three imjdacable Fates, 
who attend him from the cradle to the tomb, start 
up by his side. He is laid low in death. The Ge- 



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ROME. 487 

nius ot life, weeing over his eorpte, eactiiigintipos 
liicr torch. The soul, harsting upwaids mi ks but* 
terfly wings, is conducted to heaven by Mercury. 
Lastly, we behold Prometheosmiffiring the gnawing 
anguish of remorse, or the vulture preying on Ui 
vitals. It is destroyed by Hercules. Will it Im 
deemed pro&ne to find in tins a type of our Savlour'*8 
conquest over the peni^ of sin ? 

There is a whole room filled widi the busts of 
tlie emperors and thehr &nilies, nearly oottipkta 
Sven Commodus, an admirable bust, notwithstaad^ 
log the deciee to destroy every image of him, ii 
here ; and die unfortunate Geta, in spite of the la^ 
bonrs of his brother and murderer to eraser even hii 
name from the earth, still stands by his nde, as if 
haunting him in death. The busts of Germanieus,' 
of Nero, and of Foppea, are exquisitely beautiftd* 
The contrast of the countenance between Nero 
young, and Nero in more advanced life, will strike 
you fordbly ; the beauty of the innocent face of An- 
pius Veras will charm you ; and the hideous head dT 
Julian the Apostate will puszle you to determine 
whether the sculpture or the subject is the worst 
The head ci Otho, which is here, is extremely rare* 
The fine bust of Nerva, which has been erroneously 
reported to be modem, is a genuine antique. So is 
the head of YitelUus — ^though most of the busts of 
that Emperor are modem. 

You will never be satiated with admiring the 
nohh seated statue of Agrippina, the wife of Ger^ 
nuMiious. Yet the Agrippina of N^^les iff perhaps 



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488 ROME. 

superior eren to diis. It lealizes our highest concept 
tioiis of the august digmty of sn ancient Roman ma- 
tioii* 

The bassi rilievi on the walls, of Perseus libera- 
ttng Andromeda, and Endymion sleeping, are full of 
graoe and beauty. 

: ' The bassi rilievi in the next room, (the Stanza 
de^ Fihsqfiy) from their subjects, rather than their 
execution, a£Kyrded me great entertainment. Among 
them are a woman teaching a cat to dance, while 
ahe plays upon die lyre to it ; poor Grimalkm 
trying ill the time rainly to readi two birds sn»-' 
pended over its head— Calliope teaching Orpheus 
to play upon the lyre, before the image of a man, 
whom the strains seem to animate with life-^' 
Esculapius and Hygeia, laying their heads toge* 
ther ; and, in the next, the consequences not un- 
common of such consultations,-^ a funeral proces- 
sion. There are many more ; but I was particu- 
larly strode with the tragedy of the death of Melea- 
ger. The uncles, pierced with their death-wousdis, 
-^is infuriated mother burning the fatal brand, to 
which the life of her son is attached, — ^his finntuig 
form falling on the couch, and his beloved Atalanta 
vainly weeping over him,-^altogether form a subject 
of the behest interest, but which is, perhaps, better 
adapted to painting than to sculpture ; though no 
modem painter could do it justice. 

In the middle of the room is placed an exqui- 
sitely beautiful little bronze statue of a youtb, 
seated in a meditative posture^— a model of juvenile 



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ROM£. 489 

faeitttty. It is si^ipoied to repreteitt one of the 
twelve CaimllLf '. j 

^' As to the philofiopheiB, some of the most interest^ 
ing, such as Vixgil, and €icero,f and Seneca, are 
pme]^ jBuppofiidtious. There is not a head of any 
poet or philosopher of the Augustan age» that we 
kmem to be genuine. . The authenticity of some of 
die Greeks is ascertained, either from having been 
found with the ancient inscriptions. of their names 
upon them, or from being prototypes of others so' 
raiheirticated. , The Homers, for there are several, 
are the.very heads your fancy would pourtray for the 
iold Blind Bard, the Father of Poetry. I under-: 
stand they were identified with the Apothoosis /of 
Hemer,.; formerly in the Colonna Palace; and if 
(whidi is probable) no bust was really taken of him 
in:li&, this seems, at least, to have been the head 
current among the ancients, as Homer; just as the 
posthumous picture of Shakespeare passes among* 
us. Aristides is known from the incomparable sti^ue 
at Naples. Socrates can never be mistaken. Me- 
tradorus, Epicurus, Pindar, Anacreon, and some: 
others, are also ascertained. The little bronjee and 
bearded, hxkst of Demosthenes, found in Hercula- 
neiun, has identified the great orator. S£q>pho had 
a good right to be here; but how Cleopatra| got- 

* Priests institated by Romuliis. 

t It is related that a medal was found of Clcero«7-bat aU 
the busts and statues which bear th^ name of that great ora?^ 
tor^ are now acknowledged to be impositions. 

X I need scarcely observe, there is no authority for tbe 
name this bust and many of the otheiis bear.' 



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i 



440 BOMS. 

•BMnig dMie Giecupi sages, we nmaai guess. . Hit 
neighbour, Aspasia, was too much in tbair eoiiipaiiif^ 
when afive, to be torned out of it now. ThevFhitoa 
an aU Moogniaed p be the heads 4^ baihatians, nff^ 
withstanding thar philosofJiic name inscribtd l?deWf 
The htft^f theae busts, that of Faapie, aa aniiiftsal 
of Ciemona, is one of the (i»ow) raae wetkB-of Mishasl 
Angela. I dare not tell yow, that I think I' have 
-seen 6ner hosts, by lass oebfanted hands,, and dure* 
fcnre I will say nothing ^f it. 

In the great hall, one is- struck with the ned s s t y 
of Clement X][I., m \unmg t^ken 4wo VietorieB, 
finm the Tnumphal Ardi of Maieus A«eliuSyvto 
support his coat of aims 1 It must, indeed, be 4ie* 
knowledged that the Popes want no^ trappMri 
Byery little thing they make or mend, beif ftwoadsg 
door, or a leaden cistem, or a lew stone stepm mi a 
Uttle bit of back wall, is Marked with their mmifi^ 
^mxa ! The^ multiped mtin^usgma'» of estty 
Pope, as £u as laige gilt letters can prove it, state 
yon in the face in Rome, on all sides, wherevfr you 
ga. 

By their mumficensM'^tMo ookuans of giallo an« 
tico, from the ndghbpurhood of the tomb of £)eoilia 
Metelb, support the principal. nidie. Butthesco^ 
tures, in the middle of the room, first iMitract ^e 
eye. Jupiter, in nera-anticoh marble,^ is, afttr-alt^ 
but poor — and, indeed, I ha?e neveff anywhere 
seen a fine statue of the great thunderer. Eseub- 
phis is no better. The young Hercules (veHed) m 
pietra paragone^'^ found on the Ayentiuci, look^ fyt 

■ . ^ — ri' I . ^h ■' ■" 

* Commonly called (oach-aUme. 

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UOM£. 

ttid fNiffy, ndttr tban sttong ; bui Uie fam 
rMr CentaiHB I adunrfe extremely ; indeed 
ii^ppofle, than I ought ; fot Winkebian 
counei all the critics echo him) gives tht 
jmBOy AoQgh he does not mention in w 
they displease faim, and only obsenres, 
hitft anciently borne children on their hau 
is evident from the holes* The oldest, 
iktpedmn in his hand, is thought to be ( 
ryiag Achilles on his back, to instruct hii 
msuAip and the diase. He looks back a 
hers, irith a joyous and triumphant air. 
is dejected, and apparently yanquished 
aie bound behind his bade. I was mv 
irith the life and spirit, the action, the / 
the grace, of these two beautiful Cent 
aie in dark grey marble, were found 
vifla, and are inscribed with the names i 
artists, supposed to be of his own time 
A fine, but unknown consular stati 
called Marius, though, from his coi i 
air, and his .action, it is obvious tha^ 
toi and a philosopher ; and the rude i 

diw was neither. Some critics call 



The Amaeons are fine. One of i 
den. Both, as usual, represent wou 
indeed, so dose is the resemblance 
statues, that we cannot but suppose 
aUlaken frpn^ one or two celebrates 
as well as most of the Fauns, D^ 
pids, Bacchuses, &c. which, withp 



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442 BOMEU 

titude or cdnoeptbn, crowd every mueeiim. Tfacn. 
were three rival statues of Amasons,— -the produce 
tions of Ctedlaiis, Polydetes, and Phidias,— the fiMae 
of which has come down to our times. ■ > 

The drapery of the fine Grecian statue of Isis, in 
this hall, knotted on the breast, and falling in grace- 
ful folds to the feet, is singularly beau&fiil. She 
wears the fiinged peplum^ or mantle, to denote her 
eastern extraction — the Grecians wore it plain. All 
the statues of this goddess, in white marble, are of 
the time of the Empire, after her worship was adopt- 
ed in Rome, and are, for the most part, tbe work of 
Greek artists ; but this is by far the finest. 

The ancient bronze, and once gilded Hercules, 
fi>und in or near the Forum Boarium, with his head- 
too small for his body, looks rather awkwaid and 
ungainly. 

The old shrivelled crying crone-*-whether dhe be 
a Prasfica^* a Hecuba, or any other of the innume-; 
rable descriptions of ugly <dd women, it is possible 
she may be — ^is certainly good of the kind, that is,, 
well executed, though a disagreeable subject I must 
pass by Antoninus Pius, with the civic crown he. 
deserved so well ; the Altar of Fortune, on which 
that goddess, who is now as ever the object of men^s 
worship — is represented, seated (m her throne, 
crowned with her diadem, holding in her left hand 
the cornucopia, tod in her ri^t the rudder, with' 



* This is not probable^ becausie these hired mourners had 
their hair " streaming to the troubled air/' and this old wo->^ 
man has huen hound up. 



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ROME. 448 

which she timis die World. I must pass by the 
pedestal, on which the birth and conceahnent of 
Jore, the stupidity of old Satanic in swallowing a 
stone instead of his son — the din raised by the Cory-^ 
bantes to stifle bis cries — ^the care taken to suckle 
him by his four-footed nurse Amalthea ; and, finally,' 
his exaltation to the throne of heaven, are all veiy 
minutely represented. I must pass by many things—^ 
but I must stop for one moment, at the finest statue 
in this room, and one which has never received its 
due share of encomium. It is the fine figure of b 
man. speaking, with drapery round the lower part of 
the body only, in an easy graceful, attitude, one fiM>t 
resting on a raised stone, or step, and his finger held 
up as if to enforce attention. It is called a professor 
of the gymnastic art, or the mastcfr of an licademy of 
gladiators, instructing his disciples. It is an admi« 
rable statue and unique ; but Harpocrates, that litde 
mysterious god, with his brimming cornucopia in hia 
band, his brow adorned with the lotus flower, and 
his expressive finger pressed upon his lip, enjoins 
me silence. Plainer than words can speak, his ges^* 
ture tells me how fat and flourishing he has grown 
by holding his tongue. I dare say you wish I would 
follow his example; but few of my sex ever did, and 
I shall go on to talk of the room where the jocund 
Faun, (in rosso antico,) eydng the tempting bunch 
of grapes, which he holds suspended in his hand, 
and surrounded with his goat, his pedum, and his 
basket, looks the happiest of created beings. But 
notwithstanding the symmetry of his finely formj^ 



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444 UDME. 

lunbs, you wiU mon turn ftom him to one of Ae 
ineat statues in fhe woild^-Cupid lie&daig hik bbir. 
Its mnivaUed grace, its flniltfess peifectbn, And its 
tnily cdsstial beauty of ft(nn, are indeed a triiunpit 
of art The ApoUo Belvidere, and a few odier greet 
statues excepted, I am Asposed to think this one of 
the finest esemplifieations of the beau ideal in exist- 
«Me» It is an ancient cojfiy from ihe fiimoHS master^ 
piece of Praxiteles, of Cupid bending his bow, which 
was destroyed in the age of Titus. I have se^ one 
copy in Enghind, and there is another in the VUIa 
Albani ; but this is incomparably the finest. It is 
one of the few statues that I can return to gaae at, 
day after day, with still increasing delight and admi- 
ration. I am no connoisseur—but few, very few, I be- 
fieve,receiTemore pleasure firom worksof art, whether 
in painting or sculpture, when of first-rate excellence. 

I was delighted with the beauty and playfbl sweet- 
ness of a smiling girl with a dove,-<— a personification 
of Innocence ; a child playing with a mask ; and, 
more especially, an urchin struggling with a swan, 
which Winkelman instances as a peculiarly beautiful 
sculpture of infancy. 

One of the finest basH rilievi in the world— >the 
battle of the Amasons^s on a sarcophagus in this 
iQOta. Critics all agree, that the generality of sar- 
cophagi, (and, indeed, of bas-reliefe, which for the 
most part have been cut out of the sides of sarco- 
phagi,) are works of the dedining periods of art ; 
but this beautiful piece of sculpture is an exception. 
Opposite to it stands another sarcophagus, well wor- 



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ROME. 445 

thy xiatioe» tbougbof veiy kArior sci&^phirei It re* 
premils the Boctuiml yisits of Diana to th? sleeping 
Endynuon. The goddess descoids from her car, led 
by the Lo^ea— a winged Gtenina restrains the fiery 
steeds. At the other end» by a liberty common in 
basso relievo^ she mounts it again to depart, casting 
bac^ her looks of leve on the imceMcionB sheplieifd^ 
oyer whose drooping farm moth*winged slumber still 
hoTora. The Eaith^-^personified in a female form^ 
whoae bust is raised dboTe the gMund, beneath the 
wheels of Diana's ear, and a man tending Endymiott's 
flocfc^ complete the eomposition. 

There b a very amusing bas-relief here of the 
Triumph of Cupid over the Gods. It seems to have 
fermed a part of a frieie, and is left imperfect We 
see* first, a car drawn by rams, in which this roguish 
god is carrying off the spoils of Mercury ; then 
follow, in a car drawn by stags, those of the chaste 
Diana herself; in a car drawn by tigers, those of 
Bacchus ; and in another drawn by hippogriffs, those 
of Apollo. 

I must not quit this room, without mentioning a 
more recondite, though less amusing^ piece of nti- 
quiQr-*-the table of bronie, on which is inscribed the 
*' royal law,^ found near St John Lateran's, in 
whidi the Roman Senate de^^ree to Vespasian svk* 
preme power. ^ 

You now enter the last room, in which you will, 
for a long time, see nothing but the Dying Gladi- 
atcw; It is, of its kind, the finest statue in the 
world* The learned connoisseur, and the untaught 



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446 ROME. 

peasintfly whom yoa my see aaBembied round it on 
Sundays, are equally struck with its finiltless perfiDC- 
tion. It is.one of die finest of forms, as far as mere 
OHrporeal formation can go ; but, unlike most of the 
celebrated works of ancient art, thcro is no ideal 
beauty, no eiqpression of those high qualities and 
attributes, that qpiing fimm the soul. It is Nature, 
pure Nature, that arrests so forcibly our deepest 
sympathy. It is not a god nor a hero, but a man — 
and a man of serrile condition and undevated mind 
1— that we behold. The coarseness of the features 
and the whole expression of the head and figure 
proves it The hands and the soles of the feet are 
hard and homy with labour, and a rope is knotted 
round the neck. He seems endeavouring to suppress 
the expression of agony ; not a sigh, not a groan es- 
capes him ; unsubdued in spirit, it is his body, not 
his mind, that yields ; but the hand of death is upon 
him ; his life-blood trickles slowly and feebly fiom 
the wound in his side ; he sinks in that last dread- 
ful faintness of ebbing life, which all must sooner or 
later feeL He still 'supports himself with difficulty 
upon his failing arm, but his limbs have lost their 
force ; his bristling hair and agonized fiuae, express 
the dreadful workings of present suffering, and the 
inward conviction of approadbing death. He is lying 
upon a shield ; a short sword, or dagger, beside him, 
and a broken horn. 

The critics seem to agree, that this statue cannot 
represent a gladiator, because, at the period when 
this great work of Grecian art must have been pro- 



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ROME. 447 

dueed^ Greece had no gladiators ; nmther were the 
9hidd and the short tiword, that lie by his side, the 
proper, arms fer gladialors ; and yet we know that 
ihe Secvioresy in their combats with the Eeiiariij 
fought wkh swords,— whether long or short seems 
iiiiGertain,-^-and with shields — and* why may they 
not have been such as these?* The Demtchceri 
alflo fought with two swords. The cord round th^ 
neck, and die hc»n, sadly perplex the critics ; but it 
lappcan from an ancient Greek inscription, that the 
heralds of the Olympic Games had a cord tied round 
their necks, and gave the signal for their commence* 
ment by blowing a horn ; nay, this very inscrip- 
don was affixed upon the statue of a herald, who was 
also a victor in diese games ;-f so that the statue we 
now see may also combine both characters, and re- 
present a herald and a wounded combatant. The 
mustachios, also, puzzle the antiquaries ; for they 
maintain, that the Greeks, even in the ancient times. 



* Pliny says^ the porticos of the temples erected to the 
Claudian and Domitian families^ were adorned with statues, 
the work of a freedman of Nero, representing the most cele- 
brated gladiators of those days. The Apollo Belvidere is now 
believed to be a work of the age of Nero ; and^ if so, the same 
i^e may have produced this statue, and it may represent a 
barbarian gladiator, (for barbarians were trained to these cruel 
sports.) Nero's visit to Greece seems to render this supposi- 
tion more probable ; so also does the circumstance of its having 
been found in the same spot with the Apollo Belvidere and 
the Fighting Gladiator, at Antinm, on the site of Nero's fa- 
▼oorite villa. 

t Winkehnan, liv* vit chap. 8. § 34. 
8 



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448 BOMB. 

when they itoie beards, never wore nmtacbM ; aid 
Itaity ihcrefbre, Ak is nolaGred^ylnit abnbniaii; 
A-^iaj, adme In^cAiieB hmre laaiataiiied, that it iffa 
baihirilli dne^^'^lmtthe eord romid ^^ 
jtaatf A flviicieBt refhtaAm of audi an idea. 
• WkdEelmati oaqjeetoita that it n^r i^KMit 
CofMaa, Iba herald ef Einyaiheiieat <« the moH 
teicma faertdd of GtteiaH mydidogy,'* who was ma*- 
aiKMd bj the Athenima wink atteaaptoig to ftne 
away the deseendanta of Hetcalea fimn the allarof 
Mercy t and for whose mmder • solesin feast of ex-^ 
piatioii oentinued annually to be held at Atheoa, 
even in the days of Adrian. Bnt aa Copreas «0a 
Grade, he oodid not haro had whiskers^ and diere- 
fare this statue cannot repreaant htm* 

Indeed, these unfortnnste whiskers cone in the 
way in every posfliUe supposition, exeeptnog eB& 
There was a statue, celebrated even in 4he brigktnt 
period of ancient sculpture, Ae work of Ctetiblb,^ 
^* the statue of a wounded and dying man.*** Tb^ 
description f esmctly answers to this statue. This 
18 ** a wounded and dying man ;" — Why may not 
this be the statue ? It is not probable tbrt fbeie 
would be two great masterpieces of «nci^ fftt 
representing *< two wounded or dying men (^ or, if 
So, that Pliny would^aVe noticed t>tie only. Nor 
Is it probable that a sculpture of such pre-eminent 



* A celebrated Grecian Mnilplor^ who is sapgpoi^ to bare 
lived aboQt the S9d Olympiad. ;: .: 

t Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. xxxiv. cap. IS, 4. 
13 



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BOMB. 449 

ex«dkMe WMldWpMwd Offer unnoticed by Plinj, 
Paiuaiiiafl, and all the ascieat waters who haye de- 
scribed works of art ; and thfre is no other descrip- 
tioQ in aaj author that can qpfiy to it, excepting of 
this masterpiece of ClesUaus. The style, too, an- 
mNon to that date* 

I am therefore aMdined to thijik it probaUe, thai 
khas statue is either the origiMl or a fine ancieal 
eopy of the finuma *' wounded and dying man^ of 
Ctesiaiic^ 

But be it what it i&ay» '' the Dying Ghdiater*' 
win alMys be aeeonated one of the Janest pecee of 
aettlptore that time has qMiod. Statuary h», indeed* 
be^pieitbedl few of its ancient tveasores to us, and we 



* Wiakdmaa's digoction is worth atsting« from its absur- 
dity : — *' Je croU que cette figure (that of Ctesilaus) repr^ 
sentoit un heros^ parceque je m' imagine, que Tartiste n'auroit 
pas voulu descendre a traiter des sigets d'un ordre inferienr, 
attendu que son grand nitrite cotisistoiti saitant Wne, A dou- 
ner encore phia de noUesae aux earaet^rea nobles.'*-— Vide 
WiNKKLWAK^L vL ch^ .2v—Whicli, in plain Knglish, is as 
much as to si^^ " ^^Ys indeed, says it was the statue of a 
wounded and dyuig man ; — ^but he is wrong — ^he does not 
mean what he says. It must have been the statue of a wound- 
ed and dying hero ; because as Ctesilaus was remarkable for 
giving great nobleness to noble figures^ he never woidd eon- 
descend to make the statue of a mas. It was not aoble eaeugh 
ibr him." 

If it had been the statue of a wounded and dying hero, Pliny 
would have said it was the statue of a wounded and dying 
hero ; nay/ he would probably have said' of what hero. But 
as he Says it was the statue <^ a '^wounded aad^lying man/' I 
shall believe it was the statue of a ** wounded and dying man." 

VOL. II. 2 F 



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450 some; 

aie Tunly left to v^gret tluii:oidy & ftw ioftltaced 
*^ fragmenlft^ rfdiat faea^»ly art 

<' Float down tbe tide of yean^ 
Ai« buofant en the 1(00117 nuuD^ 
A parted wreck appears."* 

I must not tnist myself to describe the exquisitdy 
beaatifiil gioup of Cupid and Psyche^ which ataiids 
In diia room, nor even to mention dye fin inferunv 
Imt extremely fine statoea widi which it, is filled^ 
The Fbra, which Winkdman supposes not to be 
that goddess, but the portrait of some beaulifiil wo- 
man, imder the imi^ of Springs— the Venii% the 
finest in Some,— the Juno,-— the beautiful Antmoug, 
in the heroic atyle^— the Antinous as an Egyptian 
priest, or rather deity, as worshipped at Antinoe, so 
much extolled by the critics,— and the admiTahle 
ancient copy of the celebrated Faun of Piasiteles. 
The head of Alexander the Great has been set on 
awry with great care by the restorers, in order to 
proTO it to be his ; notwithstanding which, it is the 
fiisbion now to doubt it For my part, I fully believe 
it, because it bears a strong resemblance to the an- 
cient gems of undoubted authentid^, and because 
his is a head that once seen can never be mistaleD. 
We are told, that Apelles only had the right of paint- 
ing it, Lysippus of casting it in bronze, and Pyrgo- 
telus of engraving it in gems ; but history is silent 
as to the name of its privileged sculptor in marUcf 



• Sir Walter Scott. 

t Winkehnan, Hist de FArt, Uv. vL chap. 3, who quotes 
Pliny in support of the fact. 



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ROME; 

In looking bock on the contc 
should say, that the finest woi i 
Osiris and Isis, the Furietti C i 
of the Gymnastic Art, the se; I 
pina, and of the Camillus, the 
Swan, the Cupid bending his i 
Psyche^ and the Dying Gladi \ 
the noble marble yase, and its ] i 
of the Four DoTes, the beauty < i 
morated by Pliny ; and the has 
between Agamemnon and Achil i 
and the Battle of the AmaEons, 
by Winkelmanas three, out of 1 i 
fill has reiiefe in the world. 



* I forgot to mention that this sts i 
stored hy Michael Angelo. A part of i 
hand^ and some other minuter morsel i 
true spiiit of the original. It is said i 
Nettano^ or Antiom^ in the same spot i 
discovered ; and, like it, probahly ado 
▼ilia. There, also, was found the Borgl i 
diator. 



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4A8 EOIIE. 



LETTER LIX. 



THE PAINTINGS AND THE PALAZZO DE CONSERVA- 
TOR! IN THE CAPITOL— ACADEMY OF ST. LUKE— 
JIAPHAEL'^S ST. LUKE EAPHAEL's SKULL. 



Fbom the Museum of Sculpture, at the Capitol, 
"we must now proceed to that of Fainting, which is, 
however, of very inferior interest. It is contained in 
the <q;>po8ite Palazzo de' Conservatwi,* in wUeh are 
Also scraseimarkabk antiquities. Crossing the Pisisa 
bf tbe JEquestrian Statue of Marcus Aurehns, ve 
enter the court. All here reminds us of the grandeur 
of ancient Rome. Opposite to us sits Rome triumph- 
ant. At her feet weeps a captive province. By her 
side stand two prisoner barbarian kings : their muti- 



• The Conservatori are officers appointed to keep the streets, 
roads^ public buildings, &c. in proper repair and order. They 
seem, in some degree, to fulfil the office of the ancient ^diles. 
They sometimes give great public feasts at the Capitol, to the 
cardinals and nobility, as if in imitation of those which were 
formerly offered up here to Jupiter and the gods, but really 
eaten by the priests and the senators. 



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BOMB. 4UH 

lated hands bear dreadful proof of her own bailMiTi$m ; : 
finr it is evident, on inspection, that they represent, 
captives whose hands have been cat off.* 

The court is strewed with fh^ments of colossal 
figures of gods and emperors, of the most enormous 
size. Cassar and Augustus stand entire. At the hot* 
torn of the staircase is placed the modem imitation 
of that ancient Rostral Column of Cains DuiUius in 
the Forum, that commemorated the first naval tri« 
umph Rome ever obtained. A portion of the ancient 
inscription, which was found in maldng an excava- 
tion, is fixed in it. The whde was done under the 
direction of Michael Angelo. While this reminds 
UB of the early days of RepuUican glory, and the 
reUevo of Curtius plunging into the gulf, recalls the 
great sacrifices of Roman patriotism, — the beautiftil 
aculptures fl«m the Triumphal Arch of MarccM Au^ 



* One of tfaeitt has been eilt bff above the elbow, the odier 
at ^ wrist Thef are smooth and pciiahed, aad the drapar^ 
tou^ies tbam fo^ddsely, ihat it is evident they weie originally 
fomied 80. Aocordiag to Widcelman, (lib. vL cap. <5,) they 
represent Thradan kuigs^ of a people called Scordisci, and in 
the note it is asserted, on the authority of Florus, that the 
Romans cut off the hands of all their Thracian prisoners, and 
seat them back into thdr own country, to strike its inhabi- 
tsnt&vdch tamr. It is also reoordod, that Qmntu? Fabias 
JVf aximus cut off the hands of all the Romandeserters in Sicily. 
-*-Firf;-Jlfi»r. Kb. ii. capi 7. - . - 

W^ shudder at such horrors ; and while we see that the 
tnost civilized of Pagan states far' surpassed in cruelty the most 
bari)aroils of Christian nations, we bless' the Divine Spirit of 
that religion which has worked the diange. 



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454 HOME. 

xoBiiSy conuDMiDOTftte cme of uie proudest pcnods of 
bar eminre, sdd of thcwe wide-extended oonqBests 
that sabdaed die irodd. 

. We observed two Egyptian idolS) sinuliur to tiiose 
in tlie opposite court, and a ranarkaUy fine aoimd 
group, of Gredan sculpture^a lion springing on the 
back of a horse ; its tusks closed in the back of the 
animaL Thoogh now defective, it is ssid to have 
been restored by Michael Angelo, who admired it 
paiticalatly. 

An ugly and headless image of a monkey in ba- 
salt in'thb court, bears an impudent inscription in 
Ghedc, that ^< Phidias, and Ammonicus, the son of 
PhicKas, made it^— and Winkelman, though he acr 
knowledges the inscription has every mark of beii% 
t forgery, and that the sculpture of the monkey itself 
is ^ miprisabU^ yet, having got an idea into his 
head, that a colony of Greeks once established them- 
selves in a part of Afiica, so infested by monkey^ 
that they took the name of *< GrecA PUhecusmj'^ 
he neact suppoeeii that they took to worshipfnng 
monkeys ; and finally, arrives at the preposterous 
concludon, that this fiightful object was made by 
Phidias, for an object of adoration to these same 
" Grecs Pithecusins.'"* However, it appears that 
there n^ver were any such Greeks; and that Dio- 
dorus Siculus only says, such a name would have 



* ^' Je suis done port^ ^ croire que le singe du Capitole a 
£t6 un objet de la venation des Grecs Pithecusms."— -^^^^ 
de tArty lib. iy. cap. 6. § ^3* 



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ilOMC. 

suited the iMBbirbug inhabfta&ts of that mc 
Ibitfefited and inoiikey^woniiiipping country.,^ m 
they actually acNSiimed it, maeh less that the] 
Greeks. The colossal head and hand of broi 
'this oourt, are ertoneoudy reputed to be frag 
<4[ a statae of Commodus. 

After ascending the staircase, we pass th 
two rooms, and in the third, which is adoma 
a fine frise, painted by Ef^el di Volterra, 
isentmg the Triumph of Marius, we find the 1 
•statue of the Wolf and Twins, supposed to 1 
same whidi Cicero states to have been stru 
J%btning on the Capitol, previous to the mur 
Julius Caesar. This Wolf, however, (for the '. 
•are modem,) was found at the Church of St. ' 
dore, in the Forum below. It has a firapture 
inside of the hipd 1^, but it seems to me almo 
possible that the lightning should have strudi 
'sueh a part, and in no^other. This Wolf is < 
the.few g^iuine productions of Etruscan art 
remam to our days. It may be of very high 
• quity, for even from the beginning, Rome was a 
ed with statues of bronae : a fiict-— curious, not 
lyas proving the early period at winch the fin 
had attained to this degree of perfection in '. 
but the refinement of the people, who, in the in 
-of 8ode<y, sought those onbellishments of scul 
which are usually the latest a^yendages of ( 



« Vide Note. 2d, to § 64. cap. 6. 1. iv. Hist, de 1' A 



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456 MM& 



and ptlblied life Tlw $Mot «f Boimikii^ 
csowMd fay Vic(oiy» in a triniBiilwl car cbma liy 
fiMirhorsasy* ind tke«baMM9of tiiafficoeBiMr^K«g9 
•f Eone in tW Cajntol^die ttatee of Horatiiis Co- 
deaf in the Fomm, and the EqneBtaian tliatue ef 
Ckdia^ in the Via Sacra, weve eontenpeaai^ widi 
tlie pcmma in whoie henoiir tbey were erected, and 
•eTiral ef then were atiU standing* and stiH admins^ 
in<lieageaef Aueuataa§andofr]iiqr*|| Tbeyweie 
all ef bmis^ and nndeubledlj al) exemited by Eiruih 
ean artiats. The farenae cobawd statnf of Afiollo^ 
nuide ficom the hehneta and cuiraiMi of the cenqfoe^ 
ed Samnites^ was even thoaf^ wortJ^ to adorn the 
lifaraiy of the teo^ple of Augnstos.^ 

The beanttfalfaronae statne of Maitinia, the shap- 
herd boy« pulling the thorn oat of his foot, and tk 
£gase of one of the CanttUit are admirable>i but th^ 
are the only olher seolptoies in the room worth no- 
tice; unksB you wish to aee the pertended bust of 
the dder Bmtns, the liborator of Bone, standing by 
that of Julius Ciesar, its ensUver* 

The next room is almost entirely occupied with 
tbeFa8tiCk»naularefrf-«die snecefldonof eonfiLbi, found 
near the thaee eolnmns of die Comitiuni, in ike 
Forum. 

In ibt fifth chamber you aie shown two andest 
farimses, said to be of dbe Sacred GeeKe, ndhoae cla^ 



* Dionyj. Hslic L U. p. 112. t Ideip> I. iv. p. 9^1. 

i Idem^ 1. V. p. 284. § Sen. Consolat. ad Mardam, 

||PUn.Kb.S4. If PHn. Kb. 34. cap, 6. 



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V:»^i^i.^^. ^^ti<i to l>^ of . 



1.XX Ixis si-rtm-plo ^ 

I*i<*t^o :E*e:r^ms:" 

istat«.€ss, cli3rx^t^ixe^ Cioj 

Ikx tT::i« little ohap^l I 



^i,xx<i tlx^ last di 



ITlxe^e I»£t^n«»^^s 



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jrocJr^ wli/c^ 



458 BOMB. 

nonM, hsfe ben ^ bmwC iU-uied eidfectiaii that 
drerwMinade; and though really the works of some 
of the beat maoterp, they pieiept thenwat HaA, hat-i 
Med, and fixriom qvpearaaee, Aat can well be hna- 
gined. A little deanuig and Tanudi* might do 
aomething for them ; but many of them are inepa- 
lably injured. There are some, indeed, the deatmc- 
tkm at whidi exdtei fitde r^;ret. Amongst diese 
may, perhapa, be redconed die large and lahomed 
preduetions of FietaD da Cortona, wUeh abound 
here; though his Tnom^ of Bacdiiis is a pretty 
eemposition, ridb, vaiioas, and daancaL His Bape 
of the Sabines, Death of Darima, &e. haw also can- 
ipdonble merit. It is the fiuhion to cry Urn down 
so nnmeicifiilly, that nobody will wmt look at his 
woiks ; and I most own, I nerer had any great pka* 
anre in diem mysdf, nor baye I the smallest desire 
lo Tindieate him from the oppsobrium he labours 
under ae jostly, ef bemg the first oonuptBr of pain^. 
ing, the begimier of that rqiid descent we have aiQoe 
made down the hill of tarte. Still I think be is too 
ontrageoudy vilified ; and I am sure that, however 
inferior he may be to the great masters who prece^ 
ded him, Italy can produce no artist now to compaie 
with him* 
r. His produotienshslfecart«ialy some learning, but 



* Since the pablicstbn of the first editiOBs of this woA, 
the auihor has been informed^ that the paatiags in tiii gil« 
lery baye been recently cleaned and re-ananged. 



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HOME. 459 

litdc taste or genras* We cm pcnnt out no |^ni^ 
finilts in desigii or oompoatioii, but we feel die ab- 
sence of that wUeh constitates perfeotion. HediairB 
good %i]ies9 bat they want expfession. Hefaieathea 
no interest, no soul, no chann of nature^ or ideal 
beauty into then. His colouring wants truth, and 
bis lights effect 

Let us turn firom diem to N. Fouson^s Triamph 
of Flora, which, faded and injured as it is, is still a- 
most beantifnl composition. His Orpheus i^aying 
on the Lyre, surrounded by Nymphs and Lores, is 
eoctiemely fine, yet it htts some faults of ezecutioir 
wUA seldom occur in so careAd a master. 

Domenicbino^s Sibyl is a masterpiece of paintingv 
Its rival, the Sibyl of Guerdno, baa not the same 
high charaeter of inspiration, in the beaming qre and 
die half-sundaed lip. She is at rest, unmoved by 
tliose slomy pasnons, and diat shudde ri n g sense cif 
eoniBg evils, idnch are die cuiie of the pro phet i c 
qiirit. But diere is in her eye that settled sadness 
natural to one who can penetrate die darkness of 
Ibturity, and see all lis oiines and sorrows. Like 
most ni die odiers, diis beautiftil painting has been 
much inured. 

Guidons Bacchus and Ariadne is unfinished, and 
It would, perhaps, have been quite as well for his 
fione if it had never been b^un. The drawing is 
bad, and the colouring worse. We must suppose it 
one of the many paintings which he dashed off to 
.pay his gambling debts. His Beatified Spirit is fiMT 



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460. BOHE. 



M yctttytit wmon io waafc Mmetkiiig of ice* 
laitud and (Notified iMantjr, tlist, htkiBiutp]Her aio* 
oMrtii he conUL have gmn it. His St Sebastittiy 
dwugh extremely fin^ ia inferior to that at the Co- 
Imttui Palace. A defer gipejr, teUing a jiUy youdi 
hia fortiiiie, at the aane tinie she is dieatiiig him out 
of it, is one of Carayaggio^s admiraUe productions. 
It is iBuch injured, and not tpnte so good as a dupli- 
oate I hisye aemewhere seen of it He ought Dever 
le haw painted any but audi aulgects aa these. 

A beautiful Holy Family, by Benvenuto 6are- 
Mo ; another, very small, by Albano^-<-the Sick Man 
waiting by the Pool Ibr the moving of the Watm, 
a beautiful little oompositbn by Domenidiino, a 
hmdacape by the same^the Rape of Europa, by 
Paul Veronea»-<-neariy iuTisible from dirt and in- 
jury, but reminding me, through it all, of hia splen- 
did Europa in the Dsge's Palace at Venic^-^Agos* 
tmo Camcci^s Comnmnion of.St Jerome, dimiadh 
ed from Ids great painting lat Bolegna-^-diese, and 
several inoee, by GaoreiiiD, A. Caraed, Franoesoo 
Moh, &e» aw weU ^miah yoot iitenlion ;. but I will 
spare you any fiu^her ettttmeratton of them. 

I must, however, when here, carry you down into 
flntlWrn to the Academy «f St Luke. This«o- 
dety bf eoulpters, piinteM, asddteets, and ^ngmvert 
<«-of all, in shorty who ptaotfse. the arts of devigo^ 
male and female,«^pos8e8sffl(r their Academy,. tw# 
mean, unimposingJookinga^nrtin^ntB, behind th^ 
diurch of their patron saint 'Onp.of.theni is fitted 



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ROME*. 461 

ynih models, designs, &c. some of which Are by 
Michael Angelo ; the other, by a collection of paint- 
ings, chiefly composed of- the works of the modern 
Roman artists, and therefore not pre-eminent in their 
merit. The specimens of the great masters, which 
chiefly consist of a few little Claudes, Salvator Rosas, 
Poussins, &c. &c. &c. are by no means first>rate. 

Some of these, however, and some of the modern 
ones, such as the paintings of Angelica Kaufiinan, 
you may find pleasure in seeing, though none in 
hearing described. The famous picture in this Aca- 
demy is Raphael's St. Luke painting the Virgin's 
Portrait* In this admirable work, Raphael has re- 
alized his own conceptions of an artist St. Luke has 
all the fire, the glow, the inspiration, of commanding 
genius. It struck me with the most extraordinary 
admiration the first time I beheld it I was then 
fresh from England, where, excepting the Cartoons, 
we have nothing worthy of the name of Raphael— I 
had seen none of the treasures of his genius which 
Rome contains, and I actually dreamt of this figure. 

The skull of Raphael is preserved here, under a 
glass case ! — I suppose this must be a tranq>orting 
sight to Messrs. Gall and Spurzheim, and all their 
disciples, but to me it was rather a shocking one. I 
had no pleasure in viewing the eyeless sockets, the 



* Originally the altar-piece in the Church of St. Luke. 

9 



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462- HOME. 

griniiiag UMNitli, the nouldering vacant banes, that 
opcebawned withiiitelligenoe and beauty — and hear- 
ibg that tUa vat Baiihactl 



EKJD OF VOLUME SECOND. 



r-- 



EDIKBUROH : 
rHINTED BY JAMI8 BALLANTYNE AND CO^^y^ 



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